Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2015, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (7): 717-725.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0068

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Composition and monthly dynamics of tree seedlings in a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Jiaohe, Jilin Province, China

YAO Jie1, YAN Yan1, ZHANG Chun-Yu1, PI Tian-Hui2, ZHAO Xiu-Hai1,*()   

  1. 1Key Laboratory for Forest Resources & Ecosystem Processes of Beijing, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
    2Jiaohe Forestry Administration of Experimental Area, Jiaohe, Jilin 132517, China
  • Online:2015-07-22 Published:2015-07-01
  • Contact: Xiu-Hai ZHAO E-mail:zhaoxh@bjfu.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Abstract: Aims The objective of this paper is to quantify the composition and dynamics of tree seedlings in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in north-eastern China. Methods We installed 224 sampling quadrats (1 m × 1 m) at the Jiaohe Experimental Forest in Jilin Province of northeastern China. All seedlings in the quadrats were tagged and measured by species. Based on three consecutive sampling from mid-June to mid-August in 2013, we studied the species composition and dynamics of tree seedlings by month. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between seedlings and the neighboring trees with the diameter at breast height (DBH) of 1 cm. Important findings A total of 16 species were recorded. There was no significant difference in species composition between June and July, but a great variation in the seedling composition in August. From June to August 2013, 1214 out of 1722 individual seedlings survived. There were significant differences in the total number and the number of individual species in the quadrats. The death and recruitment pattern of newborn seedlings showed significant differences among species and by month. The mortality rate in June was 48.9%, which was significantly higher than that in August (28.3%). The mortality rate of perennial seedlings during the observation period was 7.34%, which was significantly less than the mortality rate of new seedlings (40.56%). We found that the recruitment rate of the dominant species in July was higher than that in August. The recruitment occurred mostly in June. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between the seedling abundance of eight species and the number of conspecifics, as well as the sum of conspecific basal areas within 20 m distance from a station. Factors influencing seedling abundance differed among species. For Acer mono, Tilia amurensis and Abies holophylla, significant partial regression coefficients appeared positive (p = 0.006, 0.013, 0.037, respectively), indicating that the seedling abundance increased with basal area. Other species did not show this correlation.

Key words: coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, monthly dynamics, seedling regeneration, species composition

Fig. 1

Plot layout at each of the sampling station."

Fig. 2

Location of 209 monitoring plots (● & ○) and the 56 locations (○) for this study in a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest observational study in Jiaohe, Jilin Province."

Table 1

Species composition and quantity characteristics at the sampling plots in June 2013"

种名
Species
幼苗数量
No. of
seedlings
幼苗密度
Seedling density
(mean ± SE, n = 224)
幼苗密度的变异系数
CV of seedling
density (%)
相对多度
Relative
abundance
相对频度
Relative
frequency
重要值
Important
value
色木槭 Acer mono 509 2.272 ± 0.176 116.11 29.56 23.59 53.15
水曲柳 Fraxinus mandshurica 381 1.701 ± 0.177 156.05 22.13 18.84 40.97
东北槭 Acer mandshuricum 262 1.170 ± 0.103 131.25 15.21 18.40 33.61
紫椴 Tilia amurensis 299 1.335 ± 0.195 218.78 17.36 12.46 29.83
糠椴 Tilia mandshurica 65 0.290 ± 0.048 248.70 3.77 5.79 9.56
千金榆 Carpinus cordata 49 0.219 ± 0.035 241.59 2.85 5.64 8.48
青楷槭 Acer tegmentosum 44 0.196 ± 0.036 271.36 2.56 5.19 7.75
杉松 Abies holophylla 46 0.205 ± 0.064 464.10 2.67 3.12 5.79
春榆 Ulmus davidiana var. japonica 25 0.112 ± 0.030 407.87 1.45 2.37 3.83
红松 Pinus koraiensis 17 0.076 ± 0.024 480.95 0.99 1.63 2.62
髭脉槭 Acer barbinerve 12 0.054 ± 0.019 520.78 0.70 1.34 2.03
裂叶榆 Ulmus laciniata 6 0.027 ± 0.015 860.22 0.35 0.59 0.94
拧筋槭 Acer triflorum 4 0.018 ± 0.009 743.28 0.23 0.59 0.83
胡桃楸 Juglans mandshurica 1 0.004 ± 0.004 1 496.67 0.06 0.15 0.21
黄檗 Phellodendron amurense 1 0.004 ± 0.004 1 496.67 0.06 0.15 0.21
蒙古栎 Quercus mongolica 1 0.004 ± 0.004 1 496.67 0.06 0.15 0.21
合计 Total 1 722 _ _ 100.00 100.00 200.00

Table 2

The monthly changes in newly-born seedlings and perennial seedlings at community level"

6月
June
7月
July
8月
August
幼苗数量
No. of seedlings
新增数
No. of
recruitment
死亡数
No. of
death
死亡率
Mortality rate
(%)
增补率
Recruitment rate
(%)
新增数
No. of
recruitment
死亡数
No. of
death
死亡率
Mortality rate
(%)
增补率
Recruitment rate
(%)
当年生幼苗
Newly-born seedlings
1 231 89 476 48.9 11.1 19 208 28.3 2.9
多年生幼苗
Perennial seedlings
491 92 26 5.4 18.1 43 41 7.6 8.0
合计 Total 1 722 181 502 34.5 13.8 62 249 19.6 5.2

Fig. 3

Distribution of the number of quadrat by newly-born seedling species."

Table 3

Species composition, mortality rate and recruitment rate of newly-born seedlings, as well as the number of quadrats presented with newly-born seedlings in different months"

物种名
Species
新生幼苗数量
No. of newly-born
seedlings
新生幼苗出现样方数
No. of quadrats presented with newly-born seedlings
新生幼苗死亡数
No. of death with
newly-born seedlings
新生幼苗死亡率
Mortality rate of
newly-born seedlings (%)
新生幼苗更新率
Recruitment rate of newly-born seedlings (%)
6-8月
June-
August
6月
June
7月
July
8月
August
6-8月
June-
August
6月
June
7月
July
8月
August
7月
July
8月
August
7月
July
8月
August
7月
July
8月
August
色木槭 Acer mono 493 453 30 10 154 148 28 10 131 49 34.1 15.0 8.9 3.2
紫椴 Tilia amurensis 301 291 10 _ 87 84 6 _ 201 59 117.4 89.2 10.5 0
东北槭 Acer mandshuricum 271 238 28 5 118 113 24 5 55 51 26.3 27.7 14.2 3.1
水曲柳 Fraxinus mandshurica 80 74 6 _ 55 53 6 _ 6 10 8.5 14.5 8.5 0
糠椴 Tilia mandshurica 65 63 1 1 39 38 1 1 38 15 92.4 86.0 3.9 8.7
千金榆 Carpinus cordata 49 45 4 _ 36 35 3 _ 20 12 58.8 53.4 14.8 0
青楷槭 Acer tegmentosum 42 41 1 _ 33 32 1 _ 14 7 41.8 28.8 3.6 0
红松 Pinus koraiensis 16 12 3 1 9 8 1 1 7 0 87.5 0 47.0 11.8
春榆
Ulmus davidiana var. japonica
11 8 2 1 9 8 2 1 3 2 47.0 33.6 33.6 18.2
髭脉槭 Acer barbinerve 6 4 1 1 6 4 1 1 1 0 28.8 0 28.8 22.3
胡桃楸 Juglans mandshurica 2 _ 2 _ 2 _ 2 _ 0 1 _ 69.3 _ 0
拧筋槭 Acer triflorum 2 2 _ _ 2 2 _ _ 0 2 0 _ 0 _
杉松 Abies holophylla 1 _ 1 _ 1 _ 1 _ 0 0 _ 0 _ 0
合计 Total 1 339 1 231 89 19 476 208 48.9 28.3 11.1 2.9

Table 4

Results of multiple linear regression analysis on the seedling abundance and the number of conspecifics (N20) as well as the sum of conspecific basal area (B20) within 20 m distance from a station"

物种
Species
变量
Variable
回归系数
Coefficient
标准误差
SE
t
t-value
p 调整的R2
Adjusted R2
东北槭 Acer mandshuricum B20 0.006 0.001 1.308 0.196 -0.005
N20 0.005 0.032 0.154 0.878
色木槭 Acer mono B20 0.001 0.000 2.894 0.006** 0.171
N20 -0.051 0.045 -1.129 0.264
水曲柳 Fraxinus mandshurica B20 -8.98E-05 0.001 -0.173 0.864 -0.025
N20 0.297 0.471 0.631 0.531
紫椴 Tilia amurensis B20 0.001 0.001 2.562 0.013* 0.080
N20 -0.242 0.244 -0.989 0.327
糠椴 Tilia mandshurica B20 -0.001 0.001 -0.84 0.405 -0.002
N20 0.142 0.486 0.292 0.771
千金榆 Carpinus cordata B20 2.00E-04 0.000 0.627 0.533 0.165
N20 0.019 0.020 0.982 0.33
青楷槭 Acer tegmentosum B20 -6.43E-05 0.001 -0.088 0.931 0.020
N20 0.210 0.122 1.715 0.092
杉松 Abies holophylla B20 0.001 0.000 2.143 0.037* 0.111
N20 0.305 0.417 0.732 0.467
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