植物生态学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (4): 435-448.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2004.0061

• 论文 •    下一篇

中国常绿阔叶林分类试行方案

宋永昌   

  1. 华东师范大学环境科学系,上海200062
  • 收稿日期:2003-05-16 出版日期:2004-04-12 发布日期:2004-04-12
  • 通讯作者: 宋永昌

TENTATIVE CLASSIFICATION SCHEME OF EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FORESTS OF CHINA

SONG Yong-Chang   

  1. Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2003-05-16 Online:2004-04-12 Published:2004-04-12
  • Contact: SONG Yong-Chang

摘要: 植被分类是植被生态学研究中最复杂、充满着争论的问题之一,直到现在并没有一个能为植被学家共同接受的、统一的分类系统。常绿阔叶林的复杂性仅次于热带雨林,加之在人类长期干扰下,变化极大,过渡性群落极多,更增加了分类的困难。中国常绿阔叶林分类经历了漫长的道路,20世纪50年代学习苏俄学派,60年代初引进威斯康星学派的“重要值"概念,在研究云南滇青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides)林时也曾试用过法瑞学派的理论和方法。80年代《中国植被》(1980)一书的作者们提出,对于“南方某些类型"在“群系(Formation)"和“群丛(Association)"划分时应采用“标志种(Diagnostic species)"的原则,当时由于资料所限,这一原则并未得到贯彻。本文在总结以往分类方案的基础上,根据高级单位以生态外貌、中级单位以优势度类型、低级单位以特征种组的分类原则,构建了从“群丛"、“群系"、“群系组"到“植被亚型"和“植被型"的中国常绿阔叶林分类系统。将中国常绿阔叶林划分出3个植被型、8个植被亚型、14个群系组和53个群系。这些群系大都占据一定的地理区域,并与一定的生境相联系。

Abstract:
Vegetation classification is a highly complex and very contentious issue in the vegetation science. Up to now, there is no common classification system that is accepted by all vegetation scientists. The evergreen broad-leaved forests (EBLFs) is only next in complexity to tropical rain forests. Human activities have altered these forests tremendously, and there are many transitional communities which make their classification even more challenging. The classification of EBLFs of China has undergone many changes over the years. In the 1950s, we learned from the Russian school; in the 1960s, the concept of “importance value" and methods from the Wisconsin school were introduced into the study of EBLFs; additionally, the theory and method of the Braun-Blanquet school were used in th e study on the Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides forest. In the 1980s the authors of “Vegetation of China" (1980) published a principle system of vegetation classification for China which emphasized the use of “diagnostic species" in classifying the “formation" and “association" levels of vegetation in the south region. However, owing to limited resources, this principle was never adopted. Based on the previous classification schemes a new classification system including “association", “formation", “formation group", “vegetation subtype" and “vegetation type" was formalized in this paper. The high-rank units of classification are based on eco-physiognomy, while the median and lower units are based on species composition. At the same time, the role of dominant species and diagnostic species was considered. According to above guiding principles, the EBLFs of China were divided into 3 vegetation types, 8 vegetation subtypes, 14 formation groups and 53 formations. Each classification type occupied a specific geographical region and specific environmental conditions.