植物生态学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (4): 269-280.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2012.00269

• 研究论文 •    下一篇

海南岛霸王岭热带低地雨林树木的空间格局

黄运峰1,丁易1,臧润国1,*(),李小成2,邹正冲2,韩文涛2   

  1. 1中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室, 北京 100091
    2海南霸王岭国家级自然保护区管理局, 海南昌江 572722
  • 收稿日期:2011-10-29 接受日期:2012-01-12 出版日期:2012-04-01 发布日期:2012-03-28
  • 通讯作者: 臧润国

Spatial pattern of trees in tropical lowland rain forest in Bawangling of Hainan Island, China

HUANG Yun-Feng1,DING Yi1,ZANG Run-Guo1,*(),LI Xiao-Cheng2,ZOU Zheng-Chong2,HAN Wen-Tao2   

  1. 1Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100091, China
    2Administration Bureau of Hainan Bawangling National Natural Reserve, Changjiang, Hainan 572722, China
  • Received:2011-10-29 Accepted:2012-01-12 Online:2012-04-01 Published:2012-03-28
  • Contact: ZANG Run-Guo

摘要:

树木空间格局及其形成过程是物种共存及生物多样性维持机制研究的一个重要方面。该文以海南岛两个1 hm 2的典型热带低地雨林老龄林森林动态样地为基础, 通过4个点格局模型(均质Poisson过程、异质Poisson过程、均质Thomas过程和异质Thomas过程)模拟扩散限制和生境异质性作用对树木空间分布格局的影响, 并分析不同空间尺度下(< 2 m, 2-5 m, 5-10 m, 10-15 m, 15-20 m和20-25 m)不同作用的相对重要性。结果表明: 热带低地雨林的所有树木总体上呈现聚集分布的空间格局, 随着尺度的增大, 聚集强度逐渐减小。树种在模拟空间分布格局最优模型中的比例由高到低分别是: 均质Thomas过程, 均质Poisson过程、异质Thomas过程和异质Poisson过程。扩散限制作用是形成热带低地雨林树木空间分布格局最重要的生态过程, 其次是完全随机作用以及生境异质性和扩散限制的联合作用, 而生境异质性的作用最小。不同空间尺度上模拟各树种空间分布格局的最优模型比例差异显著, 扩散限制作用能够在多数空间尺度上模拟多个树种的空间分布格局, 其次为随机作用; 生境异质性和扩散限制的联合作用主要在小尺度(0-5 m)影响树种分布, 而生境异质性在较大尺度(15-25 m)上影响树种的空间分布格局。

关键词: 扩散限制, 生境关联, 海南岛, 空间格局, 物种共存, 热带低地雨林

Abstract:

Aims Understanding processes underlying spatial distribution of tree species is fundamental to the study of species coexistence and diversity. Our objective was to determine the spatial structure and identify the processes that may generate spatial patterns of trees in a tropical lowland rain forest community on Hainan Island of South China.
Methods Based on four models of point pattern analysis (homogenous Poisson process, inhomogenous Poisson process, homogenous Thomas process and inhomogenous Thomas process), we evaluated the potential contribution of habitat heterogeneity and dispersal limitation to the formation of spatial patterns of tree species in two 1-hm 2 stem-mapped forest dynamic plots. The relative importance of each process was assessed at six different spatial scales (< 2 m, 2-5 m, 5-10 m, 10-15 m, 15-20 m and 20-25 m).
Important findings All stems combined revealed a strong aggregation at short distance (≤2 m), and the degree of aggregation decreased with increasing distance. Among the four models simulating tree distribution and patterning, the homogeneous Thomas process was the best-fit model. This result suggested that spatial patterns of tree species in tropical lowland rain forest might be formed by dispersal limitation. The homogeneous Poisson process that models the effect of spatial complete randomness was the second-best model. The inhomogeneous Thomas process and inhomogeneous Poisson process were equally important to forming spatial patterns of trees; they simulated the joint effects of habitat associations and dispersal limitation and modeled heterogeneity, respectively. The proportion of best-fit models differed across different scales. The dispersal limitation was a most important mechanism in spatial patterning of tree species at most scales, while complete randomness process was second in importance. The joint effects of habitat associations and dispersal limitation mainly influenced tree distribution at small scales (0-5 m). However, habitat heterogeneity only affected the distribution at larger scales (15-25 m).

Key words: dispersal limitation, habitat association, Hainan Island, spatial pattern, species coexistence, tropical lowland rain forest