植物生态学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (3): 264-278.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0298

• 综述 • 上一篇    

竹子生态化学计量学研究: 从生物学基础到竹林培育学应用

杨清培, 欧阳明, 杨光耀(), 宋庆妮, 郭春兰, 方向民, 陈昕, 黄兰, 陈伏生   

  1. 江西农业大学江西省竹子种质资源与利用重点实验室, 南昌 330045
  • 收稿日期:2015-08-13 修回日期:2016-12-27 出版日期:2016-04-11 发布日期:2016-03-25
  • 基金资助:
    基金项目 国家自然科学基金(31260120和314- 60077)和江西省自然科学基金(20122BAB204019)

Research on ecological stoichiometry in bamboos: From biological basis to applications in silviculture of bamboo forests

Qing-Pei YANG, Ming OUYANG, Guang-Yao YANG*(), Qing-Ni SONG, Chun-Lan GUO, Xiang-Min FANG, Xin CHEN, Lan HUANG, Fu-Sheng CHEN   

  1. Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory for Bamboo Germplasm Resources and Utilization, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China
  • Received:2015-08-13 Revised:2016-12-27 Online:2016-04-11 Published:2016-03-25
  • Contact: Guang-Yao YANG

摘要:

竹子生态经营与养分管理需要一个系统化的理论做指导。该文试以多重元素含量及比率为线索, 归纳近年竹子生物学、生态学、培育学等领域的研究成果, 以期形成竹子生态化学计量学, 为竹林可持续发展提供有力支持。综述认为: (1)竹子具有独特的化学计量内平衡特征, 其叶片C:N:P平均值为380:16:1; (2)竹子器官、年龄、发育阶段等内在因素和土壤、气候、采伐等外部环境都会影响竹子化学计量内平衡; (3)竹子生态化学计量变化会影响开花结实、发笋成竹、养分吸收、光合作用、克隆扩张、群落发展等生理生态学过程, 也影响到竹材(笋)数量与品质的形成; (4)生态化学计量学原理已初步用于指导竹林养分诊断、平衡施肥和优质高产培育等生产实践。可见竹子生态化学计量学可将竹子生物特性、生态过程和生产经营紧密联系起来, 然而这方面的工作才刚开始, 建议今后应加强多竹种多重元素内平衡维持机制、竹材(笋)品质形成原理、竹子-土壤互作过程、养分诊断与平衡施肥、竹林生态系统养分优化管理等方面的研究, 以促进竹林生产和环境保护。

关键词: 竹子, 生态化学计量学, 内稳性假说, 生长速率假说, 适配与错配, 养分诊断, 平衡施肥, 生态系统优化管理, 竹林 培育

Abstract:

Bamboo ecology and nutrient management require guidance of a set of theoretical principles. By focusing on the contents of multiple nutrient elements and their ratios and summarizing recent research findings in biology, ecology and silvics of bamboos, this paper seeks to establish the bamboo ecological stoichiometry (BES) in order to support the sustainable development of bamboo forests. It is considered that: (1) bamboos have the ubiquitous characteristics of stoichiometry, with average leaf C:N:P of 380:16:1, which complies to the “homeostasis hypothesis”; (2) the internal factors such as organs, ages and development stages and the external factors such as soil, climate and harvest can all affect the characteristics of bamboo stoichiometry; (3) changes in the ecological stoichiometry of bamboos affect the bamboo biological and ecological processes including photosynthesis, nutrients uptakes, flowering, shootings and growth, community dynamics, and qualities of bamboo products; (4) the principles of BES have been preliminarily used to guide the nutrient diagnosis, balanced fertilization, and production of high-quality and high-yield bamboos. As a new tool, BES can be further improved to integrate biology and silviculture under the background of ecological and environmental protection and food safety. Future research should place more emphasis on elucidating the ecological homeostatic mechanisms for more bamboos, as well as on understanding the stoichiometric principles in producing high-quality bamboo shoots, the bamboo-soil stoichiometric interaction processes, the nutrient diagnosis and stoichiometric balanced fertilization, and the optimal ecosystem management of bamboo forests.

Key words: bamboo, ecological stoichiometry, homeostatic hypothesis, growth rate hypothesis, match and mismatch, nutrition diagnosis, balanced fertilization, optimal management of ecosystem, silvics of bamboo forest