植物生态学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (全球变化与生态系统专辑): 0-0.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0125

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二氧化碳浓度升高对陆地生态系统的影响:问题与展望

冯兆忠1,李品2,张国友3,李征珍4,平琴2,彭金龙2,刘硕2   

  1. 1. 南京信息工程大学环境科学与工程学院
    2. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心
    3. 南京信息工程大学
    4. 中央民族大学
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-24 修回日期:2019-10-04 出版日期:2020-04-20 发布日期:2020-03-26
  • 通讯作者: 冯兆忠
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院前沿科学重点研究项目;南京信息工程大学人才启动基金

Impacts of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on terrestrial ecosystems: Problems and prospective

Zhao-Zhong FENGLi PinYou GuoZhang2,Zheng-zhen Li3,Qin Ping4,Long JinPeng4,Shuo Liu4   

  • Received:2019-05-24 Revised:2019-10-04 Online:2020-04-20 Published:2020-03-26
  • Contact: Zhao-Zhong FENG

摘要: 理解生态系统对过去、现在和未来CO2浓度变化的响应对于在生态进化的时间尺度上认识和预测全球变化的后果至关重要。过去三十多年来CO2浓度升高关注的科学问题主要集中在对植物生长和生产力的影响, 碳氮周转, 生态系统渐进式氮限制(PNL)形成, 与其他胁迫因子(O3污染、N沉降、升温、干旱)之间的交互作用等方面。尽管生态学家在数据累积、基础理论上取得了一定进展, 但是仍然存在较大不确定性和大量未知有待解决。该文探究了近30年来CO2浓度升高对陆地生态系统影响研究的国际研究进展、重点领域及热点, 回顾了CO2浓度升高对植物影响的模拟实验研究发展, 重点论述了CO2浓度升高对粮食产量及品质、碳固定、水分利用效率、生态系统氮利用和土壤微生物响应等国际前沿动态研究中存在的主要问题与不足, 在此基础上展望了未来研究中值得关注的前沿研究方向。

关键词: 二氧化碳浓度升高, 陆地生态系统, 碳固定, 氮利用, 水分利用效率, 土壤微生物

Abstract:
Characterizing ecosystem responses to past, present and future changes in atmopsheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Over the past two decades, CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising CO2 concentration on plant growth and productivity, carbon-nitrogen turnover, the formation of progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) in ecosystems, and the interaction between elevated CO2 concentration and other envrionmental factors (O3 pollution, N deposition, warming and drought). However, scaling CO2 effects across wide spatial and temporal scales, especially at belowground part, has many uncertainties. Here we explore major research areas and hotspots of CO2 studies on plants and ecosystems from 1990 to 2018, and review the development of manipulated experiments in the field of elevated CO2 impacts. In detail, we discussed the states of art in five international frontiers research directions: crop yield and quality, carbon fixation, water use efficiency, ecosystem nitrogen use and soil microorganism. Finally, we identify several topics and research outlooks to facilitate further developments in the field of CO2 effects on ecosystems.

Key words: elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, terrestrial ecosystem, carbon sequestration, nitrogen utilization, water use efficiency, soil microorganism