Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (7): 738-748.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2017.0088

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Age of arboreous Tamarix austromongolica and its growth response to environment in Tongde County of Qinghai, China

Ou-Ya FANG1,*(), Heng-Feng JIA2, Hong-Yan QIU1, Hai-Bao REN1   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    2College of Biology and Pharmacy, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002, China
  • Received:2017-04-02 Accepted:2017-06-16 Online:2017-08-21 Published:2017-07-10
  • Contact: Ou-Ya FANG
  • About author:

    KANG Jing-yao(1991-), E-mail:


Aims The objectives were to identify the age of the arboreous Tamarix austromongolica in the flood plain area of the Qinghai Plateau and clarify the response patterns of T. austromongolica’s growth to the environmental factors. We focused on social issues about whether the T. austromongolica should be protected and how to protect in the reservoir area of a hydropower station. Methods In this study, arboreous T. austromongolica in both reservoir submerged and non-submerged areas were sampled and measured based on the dendrochronology method. The ages were estimated based on the geometrical characteristics of the pith and the identified age of the inner ring. The correlation and response analysis showed the relationship between T. austromongolica’s growth and environmental factors. Important findings We accurately determined the age and historical growth dynamics of the T. austromongolica with large diameter at breast height (DBH). The results showed a special accretion phenomenon in arboreous T. austromongolica, which accelerated the DBH increasing, i.e. no direct relationship existed between the plants’ DBH and ages of the individuals. Radial growth of T. austromongolica, increased rapidly in the 1970s and 1980s and began to stabilize in the late 1980s, and mainly responded to the runoff in July and August of the Yellow River. Increasing runoff would promote the radial growth of T. austromongolica. The growth of the immaturate plant showed significant negative correlation with the wind speed in the growing season. The results will be of theoretical significance to the formation of the special morphology of the T. austromongolica, and will provide scientific practical guidance in designing the protection schemes.

Key words: Tamarix austromongolica, arboreous, tree ring, runoff, wind speed

Fig. 1

Sampling sites of Tamarix austromongolica in Tongde, Qinghai."

Table 1

Ages of sampling Tamarix austromongolica in Tongde County"

样本号 Sample ID 胸径 DBH (cm) 年龄1) Age1) 最小年龄2)
Minimum age2)
样本号 Sample ID 胸径 DBH (cm) 年龄1) Age 1) 最小年龄2)
Minimum age2)
RG-X01 23.2 28 RG-X27 28.0 25
RG-X02 24.8 36 RG-X28 20.4 23
RG-X03 28.6 34 RG-X29 22.6 22
RG-X04 31.2 35 RG-X30 21.3 19
RG-X05A 132.1 86 RG-X31 21.6 15
RG-X05B 132.1 42 393) RG-X32A 33.7 19
RG-X05C 132.1 31 RG-X33 19.2 22
RG-X05D 132.1 64 RG-X34 25.5 23
RG-X05E 132.1 35 RG-X35 29.6
RG-X06A 105.0 18 RG-X36 36.3 28
RG-X06B 105.0 35 RG-X37 49.7 40
RG-X07 51.3 40 RG-P38 19.7 30
RG-X08 31.5 48 RG-P39 18.5 27
RG-X09A 37.9 28 RG-P40 18.1 39
RG-X10 35.7 32 RG-P41 57.6 115
RG-X11A 104.4 19 BD-X01A 42.3 28
RG-X12A 98.4 39 BD-X02 28.0 24
RG-X13A 69.7 58 BD-X03 29.3 23
RG-X14A 63.0 32 BD-X04 17.2 20
RG-X15A 107.3 86 BD-X05 33.1 52
RG-X16 58.3 86 BD-X06A 89.4 40
RG-X17 43.6 29 BD-X07A 63.0 41
RG-X18 38.2 78 BD-X08A 39.5 41
RG-X19 49.3 23 BD-X09A 65.1 39
RG-X20 37.9 20 BD-X10 45.8 46
RG-X21 42.7 33 BD-X11 30.9 54
RG-X22 28.3 22 BD-X12 37.6 46
RG-X23 26.7 21 BD-X13 22.6 52
RG-X24A 111.7 34 BD-X14 29.0 56
RG-X25A 59.2 24 BD-X15 32.8 45
RG-X26 25.5 24 BD-P16 19.4 38

Fig. 2

Tree ring standard chronologies of Tamarix austromongolicas. BD, Banduo Village; RG, Ranguo Village."

Fig. 3

Correlation and response relationship of Tamarix austromongolica growth to monthly runoff and wind in Banduo Village. Left for the relationship between growth and runoff; Right for the relationship between growth and wind. p in the abscissa indicates the month of the previous year, and the error bars show the 95% confidence intervals."

Fig. 4

Correlation and response relationship of Tamarix austromongolica growth to monthly runoff and wind in Ranguo Village. Left for the relationship between growth and runoff; Right for the relationship between growth and wind. p in the abscissa indicates the month of the previous year, and the error bars show the 95% confidence intervals."

Fig. 5

Moving correlation between Tamarix austromongolica growth and monthly runoff. The values represented by the different colors show the different correlation coefficients."

Fig. 6

Moving correlation between Tamarix austromongolica growth and monthly wind speed. The values represented by the different colors show the different correlation coefficients."

[1] Babst F, Poulter B, Trouet V, Tan K, Neuwirth B, Wilson R, Carrer M, Grabner M, Tegel W, Levanic T (2013). Site- and species-specific responses of forest growth to climate across the European continent.Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22, 706-717.
[2] Biondi F, Waikul K (2004). DENDROCLIM2002: A C++ program for statistical calibration of climate signals in tree- ring chronologies.Computers & Geosciences, 30, 303-311.
[3] Birken AS, Cooper DJ (2006). Processes of Tamarix invasion and floodplain development along the lower Green River, Utah.Ecological Applications, 16, 1103-1120.
[4] Bowman DMJS, Brienen RJW, Gloor E, Phillips OL, Prior LD (2013). Detecting trends in tree growth: Not so simple.Trends in Plant Science, 18, 11-17.
[5] Brotherson JD, Carman JG, Szyska LA (1984). Stem-diameter age relationships of Tamarix ramosissima in central Utah.Journal of Range Management, 37, 362-364.
[6] China Weekly (2016). Life and death robbery of Qinghai ancient Tamarix forest. . Cited: 2017-03-12. (in Chinese)[中国周刊 (2016). 青海古柽柳林生死劫. . Cited: 2017-03-12.]
[7] Fang OY, Wang Y, Shao XM (2016). The effect of climate on the net primary productivity (NPP) of Pinus koraiensis in the Changbai Mountains over the past 50 years.Trees, 30, 281-294.
[8] Friedman JM, Vincent KR, Shafroth PB (2005). Dating floodplain sediments using tree-ring response to burial.Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 30, 1077-1091.
[9] Frumkin A (2009). Stable isotopes of a subfossil tamarix tree from the dead sea region, israel, and their implications for the intermediate bronze age environmental crisis.Quaternary Research, 71, 319-328.
[10] Gao LL, Gou XH, Deng Y, Yang MX, Zhang F (2017). Assessing the influences of tree species, elevation and climate on tree-ring growth in the Qilian Mountains of northwest China.Trees, 31, 393-404.
[11] Gou XH, Chen FH, Cook E, Jacoby G, Yang MX, Li JB (2007). Streamflow variations of the Yellow River over the past 593 years in western China reconstructed from tree rings.Water Resources Research, 43, W06434. doi: 10.1029/2006WR005705.
[12] Gou XH, Deng Y, Gao LL, Chen FH, Cook E, Yang MX, Zhang F (2015). Millennium tree-ring reconstruction of drought variability in the eastern Qilian Mountains, northwest China.Climate Dynamics, 45, 1761-1770.
[13] Guo JH, Zeng FJ, Li CJ, Zhang B (2014). Root architecture and ecological adaptation strategies in three shelterbelt plant species in the southern Taklimakan Desert.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 38, 36-44. (in Chinese with English abstract)[郭京衡, 曾凡江, 李尝君, 张波 (2014). 塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘三种防护林植物根系构型及其生态适应策略. 植物生态学报, 38, 36-44.]
[14] Haigh SL (1998). Stem diameter-age relationships of Tamarix ramosissima on lake shore and stream sites in southern Nevada.The Southwestern Naturalist, 43, 425-429.
[15] Holmes RL (1983). Computer-assisted quality control in tree- ring dating and measurement.Tree-Ring Bulletin, 43, 69-78.
[16] Horton JL, Clark JL (2001). Water table decline alters growth and survival of Salix gooddingii and Tamarix chinensis seedlings.Forest Ecology and Management, 140, 239-247.
[17] Hou JW, Haimit Y, Ye M (2015). The sensitivity of ring width of Tamarix ramosissina to lake level of the Bosten Lake.Journal of Desert Research, 35, 667-673. (in Chinese with English abstract)[侯佳文, 海米提·依米提, 叶茂 (2015). 博斯腾湖滨柽柳(Tamarix ramosissina)生长对湖水位的敏感性. 中国沙漠, 35, 667-673.]
[18] Jiang J, Gao HF (1992). A study on drought resistant ordination of Tamarix L.Arid Zone Research, 9(4), 41-45. (in Chinese with English abstract)[蒋进, 高海峰 (1992). 柽柳属植物抗旱性排序研究. 干旱区研究, 9(4), 41-45.]
[19] Li MQ, Shao XM, Yin ZY, Xu XG (2015). Tree-ring dating of the reshui-1 tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, north-west China.PLOS ONE, 10, e0133438. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133438.
[20] Li YJ, Fang KY, Cao CF, Li DW, Zhou FF, Dong ZP, Zhang Y, Gan ZF (2016). A tree-ring chronology spanning 210 years in the coastal area of southeastern China, and its relationship with climate change.Climate Research, 67, 209-220.
[21] Lipp J, Trimborn P, Edwards T, Waisel Y, Yakir D (1996). Climatic effects on the δ18O and δ13C of cellulose in the desert tree Tamarix jordanis.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, 3305-3309.
[22] Liu GJ, Zhang XM, Li XR, Wei J, Shan LS (2008). The adaptation of the Tamarix root to the windy environment.Chinese Science Bulletin, 53, 147-150. (in Chinese)[刘国军, 张希明, 李晓荣, 魏疆, 单立山 (2008). 塔克拉玛干柽柳的根对多风环境的适应. 科学通报, 53, 147-150.]
[23] Norton D, Palmer J, Ogden J (1987). Dendroecological studies in new zealand 1. An evaluation of tree age estimates based on increment cores.New Zealand Journal of Botany, 25, 373-383.
[24] Qin L, Yuan YJ, Zhang RB, Wei WS, Yu SL, Fan Z, Chen F, Zhang TW, Shang HM (2016). Tree-ring response to snow cover and reconstruction of century annual maximum snow depth for northern Tianshan Mountains, China.Geochronometria, 43, 9-17.
[25] Rohner B, Weber P, Thürig E (2016). Bridging tree rings and forest inventories: How climate effects on spruce and beech growth aggregate over time.Forest Ecology and Management, 360, 159-169.
[26] Shao XM, Wang SZ, Xu Y, Zhu HF, Xu XG, Xiao YM (2007). A 3500-year master tree-ring dating chronology from the northeastern part of the Qaidam Basin.Quaternary Sciences, 27, 477-485. (in Chinese with English abstract)[邵雪梅, 王树芝, 徐岩, 朱海峰, 许新国, 肖永民 (2007). 柴达木盆地东北部3500年树轮定年年表的初步建立. 第四纪研究, 27, 477-485.]
[27] Wang H, Yang Z, Saito Y, Liu JP, Sun X (2006). Interannual and seasonal variation of the Huanghe (Yellow River) water discharge over the past 50 years: Connections to impacts from ENSO events and dams.Global and Planetary Change, 50, 212-225.
[28] Wang XC, Zhang MH, Ji Y, Li Zongshan, Li M, Zhang YD (2017). Temperature signals in tree-ring width and divergent growth of Korean pine response to recent climate warming in northeast Asia.Trees, 31, 415-427.
[29] Wang XM, Zhang CX, Zhang JW, Hua T, Lang LL, Zhang XY, Wang L (2010). Nebkha formation: Implications for reconstructing environmental changes over the past several centuries in the Ala Shan Plateau, China.Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 297, 697-706.
[30] Wu YH (2012). I am sad for the wild Tamarix in Qinghai. . Cited: 2017-03-12. (in Chinese)[吴玉虎 (2012). 我为青海野生古柽柳悲哀. . Cited: 2017.3.12.]
[31] Xia JB, Zhao XM, Chen YP, Fang Y, Zhao ZG (2016). Responses of water and salt parameters to groundwater levels for soil columns planted with Tamarix chinensis.PLOS ONE, 11, e0145828. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145828.
[32] Xiao SC, Peng XM, Tian QY (2016). Climatic and human drivers of recent lake-level change in east Juyan Lake, China.Regional Environmental Change, 16, 1063-1073.
[33] Xiao SC, Xiao HL (2006). Response of radial growth of lakeshore tamarisk to changes in the water environment in extreme and arid regions.Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 28(2), 39-45. (in Chinese with English abstract)[肖生春, 肖洪浪 (2006). 极端干旱区湖岸柽柳径向生长对水环境演变的响应. 北京林业大学学报, 28(2), 39-45.]
[34] Xiao SC, Xiao HL, Peng XM, Tian QY (2014). Intra-annual stem diameter growth of Tamarix ramosissima and association with hydroclimatic factors in the lower reaches of China’s Heihe River.Journal of Arid Land, 6, 498-510.
[35] Xiao SC, Xiao HL, Si JH, Liu FM (2005). Growth characteristics of Tamarix ramosissima in arid regions of China.Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 25, 1012-1016. (in Chinese with English abstract)[肖生春, 肖洪浪, 司建华, 刘发民 (2005). 干旱区多枝柽柳的生长特性. 西北植物学报, 25, 1012-1016.]
[36] Xiao SC, Xiao HL, Zhou MS, Si JH, Zhang XY (2004). Water level change of the West Juyan Lake in the past 100 years recorded in the tree ring of the shrubs in the lake banks.Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 26, 557-562. (in Chinese with English abstract)[肖生春, 肖洪浪, 周茂先, 司建华, 张小由 (2004). 近百年来西居延海湖泊水位变化的湖岸林树轮记录. 冰川冻土, 26, 557-562.]
[37] Xinhua News Agency (2016). Wild Tamarix forest facing submerged in Tongde Qinghai, site protection or transplant? . Cited: 2017-03-01. (in Chinese)[新华社 (2016). 青海同德野生柽柳林面临被淹没, 原址保护还是移植? . Cited: 2017-03-01.]
[38] Yang W, Spencer RJ, Krouse HR (1996). Stable sulfur isotope hydrogeochemical studies using desert shrubs and tree rings, Death Valley, California, USA.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, 3015-3022.
[39] Yang WK, Zhang DY, Yin LK, Zhang LY (2002). Distribution and cluster analysis on the similarity of the Tamarix communities in Xinjiang.Arid Zone Research, 19(3), 6-11. (in Chinese with English abstract)[杨维康, 张道远, 尹林克, 张立运 (2002). 新疆柽柳属植物(Tamarix L.)的分布与群落相似性聚类分析. 干旱区研究, 19(3), 6-11.]
[40] Yin Z-Y, Li MQ, Zhang Y, Shao XM (2016). Growth-climate relationships along an elevation gradient on a southeast- facing mountain slope in the semi-arid eastern Qaidam Basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau.Trees, 30, 1095-1109.
[41] Yuan GF, Zhang P, Xue SS, Zhuang W (2012). Change characteristics in soil water content in root zone and evidence of root hydraulic lift in Tamarix ramossissima thickets on sand dunes.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 36, 1033-1042. (in Chinese with English abstract)[袁国富, 张佩, 薛沙沙, 庄伟 (2012). 沙丘多枝柽柳灌丛根层土壤含水量变化特征与根系水力提升证据. 植物生态学报, 36, 1033-1042.]
[42] Zhang JC, Yao T, Liu CZ, Liu SZ, Sun T, Yuan HB, Tang JN, Ding F, Li XM, Liu R (2014). Climate environmental change and stable carbon isotopes in age layers of Tamarix sand-hillocks in Kumtag Desert.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 34, 943-952. (in Chinese with English abstract)[张锦春, 姚拓, 刘长仲, 刘世增, 孙涛, 袁宏波, 唐进年, 丁峰, 李学敏, 刘瑞 (2014). 库姆塔格柽柳沙包年层稳定碳同位素与气候环境变化. 生态学报, 34, 943-952.]
[43] Zhang QB, Evans MN, Lyu LX (2015). Moisture dipole over the Tibetan Plateau during the past five and a half centuries.Nature Communications, 6, 8062.
[44] Zhu XC, Yuan GF, Shao MA, Yi XB, Du T (2015). Spatial pattern of riparian vegetation in desert of the lower Tarim River Basin.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 39, 1053-1061. (in Chinese with English abstract)[朱绪超, 袁国富, 邵明安, 易小波, 杜涛 (2015). 塔里木河下游河岸带植被的空间结构特征. 植物生态学报, 39, 1053-1061.]
[1] Gou Xiaoxia, Ye Mao, Wang Liangliang, Gou Xiaohong. Response of Radial Growth of Populus euphratica to Runoff in the Tarim River [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2018, 53(6): 801-811.
[2] YU Jian,XU Qian-Qian,LIU Wen-Hui,LUO Chun-Wang,YANG Jun-Long,LI Jun-Qing,LIU Qi-Jing. Response of radial growth to climate change for Larix olgensis along an altitudinal gradient on the eastern slope of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2016, 40(1): 24-35.
[3] ZHU Liang-Jun,JIN Guang-Ze,WANG Xiao-Chun. Reconstruction of disturbance history of a typical broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest and mechanisms of disturbance occurrence [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2015, 39(2): 125-139.
[4] YANG Fei, YANG Ji-Hua, AI Zhao, ZHANG Guo-Qing, and HU Jian-Peng. Microclimate characteristics in shelterbelt of tea garden in coastal hilly region of eastern Shandong, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2014, 38(11): 1205-1213.
[5] ZHANG Yuan-Dong, LIU Yan-Chun, LIU Shi-Rong, and ZHANG Xiao-He. Dynamics of stand biomass and volume of the tree layer in forests with different restoration approaches based on tree-ring analysis [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2012, 36(2): 117-125.
[6] SHANG Zhi-Yuan, WANG Jian, CUI Ming-Xing, and CHEN Zhen-Ju. Intra-annual variation in δ13C from tree rings of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and its response to climatic factors [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2012, 36(12): 1256-1267.
[7] LI Guang-Qi, BAI Fan, SANG Wei-Guo. Different responses of radial growth to climate warming in Pinus koraiensis and Picea jezoensis var. komarovii at their upper elevational limits in Changbai Mountain, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2011, 35(5): 500-511.
[8] WANG Xiao-Chun, SONG Lai-Ping, ZHANG Yuan-Dong. Climate-tree growth relationships of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in the northern Daxing’an Mountains, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2011, 35(3): 294-302.
[9] LI Zong-Shan, LIU Guo-Hua, ZHANG Qi-Bing, HU Chan-Juan, LUO Shu-Zheng, LIU Xing-Liang, HE Fei. Tree ring reconstruction of summer temperature variations over the past 159 years in Wolong National Natural Reserve, western Sichuan, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2010, 34(6): 628-641.
[11] DENG Zi-Wang, QIAN Jun-Long, TU Qi-Pu, PU Pei-Min, HUANG Chun-Pu, KE Shan-Zhe, HUANG Yao-Sheng, TANG Jin-Song, KE Xiao-Kang. Effects of Environmental Factors on Azimuth Distribution in Cryptomeria Tree Rings in [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2003, 27(1): 93-98.
[12] LIU Shi-Rong, SUN Peng-Sen, WEN Yuan-Guang. Comparative Analysis of Hydrological Functions of Major Forest Ecosystems in China(in English) [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2003, 27(1): 16-22.
[13] LIANG Er-Yuan, SHAO Xu-Mei, HU Yu-Xi, LIN Jin-Xing. Variation in Tree Ring Growth Indices of Picea meyeri from the Sandy Land in the Steppe of Inner Mongolia [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2001, 25(2): 190-194.
[14] SHEN Wei-Jun, Peng Shao-Lin, ZHOU Guo-Yi, LIN Yong-Biao, REN Hai. Hydrological Properties And Water Balance of Grassland Ecosystem in Heshan Hill Region [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2000, 24(2): 162-168.
[15] Jiang Gaoming, Huang Yinxiao, Wan Guojiang, Chen Yiecai, Geng Longnian, Zeng Yiqiang, Wang Hongwei. A Study on the δ13C Values of Tree Rings and Their Indicative Functions in Revealing Atmospheric CO2 Changes in North China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1997, 21(2): 155-160.
Full text



[1] DAI Se-Ping BAO Man-Zhu①. Advances in Genetics and Breeding of Petunia hybrida Vilm.[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2004, 21(04): 385 -391 .
[2] MA Dong-Ming XU Shu-Lian ZHAI Zhi-Xi GUO Yu-Hai. In vitro Seed Germination and Haustorium Formation of a Parasitic Medicinal Plant: Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2005, 22(01): 39 -43 .
[3] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 47 .
[4] Tong Ouyang;Yancheng Jiang*;Qifu Luan;Caixia Wang. Characters of Crossing of Botanical Tulipa Species from Xinjiang and Tulipa gesneriana Cultivars[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2008, 25(06): 656 -664 .
[5] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 68 .
[6] Xie De-yu;Ye He-chun and Li Guo-feng. The Progress of Artemisia annua Research - The Application of Biotechnology and prospects[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(04): 28 -31 .
[7] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(专辑): 20 -21 .
[8] WANG Qing LI Yan CHEN Chen. A Newly Recorded Species of Verbena Linn. in China[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2005, 22(01): 32 -34 .
[9] LI Jun-Hua ZHANG Yan-Chun XU Yun-Yuan CHONG Kang WANG Hui. Modification of Indoor Culture Techniques for Arabidopsis thaliana[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2004, 21(02): 201 -204 .
[10] Huang Fu-rui;He Tian-fu;Shen Zhao-min;Jiang Zun-he and Loo Pei-ren. Study on Effect of Sesbomia Grown in Citrus Orchard[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1985, 3(02): 37 -38 .