植物生态学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (8): 873-884.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0060

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    

塔克拉玛干沙漠不同区域柽柳沙包土壤盐分分布特征及其影响因素

董正武1,2,赵英1,*(),雷加强1,喜银巧1   

  1. 1 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011
    2 新疆师范大学地理科学与旅游学院, 乌鲁木齐 830054
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-22 出版日期:2018-08-20 发布日期:2018-12-07
  • 通讯作者: 赵英 E-mail:yzhaosoils@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家“青年千人计划”新疆项目(Y472241001)

Distribution pattern and influencing factors of soil salinity at Tamarix cones in the Taklimakan Desert

DONG Zheng-Wu1,2,ZHAO Ying1,*(),LEI Jia-Qiang1,XI Yin-Qiao1   

  1. 1 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ürümqi 830011, China
    2 College of Geography and Tourism, Xinjiang Normal University, Ürümqi 830054, China
  • Received:2018-03-22 Online:2018-08-20 Published:2018-12-07
  • Contact: Ying ZHAO E-mail:yzhaosoils@gmail.com
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National “the Thousand Youth Talents Plan Program” Xinjiang Project(Y472241001)

摘要:

柽柳(Tamarix chinensis)沙包是塔克拉玛干沙漠特殊的生物地貌景观, 对维持区域生态环境的稳定具有极其重要的作用。该研究采用野外调查与室内分析相结合的方法, 选取且末、阿拉尔、策勒、塔中4个典型区域的柽柳沙包为研究对象, 对柽柳沙包0-500 cm土壤垂直剖面进行采样, 测定土壤pH值、枯落物含量、电导率及HCO3 -、Cl -、SO4 2-、Ca 2+、Mg 2+、K +、Na +含量, 分析柽柳沙包中土壤盐分的空间变化规律及其影响因素。结果表明: 1)从且末、阿拉尔、策勒到塔中, 土壤pH值总体呈升高趋势, 土壤电导率及Na +、Ca 2+、Mg 2+、SO4 2-含量总体呈降低趋势, K +、Cl -、HCO3 -含量没有明显的变化规律。2)盐分在4个样区的垂直分布主要表现为: 且末和策勒样区柽柳沙包的土壤盐分呈表层聚集现象; 阿拉尔和塔中样区柽柳沙包的土壤盐分呈深层聚集现象。随着土层深度的增加, 土壤pH值总体呈升高的趋势, 土壤枯落物含量总体呈降低趋势; 土壤电导率在且末和策勒样区总体呈降低趋势, 阿拉尔样区呈先降低后升高再降低的变化趋势, 而塔中样区呈先升高后降低再升高的变化趋势。3)根据相关性分析和主成分分析, 且末样区土壤枯落物含量、SO4 2-、Na +、K +为影响土壤盐分含量的主要因子, 且土壤盐分以硫酸盐为主; 阿拉尔样区影响土壤盐分组成的主要因子为Cl -、Na +; 策勒样区为Cl -、K +、Na +; 塔中样区为Cl -、Na +、Ca 2+、SO4 2-, 且土壤盐分均以氯化物为主。综合分析表明, 不同区域柽柳沙包中土壤盐分存在空间变异性, 柽柳沙包土壤盐分的变化与干旱沙漠地区强烈的蒸发作用、地表风蚀强度、地下水埋深、土壤中枯落物及柽柳的生物积盐效应等因素密切相关, 是影响不同区域土壤盐分分布的关键因子。

关键词: 柽柳沙包, 不同区域, 土壤盐分, 主成分分析, 塔克拉玛干沙漠

Abstract:
Aims The Tamarix cone is a coppice dune, which is a specific bio-geographical phenomenon in the Taklimakan Desert, helpful for stabilizing and maintaining the structure and function of desert ecosystems. This study aims to investigate the soil salinity of Tamarix cones at different sites.
Methods Tamarix cones were selected to investigate the spatial variations of soil salinity. Soil samples (0- 500 cm) were collected for soil pH, and electrical conductivity (EC), HCO3 -, Cl -, SO4 2-, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K + and Na + content analysis.
Important findings 1) From Qiemo to Aral, Qira and Tazhong, soil pH generally increased, soil litter content decreased first and then increased, soil electrical conductivity (EC), Na +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and SO4 2- content decreased, and K +、Cl -、HCO3 -content had no obvious change. 2) For the distribution layer, salt accumulation in the upper soil was significant within the Qiemo and Qira of Tamarix cones, and within the Aral and Tazhong, there was a significant pattern of salt accumulation along the soil profile. However, with increasing soil depth, soil pH generally increased and soil litter content decreased, soil EC at Qiemo and Qira generally decreased, and soil EC content showed the trend of decrease-increase-decrease at Aral, and the trend of increase-decrease-increase at Tazhong. 3) Correlation analysis and principal component analysis showed that soil litter content, SO4 2-, K + and Na + content mainly affected soil salt content at Qiemo, where soil salt was mainly composed of sulfate. The major ion was Cl -, Na +at Aral, Cl -, Na + and K +at Qira, and Cl -, Na +, Ca + and SO4 2-at Tazhong. Therefore, soil salinity at Tamarix cones had an obvious spatial variability among different habitats. Soil salinity variation at Tamarix cones were closely related to the intensive evaporation, wind erosion, groundwater depth, litter content and the salinity of Tamarix chinensis, which was the key factor affecting the distribution of soil salinity at different sites.

Key words: Tamarix cone, different sites, soil salinity, principal component analysis, Taklimakan Desert