植物生态学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (7): 585-600.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0060

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

东北杏种质资源多样性及其地理变化

徐豪(),刘明国(),董胜君,吴月亮,张皓凯   

  1. 沈阳农业大学林学院, 沈阳 110161
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-18 接受日期:2019-05-15 出版日期:2019-07-20 发布日期:2019-12-12
  • 通讯作者: 徐豪 ORCID:0000-0001-7250-3940,刘明国 E-mail:2017220539@stu.syau.edu.cn;liumingguo916@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    辽宁特聘教授基金(2012)

Diversity and geographical variations of germplasm resources of Armeniaca mandshurica

XU Hao(),LIU Ming-Guo(),DONG Sheng-Jun,WU Yue-Liang,ZHANG Hao-Kai   

  1. College of Forestry, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, China
  • Received:2019-03-18 Accepted:2019-05-15 Online:2019-07-20 Published:2019-12-12
  • Contact: XU Hao ORCID:0000-0001-7250-3940,LIU Ming-Guo E-mail:2017220539@stu.syau.edu.cn;liumingguo916@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the Distinguished Professor Foundation Project of Liaoning Province, China

摘要:

东北杏(Armeniaca mandshurica)是集观赏、经济、用材于一体的重要树种, 长期以来主要处于野生和半野生状态, 鲜有相关研究报道。该研究对东北杏主要分布区内种质资源状况开展了调查, 选择来自辽宁、吉林与黑龙江的47份典型种质进行了22个定量描述性状和7个定性描述性状的观测, 旨在为该树种的种质资源收集、评价与保护提供重要参考。采用变异系数等指标分析定量描述性状多样性, 使用频率分布等指标分析定性描述性状多样性。通过趋势面方法分析定量描述性状的地理变化规律。利用99对SSR引物对47份东北杏种质进行PCR扩增, 应用遗传相似系数分析东北杏种质的遗传多样性。基于表型性状和SSR分子标记采用聚类分析方法分别对种质进行分类。东北杏不同种质间呈现出较高的表型多样性, 其中19个定量描述性状指标的变异系数在9.40%-55.98%之间, 变异系数最大的为小枝长度, 变异系数最小的为种仁宽; 7个定性描述性状的Shannon-Wiener指数在0.58-1.22之间。由于调查区域的地理位置与主要气候因子间存在着显著的相关性, 东北杏种质的定量描述性状与其地理位置有着密切的关系。其中, 小枝长度呈由东向西逐渐增大的梯度变化, 小枝粗度、种子质量呈由北向南逐渐增大的梯度变化, 果柄长呈由东北向西南逐渐增大的梯度变化; 小枝长度、果柄长与海拔呈正相关关系, 小枝粗度与海拔呈负相关关系, 种子质量与海拔相关性很小。基于26个表型性状进行系统聚类, 将47份东北杏种质分为4类, 分类结果主要体现了东北杏种质特征的差别, 同时也在一定程度上体现了种质产地的效应; 基于遗传相似系数进行聚类分析, 将47份东北杏种质也分为4类, 分类结果体现了种质产地效应; 卡方检验表明, 两种聚类结果相关性不显著, 外在环境是影响东北杏表型变异的重要因素。

关键词: 东北杏, 多样性, 表型性状, 地理变化, SSR标记

Abstract:
Aims Armeniaca mandshurica is an important species which serves the need of ornamental, wood and other economical uses. This species has been in wild or semi-wild state for a long time and few studies about this species have been conducted. This paper aimed to provide an important reference for the collection, evaluation and protection of germplasm resources of A. mandshurica.
Methods The status of the germplasm resources in the main distribution area of A. mandshurica was investigated. In total, 47 typical sample trees from Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang Provinces were selected. For each tree, 22 quantitative traits and 7 qualitative traits were measured. The diversity of quantitative traits was represented by indicators such as coefficient of variation, and the diversity of qualitative traits was represented by indicators such as frequency distribution. Trend surface analysis was used to explore the geographical variation in the quantitative traits. A total of 115 pairs of SSR primers were used for PCR amplification for 47 A. mandshurica germplasms, and the genetic diversity of A. mandshurica germplasms was analyzed using genetic similarity coefficient. Germplasms were classified by cluster analysis based on phenotypic traits and SSR markers separately.
Important findings High phenotypic diversity was found among different germplasms in A. mandshurica. The coefficients of variation (CV) of the 19 quantitative traits ranged from 9.40% to 55.98%. Among the 19 traits, twig length had the highest CV and kernel width had the lowest CV. The Shannon-Wiener index of 7 qualitative traits ranged from 0.58 to 1.22. Due to the significant correlation between geographical locations and main climatic factors within the study area, the quantitative traits of A. mandshurica germplasms were closely related to their geographical locations. Among them, twig length increased from east to west, twig thickness and seed mass increased from north to south, and fruit handle length increased from northeast to southwest. Twig length and fruit handle length were positively correlated with altitude, twig thickness was negatively correlated with altitude, and seed mass was not correlated with altitude. Clustering analysis based on 26 phenotypic traits showed that the 47 A. mandshurica germplasms could be divided into 4 categories, which mainly reflected the difference of the germplasm characteristics in A. mandshurica and to some extent also reflected the difference of germplasm productions. Clustering analysis based on genetic similarity coefficients showed that the 47 A. mandshurica germplasms were also divided into 4 categories, which reflected the difference of germplasm productions. Chi-square test showed that the correlation between the two clustering results was not significant, and that the external environment was the key factor affecting phenotypic variations in A. mandshurica.

Key words: Armeniaca mandshurica, diversity, phenotypic traits, geographical variations, SSR markers