植物生态学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (6): 663-671.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2011.00663

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

一年生短命植物疏齿千里光果实异形性的生态学意义

吉乃提汗·马木提, 谭敦炎*, 成小军   

  1. 新疆农业大学草业与环境科学学院, 新疆草地资源与生态重点实验室及西部干旱荒漠区草地资源与生态教育部重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐 830052
  • 收稿日期:2010-12-06 修回日期:2011-04-01 出版日期:2011-06-01 发布日期:2011-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 谭敦炎 E-mail:tandunyan@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    根尖边缘细胞行为和胞外粘液分泌调控的大豆耐铝机制研究;新疆自治区高技术研究发展计划

Ecological significance of fruit heteromorphism in the annual ephemeral Senecio subdentatus

JANNATHAN Mamut, TAN Dun-Yan*, CHENG Xiao-Jun   

  1. Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Grassland Resources and Ecology, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Western Arid Region Grassland Resources and
    Ecology, College of Grassland and Environment Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Ürümqi 830052, China
  • Received:2010-12-06 Revised:2011-04-01 Online:2011-06-01 Published:2011-06-30
  • Contact: TAN Dun-Yan E-mail:tandunyan@163.com

摘要:

疏齿千里光(Senecio subdentatus)是分布在新疆北部古尔班通古特沙漠中的一种具异形瘦果的菊科一年生短命植物。将野外观测与室内实验相结合, 对该物种异形瘦果的形态、扩散和萌发特性, 以及异形瘦果产量与植株大小的关系进行了研究, 并对其生态学意义进行了探讨。结果表明: 疏齿千里光果序中的外围果和中央果均为柱形, 但前者为淡黄色, 后者为褐色, 且二者在大小、冠毛长度及果皮微形态等方面均存在明显差异。两种瘦果均以单个果实为扩散单元, 且在静止空气中的降落速度和在1 m·s–1与2 m·s–1风速下的扩散距离无显著差异, 说明虽然果实大小和冠毛长度对瘦果扩散具有不同的影响, 但对其整体扩散能力无明显影响。在各温变周期(5/2、15/2、20/10、25/15和30/15 ℃)处理中, 淡黄色外围果的萌发率均高于褐色中央果的, 且不同温度间两种瘦果的萌发率均存在显著差异, 但光照条件对其无显著影响。果序中的中央瘦果数明显多于外围果的, 且植株中外围果所占比例与植株大小间呈显著负相关关系, 而中央果所占比例与植株大小间呈显著正相关关系。这些特点说明, 该物种的小植株倾向于产生较多较易萌发的外围果, 大植株倾向于产生较多不易萌发的中央果。在古尔班通古特沙漠不可预测的极端环境中, 疏齿千里光可通过异形瘦果间的萌发差异及调节其不同大小植株中异形瘦果的比例, 来减少同胞后代之间的竞争, 增加其对不同微环境条件的生态适应性。

Abstract:
Aims Senecio subdentatus (Asteraceae) is an annual ephemeral in the Gurbantunggut Desert, northern Xinjiang, China. It produces two morphs of achenes in the same infructescence. Our aim was to determine the morphological, dispersal and germination characteristics of the heteromorphic achenes and the relationship between size and yield of plants produced by them.
Methods Shape, size, surface ornamentation (via SEM micrographs), dispersal, germination of the two morphs of achenes, number of peripheral and central achenes per infructescence and per plant and plant biomass were determined in the laboratory. The mode and duration of achene dispersal were measured in the field.
Important findings The peripheral and central achenes are columnar, but they are significantly different in size, color, length of pappus and pericarp micro-morphology. Peripheral achenes are pale yellow and central ones brown. There are no differences in rate of descent in still air or dispersal distance at wind speeds of either 1 or 2 m·s–1. Therefore, the dispersal ability of the two achene morphs was not significantly affected by achene size or length of pappus. The germination percentages were higher for 1-month old peripheral achenes at 5/2, 15/2, 20/10, 25/15 and 30/15 °C, and there were significant differences among temperatures in both achene morphs. Light did not affect germination significantly. There are more peripheral than central achenes in a capitulum. The proportion of peripheral achenes in an individual was negatively correlated with plant size, while the proportion of central achenes was positively  correlated with plant size. This suggests that small plants produce more peripheral achenes with higher germination percentages, while large plants produce more central achenes with lower germination percentages. In the unpredictable environment of the Gurbantunggut Desert, plant size of S. subdentatus is closely related to micro-habitat. This species can reduce competition among siblings and increase adaptive responses to different micro-environmental conditions by making full use of germination differences between peripheral and central achenes and regulating yield of both achenes in different plant sizes.