Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2016, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (7): 711-722.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0366

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of biotic neighbors and habitat heterogeneity on tree seedling survival in a secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain

Shuai LIU1,2, Jia-Xing LIAO1, Cui XIAO1, Xiu-Hua FAN2,*()   

  1. 1Key Laboratory for Forest Resources & Ecosystem Processes of Beijing, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
    and
    2College of Science, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2015-10-13 Accepted:2016-03-26 Online:2016-07-07 Published:2016-07-10
  • Contact: Xiu-Hua FAN E-mail:blfanxh@bjfu.edu.cn

Abstract:

Aims Our study aimed to understand the effects and the relative importance of biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity for tree seedling survival in a secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain, north-eastern China.
Methods The generalized mixed linear model was used to examine the relative effects of biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity on seedling survival over two years.
Important findings Our results showed that both biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity had significant effects on the seedling survival at community level. The local environment suitable for the adult growth was also suitable for seedling survival. The soil moisture and soil available nitrogen exhibited significant positive effects on seedling survival. On the other hand, seedling density had significant negative effects on seedling survival due to the individual competition. Particularly, we found significant negative density-dependent effects on seedling survival which was caused by conspecific adult and seedling neighbors. As expected, with the increasing of seedling survival age, the habitat heterogeneity became more important on seedling survival. These results suggest that both local biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity drive seedling survival in this temperate forest, and their relative importance varies with different seedling age classes and species traits.

Key words: secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest, generalized linear mixed model, tree seedling survival, biotic neighborhood, habitat heterogeneity

Fig. 1

Distribution of seedling quadrats within the plot. □, seed trap; ■, seedling quadrats."

Table 1

Soil variables loadings on the three PCAs"

土壤变量 Soil variable PCA1 PCA2 PCA3
有机质 Organic matter -0.455 - 0.367
全磷 Total phosphorus -0.476 - -0.202
有效磷 Available phosphorus -0.223 0.721 -0.372
全钾 Total potassium 0.395 0.166 -0.353
有效钾 Available potassium -0.435 0.344 -
全氮 Total nitrogen -0.396 -0.285 -
有效氮 Available nitrogen -0.117 -0.489 -0.745
变量解释 Variation explained 39.9% 15.6% 15.1%

Table 2

Parameters present in models of seedling survival"

变量 Variables 数据 Data
最小值 Min 最大值 Max 平均值 Mean 中值 Median
幼苗高度 Seedling height (h, cm) 1 98 11.82 7
大树邻体作用 Adult effect
同种个体数 No. of conspecific individuals (ind.c) 0 76 8.69 5.00
异种个体数 No. of heterospecific individuals (ind.h) 19 132 73.34 73.50
同种胸高断面积 Conspecific basal area (ba.c) 0.000 0.510 0.007 0.001
异种胸高断面积 Heterospecific basal area (ba.h) 0.002 4.700 0.096 0.047
幼苗邻体作用 Seedling effect
同种幼苗 Conspecific seedlings (s.c) 1 20 4.39 3
异种幼苗 Heterospecific seedlings (s.h) 0 37 6.89 5
幼苗年龄 Seedling age 1 未知 Unknown - -
土壤特性 Soil property
第一主成分 The first principal component (PC1) -3.901 3.646 0.572 0.789
第二主成分 The second principal component (PC2) -1.978 2.840 -0.112 -0.144
第三主成分 The third principal component (PC3) -2.286 4.385 0.186 0.169
土壤pH值 Soil pH value 4.29 6.73 5.22 5.18
土壤含水量 Soil water content (%) 29.06 69.46 40.31 39.78
林冠开阔度 Canopy openness (%) 6.76 29.73 11.96 11.88

Fig. 2

Odds. ratios for model parameters of tree seedling survival for the fullest most likely models at community level. Circles show estimated Odds. ratios for each parameter, with 95% confidence limits indicated by horizontal lines. Odds. ratios significantly different from 1 (95% confidence limits do not overlap 1) are indicated by filled circles. See Table 2 for variable abbreviations."

Table 3

Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) and ΔAIC values of models of seedling survival"

数据子集
Data subsets
备选模型 Candidate model
零模型
Null model
生物模型
Biotic model
生境模型
Habitat model
生物生境模型
Biotic + Habitat model
AIC ΔAIC AIC ΔAIC AIC ΔAIC AIC ΔAIC
群落水平 Community level 1 683.30 361.94 1 563.96 242.61 1 346.31 24.96 1 321.36 0.00
种子传播方式 Seed dispersal mode
风媒传播 Wind dispersal 788.51 67.56 792.04 71.09 724.23 3.28 720.95 0.00
重力传播 Gravity dispersal 253.48 6.79 289.26 42.57 246.69 0.00 249.40 2.71
年龄级 Age class
一年生 One year old 994.63 257.96 882.44 145.78 766.17 29.50 736.66 0.00
二至三年生 Two to three years old 266.32 35.69 258.77 28.14 230.63 0.00 235.21 4.58
四年生以上 Above four years old 290.00 9.53 297.74 17.27 280.47 0.00 287.74 7.28
耐阴性 Shade tolerance
阳性 Light-demanding 344.57 0.72 368.37 24.51 343.85 0.00 353.90 10.05
中性 Mid shade-tolerant 108.20 0.00 117.34 9.14 113.90 5.70 113.70 5.50
阴性 Shade-tolerant 587.24 40.95 585.02 38.73 547.34 1.04 546.30 0.00
物种 Species
紫椴 Tilia amurensis 209.68 4.31 218.52 13.15 205.37 0.00 206.29 0.92
簇毛槭 Acer barbinerve 255.25 56.51 236.21 37.47 207.61 8.87 198.74 0.00

Fig. 3

Odds. ratios for model parameters of tree seedling survival of different age classes for the fullest most likely models. Circles show estimated Odds. ratios for each parameter, with 95% confidence limits indicated by horizontal lines. Odds. ratios significantly different from 1 (95% confidence limits do not overlap 1) are indicated by filled circles. See Table 2 for variable abbreviations."

Fig. 4

Odds. ratios for model parameters of tree seedling survival of dispersal-mode groups for the fullest most likely models in Table 3, Circles show estimated Odds. ratios for each parameter, with 95% confidence limits (CL) indicated by horizontal lines. Odds. ratios significantly different from 1 (95% CL do not overlap 1) are indicated by filled circles. See Table 2 for variable abbreviations."

Fig. 5

Odds. ratios for model parameters of tree seedling survival of shade tolerant-mode groups for the fullest most likely models , Circles show estimated Odds. ratios for each parameter, with 95% confidence limits (CL) indicated by horizontal lines. Odds. ratios significantly different from 1 (95% CL do not overlap 1) are indicated by filled circles. See Table 2 for variable abbreviations."

Fig. 6

Odds. ratios for model parameters of tree seedling survival of different species for the fullest most likely models, circles show estimated Odds. ratios for each parameter, with 95% confidence limits (CL) indicated by horizontal lines. Odds. ratios significantly different from 1 (95% CL do not overlap 1) are indicated by filled circles. See Table 2 for variable abbreviations.."

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