植物生态学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (8): 857-867.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2014.00080

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

2012年夏季长湖浮游植物群落特征及其与环境因子的关系

柴毅1,2*, 彭婷1, 郭坤1, 何勇凤2, 杨德国2, 罗静波1**   

  1. 1长江大学动物科学学院, 湖北荆州 434025;
    2中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室, 武汉 430223
  • 收稿日期:2013-11-28 修回日期:2014-06-26 出版日期:2014-08-01 发布日期:2014-08-18
  • 通讯作者: 罗静波 E-mail:258196315@qq.com
  • 基金资助:

    十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目

Community characteristics of phytoplankton in Lake Changhu and relationships with environmental factors in the summer of 2012

CHAI Yi1,2*, PENG Ting1, GUO Kun1, HE Yong-Feng2, YANG De-Guo2, and LUO Jing-Bo1**   

  1. 1College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434025, China;

    2Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Key Laboratory of Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430223, China
  • Received:2013-11-28 Revised:2014-06-26 Online:2014-08-01 Published:2014-08-18
  • Contact: LUO Jing-Bo E-mail:258196315@qq.com

摘要:

为查明长湖浮游植物群落特征及其水环境影响因子, 并确定水体富营养化程度, 于2012年夏季对长湖浮游植物及相关环境因子进行调查检测分析, 运用藻类生物学法和综合营养状态指数法, 对长湖水体营养状态进行综合评定, 同时利用典范对应分析法(CCA)对浮游植物与环境因子的关系进行了分析。结果表明, 2012年夏季长湖浮游植物共有53种(含变种、变型), 隶属于7门41属, 其中以绿藻最多(24种, 占总数量的38.9%), 其次为蓝藻(15种, 占总数量的36.0%)和硅藻(7种, 占总数量的 14.1%)。优势种(优势度指数大于0.02)共10种, 其中两栖颤藻(Oscillatoria amphibia)是4个区域的共有优势种, 最高优势度达0.72。浮游植物丰度为12.03 × 106 – 62.13 × 106 cell·L–1, 平均值为27.71 × 106 cell·L–1。浮游植物丰度的平面分布呈现圆心湖、海子湖、马洪台、庙湖依次降低的特点。浮游植物多样性指数变化范围为0.89–3.24, 均匀度指数变化范围为0.23–0.83。选取叶绿素a、总磷、总氮、透明度和化学需氧量5项参数计算得出综合营养化指数。通过藻类生物学法和综合营养状态指数法进行综合评价发现: 2012年夏季长湖处于中度富营养化到富营养化程度。典范对应分析表明: 浮游植物空间分布主要受总氮、总悬浮物、总磷、溶氧以及亚硝酸氮等环境因子的影响。针状蓝纤维藻(Dactylococcopsis acicularis)、两栖颤藻、席藻属(Phormidium)、鱼腥藻属(Anabeana)等蓝藻对总氮的需求较大。长湖各站点由于在不同程度上受到地形、人为干扰以及水动力条件的影响, 它们与环境因子的典范对应分析表现出明显的区域性。

Abstract:
Aims Our objectives were to examine the community structure of phytoplankton and the associated environmental factors in Lake Changhu in the summer of 2012, and to investigate the degree of eutrophication in the lake.
Methods Biological characteristics of the alga and integrative nutritional state index were used for evaluation of eutrophication in Lake Changhu. Phytoplankton and water samples were collected at 20 sites. The water samples were fixed, precipitated and concentrated for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Variables related to water conditions such as chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total suspended solids, secchi disk depth and chemical oxygen demand were monitored.
Important findings Fifty-three species (genera) of phytoplankton were identified, belonging to Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, Xanthophyta, Euglenophyta, Pyrrophyta and Cryptophyta, respectively. Chlorophyta (24 species), which accounted for 38.9% of the total, was the most abundant, followed by Cyanophyta (15 species, accounting for 36.0% of the total) and Bacillariophyta (7 species, accounting for 14.1% of the total). There were 10 dominant species and Oscillatoria amphibia was a common species in four areas, with maximum dominancy of 0.72. The phytoplankton density varied from 12.03 × 106 to 62.13 × 106 cell·L–1 with an average of 27.71 × 106 cells·L–1. The highest cell density occurred in the Yuanxinhu area, followed by the Haizihu area and the Mahongtai area; the Miaohu area was observed to have the lowest cell density. Biodiversity index of phytoplankton varied from 0.89 to 3.24, and evenness index varied in a range of 0.23–0.83. Based on the two methods of eutrophication evaluation, the water was in moderately eutrophic and eutrophic state in Lake Changhu in the summer of 2012. Canonical correlation analysis suggested that the total nitrogen, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and nitrite nitrogen were the main environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of phytoplankton community in Lake Changhu in summer. Most of the Cyanophyta (Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Oscillatoria amphibia, Phormidium and Anabeana) had a great demand for total nitrogen. Affected by geographical feature, human activities and the hydrodynamic features, the sampling sites showed apparent regional differentiations as revealed by canonical correspondence analysis.