Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2016, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (8): 798-809.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0100

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Ultrasonic based investigation on particle size distribution and retention efficiency of particulate matters retained on tree leaves—Taking Ginkgo biloba and Pinus tabuliformis as examples

Jin-Qiang LIU1,*, Zhi-Guo CAO2,*, Huan-Huan LIU1,*, Shao-Wei ZHANG3, Li-Ming JIA1, Zhong-Kui JIA1, Ben-Ye XI1,**()   

  1. 1Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Silviculture and Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China

    2Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huaihe River Water Environmental and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007, China

    3Henan Vocational College of Agriculture, Zhengzhou 451450, China
  • Online:2016-08-23 Published:2016-08-10
  • Contact: Jin-Qiang LIU,Zhi-Guo CAO,Huan-Huan LIU,Ben-Ye XI E-mail:benyexi@bjfu.edu.cn

Abstract:

Aims On the basis of conventional cleaning method (washing + brushing), this study aims to verify the effect of ultrasonic cleaning on quantitative evaluation of particulate matters with various particle sizes retained on tree leaves, and further to investigate the size distribution and retention efficiency of these particulate matters, which will help to improve the accuracy of quantitative assessment of the retention ability of urban trees to atmospheric particles. Methods Ginkgo biloba and Pinus tabuliformis as examples of broadleaf and conifer species, leaf samples were collected 4 days (short dust retention period) and 14 days (long dust retention period) after the rain (rainfall >15 mm), and then particles retained on these leaves were collected by the means of washing (WC), brushing (BC) and ultrasonic cleaning (UC). Further, the quality and size distribution of the particulate matters eluted at each wash step were determined to assess the retention efficiency of tree leaves to particulate matter with various particle sizes. Important findings Taking the result of “washing + brushing + ultrasonic cleaning” process as a reference, with only washing process, the retention amount of PM1 (particulate diameter d ≤ 1 µm), PM2.5 (d ≤ 2.5 µm), PM5 (d ≤ 5 µm) and PM10 (d ≤ 10 µm) on G. biloba and P. tabuliformis leaves would be underestimated by around 50% (54%, 53%, 53% and 53%) and 40% (42%, 42%, 42% and 42%), respectively; under washing and brushing protocols, the dust retention capacity of G. biloba and P. tabuliformis were still undervalued by about 15% (17%, 16%, 15% and 15%) and 20% (21%, 20%, 20% and 20%), respectively. Size distribution of particulate matters retained on P. tabuliformis showed bimodal curves, whereas the particulate matters retained on G. biloba exhibited unimodal size distribution. However, the average particle size of particulate matters on G. biloba leaves were greater than that on P. tabuliformis leaves in both short (G. biloba: 1.68 μm; P. tabuliformis: 1.16 μm) and long (G. biloba: 1.51 μm; P. tabuliformis: 1.19 μm) dust retention periods. The retention efficiency of P. tabuliformis to PM1, PM2.5, PM5, PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 8.96, 23.92, 23.96, 23.96 and 23.96 mg·m-2·d-1, respectively, higher than that of G. biloba by 112%, 73%, 34%, 37% and 42%, respectively.

Key words: particulate matter, retention efficiency, diameter distribution, ultrasonic cleaning

Fig. 1

The structure of the up (A) and below surfaces (B) of Ginkgo biloba, and the structure of the concave (C) and bulge surfaces (D) of Pinus tabuliformis."

Fig. 2

The proportion of particulate matter (PM) retained on leaves experienced for a short (A, C, E, G) and long (B, D, F, H) time of Ginkgo biloba (A-D) and Pinus tabuliformis (E-H) after rain."

Fig. 3

Diameter distribution of PM retained on leaves of Ginkgo biloba and Pinus tabuliformis experienced for a short and long time after rain."

Fig. 4

The quality of PM with different diameter retained on leaves of Ginkgo biloba and Pinus tabuliformis experienced for a short (A) and long time (B) after rain (mean ± SE)."

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