Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2015, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (9): 878-889.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0084

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Colonization of dark septate endophytes in roots of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and its associated plants as influenced by soil properties

SUN Qian, HE Chao, HE Xue-Li*(), ZHAO Li-Li   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071002, China
  • Received:2015-03-04 Accepted:2015-08-04 Online:2015-09-23 Published:2015-09-03
  • Contact: Xue-Li HE E-mail:xuelh1256@aliyun.com
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Abstract: <i>Aims</i>

Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are commonly detected in plant roots in different ecosystems. However, so far our knowledge about the ecological significance of DSE in semiarid and arid lands is limited. The main objective of this study was to compare the colonization status and ecological distribution of DSE in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and its associated plants in desert habitats.

<i>Methods</i>

In July 2013, soil and root samples of A. mongolicus and its associated plants were collected from three sites, including Yinchuan, Shapotou and Minqin located in northwest China. At each sampling site, samples were collected at five depth intervals, 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm, respectively.

<i>Important findings</i>

The roots of A. mongolicus and its associated plants were infected by DSE which could be characterized by typical septate hyphae and microsclerotia. Microsclerotia of A. mongolicus were compact lumps, while the associated plants had scattered microsclerotia. In the same site, microsclerotia colonization in A. mongolicus and its associated plants showed no significant difference, but hyphal colonization, colonization intensity and total colonization of A. mongolicus were much higher than that of its associated plants. In different sites, the colonization intensity and total colonization of DSE in A. mongolicus exhibited a pattern as Shapotou > Yinchuan > Minqin, and these indexes in associated plants were Yinchuan > Minqin > Shapotou. Plant species and soil layer had significant effects on the colonization and distribution of DSE as well as soil properties. The path coefficient and principal component analysis indicated that soil organic matter, total extractable glomalin, phosphatase and available K are the main influencing factors, which directly affected the colonization of DSE in desert environment, Northwest China.

Key words: dark septate endophytes, ecological distribution, desert environment, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, associated plant

Table 1

Sampling sites and associated plant species of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus"

样地
Sampling site
伴生植物
Associated plants
海拔
Elevation (m)
经纬度
Latitude and longitude
土壤类型
Type of soil
宁夏银川
Yinchuan, Ningxia
白刺 Nitraria tangutorum
沙蒿 Artemisia desertorum
1 169 38.6° N, 106.57° E 石质为主
Stony mainly
宁夏沙坡头
Shapotou, Ningxia
柠条锦鸡儿 Caragana korshinskii 1 298 37.57° N, 104.97° E 沙土为主
Sand mainly
甘肃民勤
Minqin, Gansu
无叶沙拐枣 Calligonum aphyllum
红花锦鸡儿 Caragana rosea
1 350 38.58° N, 102.93° E 荒漠沙质
Sandy desert

Fig. 1

Hyphal structure of dark septate endophytes (DSE) in roots of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and its associated plants. A, Hyphae of DSE in A. mongolicus in Yinchuan. B, Hyphae of DSE in A. mongolicus in Shapotou. C, Infection of DSE in vascular tissue of A. mongolicus in Minqin. D, Hyphae of DSE in Artemisia desertorum in Yinchuan. E, Infection of DSE in vascular tissue of Nitraria tangutorum in Yinchuan. F, Hyphae of DSE in Caragana korshinskii in Shapotou. G, Hyphae of DSE in Calligonum aphyllum in Minqin. H, Hyphae of DSE in C. rosea in Minqin."

Fig. 2

Microsclerotia of dark septate endophytes (DSE) in roots of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and its associated plants. A, Brain-like microsclerotia of DSE in A. mongolicus in Yinchuan. B, Chain-like microsclerotia of DSE in A. mongolicus in Yinchuan. C, Microsclerotia clusters of DSE in A. mongolicus in Shapotou. D, Leaf-like microsclerotia of DSE in A. mongolicus in Shapotou. E, Ribbon-like microsclerotia of DSE in A. mongolicus in Minqin. F, leaf-like microsclerotia of DSE in A. mongolicus in Minqin. G, Brain-like microsclerotia of DSE in Nitraria tangutorum in Yinchuan. H, Scattered microsclerotia of DSE in Artemisia desertorum in Yinchuan. I, Specialized microsclerotia of DSE in Caragana korshinskii in Shapotou. J, Leaf-like microsclerotia of DSE in C. korshinskii in Shapotou. K, Ribbon-like microsclerotia of DSE in C. rosea in Minqin. L, Leaf-like microsclerotia of DSE in Calligonum aphyllum in Minqin."

Fig. 3

The spatial variation of the colonization of dark septate endophytes in roots of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and its associated plants (mean ± SD). Different capital letters above the columns indicate significant difference between different soil layers of the same plant species (p < 0.05). Different lowercase letters above the columns indicate significant difference among different plants at the same soil layer (p < 0.05)."

Fig. 4

The spatial variation of soil properties in the rhizosphere of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and its associated plants (mean ± SD). Different capital letters above the columns indicate significant difference between different soil layers of the same plant species (p < 0.05). Different lowercase letters above the columns indicate significant difference among different plants at the same soil layer (p < 0.05)."

Table 2

Path coefficient between soil factors (xi) and total colonization of dark septate endophytes (y) in Yinchuan"

自变量
Independent
variable
y的简单相关系数
Simple correlation with y
通径系数的直接作用
Direct action of path coefficient
间接通径系数(间接作用)
Indirect path coefficient (indirect effect)
x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7 x8
x1 -0.174 6 -0.161 0 - 0.023 7 -0.002 3 -0.005 6 0.002 1 -0.019 9 -0.003 0 -0.040 5
x2 0.398 8 0.212 0 -0.018 0 - -0.004 1 -0.003 2 0.015 0 0.005 8 -0.006 6 0.186 4
x3 0.607 6 -0.014 0 -0.026 9 0.061 9 - 0.001 3 0.022 4 0.010 3 -0.012 5 0.551 0
x4 0.177 1 0.053 0 0.017 1 -0.012 7 -0.000 3 - 0.040 2 0.081 9 0.009 9 0.139 9
x5 0.361 0 0.119 0 -0.002 9 0.026 7 -0.002 6 0.017 9 - 0.089 8 0.014 0 0.227 2
x6 0.294 5 0.127 0 0.025 3 0.009 8 -0.001 1 0.034 2 0.084 1 - 0.014 5 0.164 7
x7 -0.347 3 0.025 0 0.019 3 -0.055 8 0.007 0 0.020 9 0.066 6 0.073 7 - -0.311 0
x8 0.766 1 0.710 0 0.009 2 0.055 8 -0.010 9 0.010 4 0.038 1 0.029 5 -0.011 0 -

Table 3

Path coefficient between soil factors (xi) and total colonization of dark septate endophytes (y) in Shapotou"

自变量Independent
variable
y的简单相关系数
Simple correlation with y
通径系数的直接作用
Direct action of path coefficient
间接通径系数(间接作用)
Indirect path coefficients (indirect effect)
x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7 x8
x1 -0.073 2 0.039 0 - -0.006 1 -0.006 8 -0.072 5 -0.062 1 -0.012 3 -0.001 7 -0.048 5
x2 0.222 6 0.032 0 -0.007 5 - 0.002 4 0.329 6 0.259 6 0.035 6 -0.078 0 -0.053 3
x3 0.249 3 0.110 0 -0.002 4 0.000 7 - -0.194 1 -0.066 0 -0.012 8 0.115 0 0.267 9
x4 0.359 9 0.529 0 -0.005 3 0.019 9 -0.040 4 - 0.334 8 0.051 5 -0.115 5 -0.077 0
x5 0.406 6 0.388 0 -0.006 2 0.021 4 -0.018 7 0.456 5 - 0.052 7 -0.094 1 0.018 5
x6 0.357 0 0.060 0 -0.008 0 0.019 0 -0.023 4 0.454 4 0.341 1 - -0.084 7 0.002 2
x7 -0.075 5 -0.174 0 0.000 4 0.014 3 -0.072 7 0.351 3 0.209 9 0.029 2 - -0.246 1
x8 0.389 0 0.370 0 -0.005 1 -0.004 6 0.079 6 -0.110 0 0.019 4 0.036 0 0.115 7 -

Table 4

Path coefficient between soil factors (xi) and total colonization of dark septate endophytes (y) in Minqin"

自变量Independent
variable
y的简单相关系数
Simple correlation with y
通径系数的直接作用
Direct action of path coefficient
间接通径系数(间接作用)
Indirect path coefficients (indirect effect)
x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7 x8
x1 0.502 1 0.358 0 - -0.026 6 0.037 5 0.106 9 -0.051 3 -0.018 9 0.018 3 -0.002 3
x2 0.179 2 0.190 0 -0.050 1 - 0.011 0 0.042 3 -0.001 4 -0.002 1 0.000 5 0.016 2
x3 0.438 0 0.305 0 0.044 0 0.006 8 - 0.088 6 -0.014 8 -0.002 3 0.008 7 0.009 7
x4 -0.511 6 -0.226 0 -0.007 1 -0.030 2 -0.101 6 - 0.034 8 0.008 7 -0.013 3 -0.143 9
x5 -0.371 3 0.078 0 -0.235 6 -0.003 6 -0.058 0 -0.118 6 - 0.021 6 -0.021 6 -0.007 7
x6 -0.264 9 0.034 0 -0.199 0 -0.011 6 -0.021 0 -0.067 8 0.049 5 - -0.011 2 0.004 8
x7 -0.429 0 -0.031 0 -0.210 5 0.002 9 -0.086 0 -0.113 8 0.054 4 0.012 3 - 0.000 7
x8 0.136 0 0.041 0 -0.019 7 0.075 2 0.072 0 0.046 3 -0.014 7 0.004 0 -0.000 5 -

Table 5

Principle component (PC) loading matrix, eigenvalue and contribution rate"

土壤因子
Soil factors
第一主成分
PC1
第二主成分
PC2
有机质 Organic matter 0.771 0.293
速效P Available P 0.717 0.498
易提取球囊霉素
Easily extractable glomalin
0.313 0.930
总球囊霉素
Total extractable glomalin
0.856 -0.356
酸性磷酸酶 Acid phosphatase 0.969 -0.072
碱性磷酸酶 Alkaline phosphatase 0.947 -0.173
速效K Available K 0.759 -0.576
碱解N Available N 0.109 0.926
特征值 Eigenvalue 4.364 2.550
贡献率 Contribution rate 54.544 31.877
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