植物生态学报 ›› 2005, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 577-583.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2005.0077

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

施肥对稻田生态系统气体调节功能及其价值的影响

肖玉1,2, 谢高地1, 鲁春霞1, 丁贤忠1, 吕耀1   

  1. (1 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101)(2 中国科学院研究生院,北京100039)
  • 出版日期:2005-07-31 发布日期:2005-07-31

THE IMPACT OF UREA AMENDMENTS ON ATMOSPHERIC GAS REGULATION SERVICES IN RICE PADDY ECOSYSTEMS AND THEIR VALUATION

XIAO Yu1,2, XIE Gao-Di1, LU Chun-Xia1, DING Xian-Zhong1, and Lv Yao1   

  1. (1 Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China)
  • Online:2005-07-31 Published:2005-07-31

摘要:

该文以2002年在上海市奉贤县五四农场进行的稻田生态系统田间实验为基础,对尿素施用对稻田生态系统气体调节功能(释放O2和温室气体调节)的影响进行研究。研究结果表明:1)在水稻(Oryza sativa)生长期间,施加尿素能显著增加稻田日O2释放量及其价值量;2)在水稻生长期间,施加尿素稻田综合CO2的通量及其价值并不比未施肥稻田存在显著优势,尿素施用能明显增强稻田N2O排放通量,降低稻田CH4排放通量。尿素施用对温室气体调节具有正效应,促进稻田对温室气体吸收。

Abstract:
The services provided by croplands have been underestimated. Besides providing food and fiber, croplands provide many other functions and services, such as nutrient transformation, pollination, biological control, beautiful scenery, recreation, and so on. In this study, gas regulation services provided by fertilized and unfertilized rice (Oryza sativa) paddy ecosystems and their values were investigated based on field experiments conducted on the Wusi Farm in Fengxian County, Shanghai in 2002. Paddy fields regulated two types of gases: O2 emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs), including CO2 uptake and CH4 and N2O emissions. At elongation stage, booting stage, panicle initiation stage and maturation stage, the biomass of fertilized and unfertilized paddy fields were determined and O2 emissions calculated using the photosynthesis formula based on plant biomass. The maximum O2 emissions from fertilized and unfertilized paddy fields were 770.15 and 506.62 kg·hm-2·d-1, respectively. Compared to the price of industrial O2 and the cost of afforestation in China, their values were calculated as 190.72 and 289.93 yuan·hm-2·d-1. On August 15, 18, 21 and 25, and September 2, 8, 14 and 22, the gases from paddy fields were sampled and their fluxes determined. The results showed that the fluxes of CH4 from fertilized and unfertilized paddy fields ranged from 4.86 mg·m-2·h-1 to 14.96 mg·m-2·h-1 and from 3.34 mg·m-2·h-1 to 50.67 mg·m-2·h-1, respectively. For N2O, they ranged from 0.008 6 mg·m-2·h-1 to 0.056 6 mg·m-2·h-1 and from 0.000 6 mg·m-2·h-1 to 0.014 9 mg·m-2·h-1, and for CO2 from 347.63 mg·m-2·h-1 to 730.20 mg·m-2·h-1 and from 205.06 mg·m-2·h-1 to 679.51 mg·m-2·h-1, in fertilized and unfertilized paddy fields, respectively. Using a CO2 equivalent, the integrated GHGs fluxes were computed as -1.42-39.71 kg·hm-2·d-1 CO2-C (fertilized) and -50.56-25.60 kg·hm-2·d-1 CO2-C (unfertilized). Based on the average cost of the Sweden carbon tax and afforestation in China, the economic value of GHGs regulation was calculated. The results indicated that the valuation of CO2 absorption by fertilized paddy fields was not much more than that by unfertilized ones. Second, urea amendment aggravated the negative values of N2O emissions from paddy fields. Third, the negative values of CH4 emission from paddy fields were mitigated by urea amendment. And fourth, the valuation of GHGs regulation by fertilized fields was promoted by urea amendments. In this study, we were trying to provide a fair method to evaluate the values of croplands to support an effective way to recognize the benefits derived from croplands, especially by paddy fields, and to promote the sustainability of cropland ecosystems.