Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2016, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (4): 292-303.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0314

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Soil organic carbon density and influencing factors in tropical virgin forests of Hainan Island, China

Huai YANG1,2, Yi-De LI1,*(), Hai REN3, Tu-Shou LUO1, Ren-Li CHEN1, Wen-Jie LIU4, De-Xiang CHEN1, Han XU1, Zhang ZHOU1, Ming-Xian LIN1, Qiu YANG4, Hai-Rong YAO4, Guo-Yi ZHOU3   

  1. 1Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Forest Ecosystem State Field Scientific Observation Station of Jianfenglin, Hainan, Guangzhou 510520, China

    2Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration, Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China

    3South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China
    and
    4College of Environment and Plant Protection, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
  • Received:2015-09-06 Accepted:2016-02-19 Online:2016-04-30 Published:2016-04-29
  • Contact: Yi-De LI E-mail:liyide@126.com

Abstract:

Aims
Estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) density and influence factors of tropical virgin forests in Hainan Island provide new insight in basic data for SOC pool estimation and its dynamics study.
Methods
The main distribution areas of tropical virgin forests in Jianfengling (JFL), Bawangling (BWL), Wu- zhishan (WZS), Diaoluoshan (DLS), Yinggeling (YGL) of Hainan Island were selected, and soil samples (0-100 cm) were sampled and analyzed. SOC density was estimated by soil vertical fitting method and soil stratification method to discover the distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon in tropical virgin forests of Hainan Island.
Important findings
Results showed that: (1) The average SOC density using soil vertical fitting method in JFL, BWL, WZS, DLS and YGL was 14.98, 18.46, 16.48, 18.81, 16.66 kg·m-2, respectively, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the estimated average SOC density using soil stratification method in these areas (14.73, 16.24, 15.50, 16.91, 15.03 kg·m-2, respectively). It is better to use soil vertical fitting method for SOC density estimation when the soil was natural without disturbance. (2) The proportion of SOC content in the first 0-30 cm depth interval out of SOC in the whole 0-100 cm soil profiles in JFL, BWL, WZS, DLS and YGL was 50.50%, 48.56%, 43.49%, 47.37%, 42.88%, respectively. (3) SOC density was significantly negative correlated with Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, species richness, and soil bulk density; and was significantly positive correlated with altitude, soil porosity, and soil nitrogen. However, SOC density was not significantly correlated to slope, biomass, average diameter at breast height, or average height. (4) Our study area Hainan was located in low latitude area with high rainfall and high temperature, which accelerated the decomposition of organic matter and nutrient recycling, resulting in significantly lower SOC densities in this tropical virgin forests of Hainan Island than the average value in China.

Key words: Hainan tropical virgin forests, soil vertical fitting method, soil stratification method, soil organic carbon density

Table 1

Basic conditions of the five tropical virgin forests in Hainan"

研究点
Location
经度
Longitude (E)
纬度
Latitude (N)
年平均气温
Mean annual
temperature (℃)
平均年降水量
Mean annual
precipitation (mm)
海拔范围
Elevation range (m)
主要森林类型
Main forest type
主要土壤类型
Main soil type
尖峰岭
Jianfengling
108.60°-
109.08°
18.38°-
18.83°
25-20 1 700-2 600 600-1 400 低地雨林、山地雨林
Lowland rainforest, Montane rainforest
砖红壤、砖黄壤
Latosol, lateritic yellow soil
霸王岭
Bawangling
108.97°-
109.88°
18.88°-
19.33°
25-20 1 500-2 300 600-1 500 低地雨林、山地雨林
Lowland rainforest, Montane rainforest
砖红壤、砖黄壤
Latosol, lateritic yellow soil
五指山
Wuzhishan
109.65˚-
109.78˚
18.82˚-
18.97˚
24-19 2 300-2 500 800-1 800 山地雨林、山地常绿阔叶林
Montane rainforest, montane broadleaved evergreen forest
砖黄壤、黄壤
lateritic yellow soil, yellow soil
吊罗山
Diaoluoshan
109.75°-
110.05°
18.67°-
18.97°
25-20 1 870-2 760 500-1 450 低地雨林、山地雨林
Lowland rainforest, Montane rainforest
砖红壤、砖黄壤
Latosol, lateritic yellow soil
鹦哥岭
Yinggeling
109.18°-
109.57°
18.82°-
19.13°
24-20 1 800-2 700 600-1 800 山地雨林、山地常绿阔叶林
Montane rainforest, montane broadleaved evergreen forest
砖红壤、砖黄壤、黄壤
Latosol, lateritic yellow soil, yellow soil

Table 2

The soil organic carbon (SOC) content, SOC density and soil bulk density measured by the vertical fitting method in Hainan"

地点
Location
土壤有机碳含量
SOC content
(g·kg-1)
土壤容重
Soil bulk density
(g·cm-3)
土壤有机碳密度
SOC density
(g·kg-1)
尖峰岭
Jianfengling
11.32 1.33 14.98
霸王岭
Bawangling
14.84 1.25 18.46
五指山
Wuzhishan
13.58 1.22 16.48
吊罗山
Diaoluoshan
13.60 1.39 18.81
鹦哥岭
Yinggeling
16.26 1.03 16.66

Fig. 1

Changes of soil organic carbon content with soil depth in tropical virgin forests of Hainan Island. A, Jianfengling. B, Bawangling. C, Wuzhishan. D, Diaoluoshan. E, Yinggeling."

Fig. 2

Changes of soil bulk density with soil depth in tropical virgin forests of Hainan Island. A, Jianfengling. B, Bawangling. C, Wuzhishan. D, Diaoluoshan. E, Yinggeling."

Table 3

Soil organic carbon content (SOC, g·kg-1) and soil bulk density (SBD, g·cm-3) of all soil layers (mean ± SE)"

土层
Soil layer (cm)
指标
index
尖峰岭
Jianfengling (n = 30)
霸王岭
Bawangling (n = 30)
五指山
Wuzhishan (n = 30)
吊罗山
Diaoluoshan (n = 30)
莺歌岭
Yinggeling (n = 30)
0-10 SOC 30.35 ± 1.57ABa 34.71 ± 2.78Aa 25.29 ± 1.27Ba 30.95 ± 1.68Aa 32.11 ± 2.13Aa
SBD 1.11 ± 0.03Aa 0.99 ± 0.03Ba 0.99 ± 0.03Ba 1.16 ± 0.04Aa 0.90 ± 0.04Ba
10-20 SOC 19.54 ± 1.23Ab 23.08 ± 1.41Ab 20.88 ± 1.5Ab 20.21 ± 1.16Ab 20.79 ± 1.03Ab
SBD 1.24 ± 0.02ACb 1.1 ± 0.03Bb 1.16 ± 0.03ABb 1.27 ± 0.03Cb 1.00 ± 0.04Dab
20-30 SOC 12.72 ± 0.68Ac 16.37 ± 1.11ABc 15.66 ± 1.09ABc 14.08 ± 0.68Ac 14.88 ± 0.83Ac
SBD 1.32 ± 0.03Abc 1.22 ± 0.03Bc 1.23 ± 0.02Bbc 1.35 ± 0.04Ab 1.02 ± 0.03Cb
30-50 SOC 9.73 ± 0.83Ad 12.42 ± 0.97Bc 12.05 ± 0.67Bd 10.41 ± 0.67ABd 12.35 ± 0.89Bc
SBD 1.37 ± 0.03Ac 1.27 ± 0.02Bcd 1.26 ± 0.03Bc 1.44 ± 0.02Ac 1.06 ± 0.04Cb
50-100 SOC 6.72 ± 0.61Ae 7.87 ± 0.44ABd 9.25 ± 0.50Bd 8.22 ± 0.51ABd 11.45 ± 1.28Cc
SBD 1.39 ± 0.03Ac 1.32 ± 0.02Ad 1.23 ± 0.02Bbc 1.45 ± 0.03ACc 1.05 ± 0.03Db
0-100 SOCdensity 14.73 16.24 15.50 16.91 15.03

Table 4

Eigenvalue, contributive and accumulative rates of principal component 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the vegetation, topography and soil properties"

主成分
Component
特征值
Eigenvalue
贡献率
Contributive rate
(%)
累计贡献率
Accumulative rate (%)
1 5.436 171 33.98 33.98
2 3.352 781 20.95 54.93
3 1.918 007 11.99 66.92
4 1.024 251 6.402 73.32

Table 5

Element loading of principal component 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the vegetation, topography and soil properties"

指标 Index PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4
物种丰富度
Species richness
-0.361 22 -0.126 59 -0.193 71 0.173 50
Simpson指数
Simpson index
-0.245 99 -0.385 24 -0.159 24 -0.012 57
Shannon-Wiener指数
Shannon-Wiener index
-0.310 91 -0.338 54 -0.149 16 0.025 99
Pielou均匀度指数
Pielou evenness index
-0.130 10 -0.438 93 -0.163 01 -0.134 68
林分生物量
Forest biomass
0.174 37 -0.375 81 -0.076 67 0.092 61
林分郁闭度
Forest canopy density
0.328 61 -0.172 54 0.193 56 -0.102 91
林木平均树高
Trees average height
0.227 40 -0.357 66 0.171 44 -0.072 60
林木平均胸径
Trees average DBH
0.307 09 -0.324 36 0.066 92 -0.100 56
单位面积植株个体数
Plant individual numbers per unit area
-0.313 95 0.161 62 -0.265 97 0.280 35
坡度
Slope
0.081 52 -0.066 99 -0.227 18 0.199 30
海拔
Elevation
0.190 56 -0.222 59 -0.276 19 0.372 46
土壤总孔隙度
The soil total porosity
0.309 97 0.118 85 -0.361 86 0.077 20
土壤容重
Soil bulk density
-0.309 97 -0.118 85 0.361 86 -0.077 20
土壤有机碳
Soil organic carbon
0.143 54 0.112 50 -0.458 22 -0.363 67
土壤全氮
Soil total nitrogen
-0.035 58 0.034 16 -0.363 48 -0.579 54
土壤全磷
Soil total phosphorus
0.235 48 0.043 86 -0.092 07 0.423 42

Fig. 3

The double sequence diagrams of principal component analysis in vegetation, topography, soil properties in tropical virgin forests of Hainan Island. AL, altitude; BI, biomass; C, soil organic carbon density; CD, canopy density; DBH, average tree diameter at breast height; GR, gradient; H, average tree height; J, Pielou evenness index; N, soil total nitrogen; P, soil total phosphorus; S, species richness; SBD, soil bulk density; SI, Simpson index; SP, soil porosity; SW, Shannon-Wiener index; TD, tree numbers in unit area."

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