Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (6): 670-682.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0287

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Characteristics and partitioning of ozone dry deposition measured by eddy-covariance technology in a winter wheat field

Jing-Xin XU1, You-Fei ZHENG1,2,*(), Bo-Ru MAI3, Hui ZHAO2, Zhong-Fang CHU2, Ji-Qing HUANG2, Yue YUAN2   

  1. 1Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China;

    2Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China;
    3Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Numerical Weather Prediction, China Meteorological Administration, Guangzhou 510080, China
  • Received:2017-02-28 Accepted:2016-09-13 Online:2017-07-19 Published:2017-06-10
  • Contact: You-Fei ZHENG
  • About author:

    KANG Jing-yao(1991-), E-mail:


Aims Anthropogenic pollutants cause an increase in ground-level ozone concentration, which is a known threat to plant growth and yield and has been extensively observed worldwide. Since ozone is only slightly soluble in water, it is deposited mainly through dry deposition in terrestrial ecosystem. The object of this study was to analyze the characteristics of ozone dry deposition and to estimate the contribution of stomatal and non-stomatal ozone deposition pathways to total ozone deposition in a winter wheat field.Methods The research site was a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) field located in Yongfeng experimental station of Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology. The data used in this study were collected from March 16, 2016 to May 30, 2016. We observed ozone dry deposition with an eddy-covariance system. This system mainly included a 3D sonic anemometer, an open-path infrared absorption spectrometer, a fast-response ozone chemiluminescent analyzer and a slow-response ozone monitor. We simultaneously measured meteorological data including solar radiation (SR), air temperature (T), air relativity humidity (RH), wind speed, net radiation, and rainfall. All raw data were recorded with data-logger and averaged every 30 min.Important findings Half hourly means of ozone concentrations (CO3), ozone flux (FO3) and ozone dry deposition velocity (Vd) in the winter wheat field were 32.9 nL·L-1, -5.09 nmol·m-2·s-1, 0.39 cm·s-1, and the ranges of them were 16-58 nL·L-1, -2.9- -11.7 nmol·m-2·s-1, 0.17-0.63 cm·s-1, respectively. FO3 and CO3/Vd were found to be mismatched with phase peaks occurring at different time intervals. The ecosystem was more effective on ozone dry deposition, under conditions of moderate to high SR (SR ≥ 400 W·m-2), moderate T and humility (T = 18 °C and RH > 40%). The relationship between Vdmax and SR was this function (y = 1.06 -exp (-0.0094 - x)). Vdmax increased with SR When SR < 400 W·m-2, and Vdmax reached its maximum when SR =400 W·m-2. Vdmax maintained its maximum when SR ≥ 400 W·m-2. The relationship between Vdmax and T was “bell” curve (y = 1.06 - (x - 18)2/169). Vdmax reached its maximum when T = 18 °C. Vdmax decreased with RH when RH < 40 % (y = 0.030x - 0.106). The variation of Vd might uncertainty when RH was high. There was a liner positive relationship between friction velocity (u*) and Vd, but this relationship was not significant. The mean day-to-day and daytime contributions of stomatal and non-stomatal ozone deposition pathway to total ozone deposition were 32%, 68% and 42%, 58%, respectively, during the whole experimental period.

Key words: eddy-covariance technology, ozone dry deposition, ozone flux, winter wheat field, stomatal ozone deposition pathway, non-stomatal ozone deposition pathway

Fig. 1

Scheme of ozone dry deposition system. 1, 3D sonic anemometer; 2, 3, gas sampling head; 4, 5, Teflon pipe; 6, 7, 8, 3-way valve; 9, pressure sensor; 10, fast-response ozone chemiluminescent analyzer; 11, flow controller; 12, buffer bottle; 13, auxiliary sampling pump; 14, slow-response (ultraviolet absorption) ozone monitor; 15, 4 L sampling pump; 16, data collection system."

Fig. 2

Relationship between (sensible heat flux (H) + latent heat flux (LE)) and (net radiation flux (Rn)-soil heat flux (G)) of the Yongfeng site."

Fig. 3

Half hourly arithmetic means of solar radiation (SR), air temperature (T), air relative humility (RH), ozone concentration (CO3), ozone flux (FO3), ozone dry deposition velocity (Vd) and friction velocity (u*) during the whole experimental period."

Fig. 4

Boundary-line (A, B, C) and linear (D) analysis of relationships between solar radiation (SR)(A), air temperature (T)(B), air relative humility (RH)(C), friction velocity (u*)(D) and ozone dry deposition velocity (Vd) during the whole experimental period (including daytime and nighttime)."


Fig. 6

Canopy stomatal conductance for ozone estimated by the Penman-Monteith equation (Gsto1) vs gross primary production (GPP) when RH < 60%."

Fig. 7

Time series of canopy stomatal conductance for ozone (Gsto) and leaf area index (LAI) during the whole experimental period."

Fig. 8

Day-to-day contribution of different ozone dry deposition pathways to total ozone deposition and the rainfall during the whole experimental period."

Fig. 9

Daily contribution of different ozone dry deposition pathways to total ozone deposition."

Table 1

Comparison of measurements by gradient and eddy-covariance technique"

观测方法 Measurement method 下垫面
Underlying surface
Observation time
气象因子 Meteorlogical factor O3干沉降数据 Ozone dry deposition data
SR (W·m-2) RH (%) FO3 (nmol·m-2·s-1) Vd (cm·s-1)
梯度法 Gradient 冬小麦
Winter wheat
April-May, 2013
267 56 -7.29 0.55
涡度相关法 Eddy-covariance 2016年3-5月
March-May, 2016
165.9 61.70 -5.09 0.39
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