Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (2): 229-239.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2017.0218

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effect of Pb pollution on the growth, biomass allocation and photosynthesis of Phragmites australis in flood and drought environment

ZHANG Na1,2,3,ZHU Yang-Chun1,LI Zhi-Qiang5,LU Xin1,FAN Ru-Qin1,LIU Li-Zhu1,TONG Fei1,CHEN Jing3,MU Chun-Sheng4,*(),ZHANG Zhen-Hua1,*()   

  1. 1Institute of Agricultural Resource and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China

    2Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China

    3Key Laboratory for Palygorskite Science and Applied Technology of Jiangsu Province, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai’an, Jiangsu 223003, China;

    4Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Grassland Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China

    5Institution of Climate Change and Public Polices, School of Public Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
  • Online:2018-04-16 Published:2018-02-20
  • Contact: Chun-Sheng MU,Zhen-Hua ZHANG E-mail: Zhang ZH, zhenhuaz70@hotmail.com; Mu CS,mucs821@nenu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.(2017M621670);the National Basic Research Program of China.(2017M621670);the Agricultural Science and Technology Independent Innovation Fund of Jiangsu Province.(CX(16)1051)

Abstract:

Aims Reed (Phragmites australis) is a typical perennial rhizomatic plant with extensive tolerance to environmental stress. In order to better understand the adaptation and tolerance of reeds subjected to heavy metal pollution in different levels of water, we conducted a study on the effects of Pb pollution on growth, biomass and photosynthesis of reeds in flood and drought environment. This research would provide theoretical basis for application of reeds in wetland restoration and remediation.

Methods We conducted a pot experiment with destructive sampling after 90 days of growth. The water treatments were main plot, including two water levels. The Pb treatments were secondary plot (nested within water treatments), including five levels (0, 500, 1 500, 3 000, 4 500 mg·kg-1). There were 10 treatments with 12 replicates per treatment.

Important findings In the flood environment, Pb pollution significantly inhibited the growth of buds and rhizomes, but had no significant effect on the number of offspring shoots. The offspring shoots had higher growth rate per day, net photosynthetic rate and biomass compared to the parent shoots. In the drought environment, Pb pollution inhibited the growth of roots, buds and rhizomes, and biomass accumulation of parent and offspring shoots as well as photosynthetic parameters. These parameters were lower under the drought condition than in the flood environment. The Pb was mostly concentrated in roots compared to rhizomes and offspring shoots. In both flood and drought environments, the concentration of Pb in parent shoots was about three times of that in offspring shoots. The Pb concentration in offspring shoots under the flood condition was less than that in the drought environment. Overall, these results indicated that the synergistic effect of Pb and drought significantly inhibited the growth, biomass accumulation and photosynthesis of reeds, which might result in reduced offspring productivity and population density and may lead to population decline. However, the flooded reeds could adopt some strategies of Pb allocation to alleviate the negative effect of Pb on the growth, physiology and clonal propagation, benefiting the population reproduction and stabilization.

Key words: Pb pollution, water, growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis

Table 1

Results of Repeated-measures and two-way ANOVA of the effect of Pb and water stress on growth of mother and daughter shoots of Phragmites australis"

重复测量分析 Repeated measure (p)

Pb

Water
铅 × 水
Pb × water
时间
Time
时间 × 铅
Time × Pb
时间 × 水
Time × Water
时间 × 铅 × 水
Time × Pb × Water
母株生长 Growth of parent shoot
茎长 Stem length< 0.001< 0.001< 0.01< 0.001< 0.01< 0.001< 0.001
叶片死亡数 No. of dead leaves0.366< 0.001< 0.05< 0.001< 0.001< 0.001< 0.05
子株生长 Growth of offspring shoot
茎长 Stem length< 0.001< 0.001< 0.001< 0.001< 0.001< 0.001< 0.001
叶片死亡数 No. of dead leaves0.168< 0.0010.913< 0.001< 0.05< 0.0010.742
生长指标 Growth parameters双因素方差分析 Two-way AVONA
铅 Pb水 Water铅×水 Pb × water
FpFpFp
母株叶片死亡率 Leaf mortality in parent shoots2.4960.0542.4610.1270.9320.459
子株叶片死亡率 Leaf mortality in offspring shoots7.086< 0.0012.1850.1504.353< 0.01

Table 2

The effects of Pb on the growth of parent shoots of Phragmites australis grown in flood and dry environment after 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment (mean ± SE, n = 40)"

水分
Water level
处理时间
Treatment time (d)
指标
Parameter
铅处理浓度 Pb concentration of treatments (mg·kg-1)
对照 Control5001 5003 0004 500
淹水 Flood30PSL (cm)18.13 ± 0.81a16.64 ± 0.75ab15.54 ± 0.40b13.10 ± 0.52c13.24 ± 0.29c
PDLN (No.)1.28 ± 0.05b1.54 ± 0.12ab1.73 ± 0.11a1.90 ± 0.06a1.84 ± 0.13a
PGR (cm·d-1)0.44 ± 0.03a0.39 ± 0.02ab0.35 ± 0.01b0.27 ± 0.02c0.28 ± 0.01c
60PSL (cm)23.86 ± 0.83a22.34 ± 1.52ab22.71 ± 0.72ab19.22 ± 1.04b18.17 ± 0.54b
PDLN (No.)3.57 ± 0.15b3.65 ± 0.22b4.38 ± 0.14a4.50 ± 0.24a4.56 ± 0.08a
PGR (cm·d-1)0.19 ± 0.02a0.19 ± 0.03a0.24 ± 0.01a0.21 ± 0.04a0.16 ± 0.02a
90PSL (cm)26.00 ± 0.96a24.03 ± 1.84a24.21 ± 0.97a22.80 ± 0.57a21.68 ± 1.20a
PDLN (No.)7.02 ± 0.06a6.59 ± 0.43a6.61 ± 0.22a6.80 ± 0.16a6.43 ± 0.15a
PGR (cm·d-1)0.07 ± 0.03a0.06 ± 0.01a0.05 ± 0.01a0.12 ± 0.04a0.12 ± 0.03a
干旱 Drought30PSL (cm)12.17 ± 0.88a*11.90 ± 0.73a*9.30 ± 0.37b*7.87 ± 0.36b*7.72 ± 0.42b*
PDLN (No.)1.64 ± 0.06c*2.08 ± 0.15b*2.13 ± 0.05ab*2.18 ± 0.10ab*2.42 ± 0.17a*
PGR (cm·d-1)0.24 ± 0.03a*0.23 ± 0.02a*0.15 ± 0.01b*0.10 ± 0.01b*0.09 ± 0.01b*
60PSL (cm)17.30 ± 0.54a*15.06 ± 0.89b*11.15 ± 0.57c*9.09 ± 0.42d*7.58 ± 0.61d*
PDLN (No.)2.60 ± 0.04b3.19 ± 0.27a*3.33 ± 0.12a*3.51 ± 0.17a*3.65 ± 0.15a*
PGR (cm·d-)0.17 ± 0.03a0.11 ± 0.01b*0.06 ± 0.01bc*0.04 ± 0.00c*0.02 ± 0.01c*
90PSL (cm)20.29 ± 0.94a*18.14 ± 0.74a*13.61 ± 0.94b*9.43 ± 0.10c*8.31 ± 0.53c*
PDLN (No.)7.32 ± 0.16a5.46 ± 0.15b*4.82 ± 0.13bc*4.73 ± 0.34bc*4.08 ± 0.36c*
PGR (cm·d-1)0.10 ± 0.02a0.10 ± 0.03a0.08 ± 0.03ab0.02 ± 0.01b0.03 ± 0.01b*

Table 3

The effects of Pb on the growth of offspring shoots of Phragmites australis grown in flood and dry environment after 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment (means ± SE, n = 40)"

水分
Water level
处理时间
Treatment time (d)
指标
Parameter
铅处理浓度 Pb concentration of treatments (mg·kg-1)
对照 Control5001 5003 0004 500
淹水 Flood30OSL (cm)15.08 ± 0.88a13.20 ± 0.99ab11.28 ± 0.95b8.42 ± 0.26c7.92 ± 0.35c
ODLN (No.)0.27 ± 0.09a0.28 ± 0.05a0.06 ± 0.03b0.06 ± 0.03b0.00 ± 0.00b
OGR (cm·d-1)0.76 ± 0.05a0.66 ± 0.05ab0.57 ± 0.05b0.42 ± 0.01c0.40 ± 0.02c
60OSL (cm)31.06 ± 0.37a30.08 ± 0.42a28.53 ± 0.77a20.12 ± 0.73b15.24 ± 0.83c
ODLN (No.)1.49 ± 0.10a1.50 ± 0.17a1.74 ± 0.34a1.82 ± 0.20a1.96 ± 0.22a
OGR (cm·d-1)0.53 ± 0.03a0.57 ± 0.02a0.58 ± 0.02a0.39 ± 0.03b0.24 ± 0.03c
90OSL (cm)41.22 ± 1.14a40.97 ± 1.19a40.65 ± 1.68a32.98 ± 1.78b22.41 ± 0.74c
ODLN (No.)3.28 ± 0.15a2.99 ± 0.27ab2.95 ± 0.22ab3.10 ± 0.20ab2.53 ± 0.35b
OGR (cm·d-1)0.34 ± 0.05ab0.36 ± 0.03a0.40 ± 0.04a0.43 ± 0.04a0.24 ± 0.03b
干旱Drought30OSL (cm)4.50 ± 0.65a*3.38 ± 0.63a*3.38 ± 0.55a*3.50 ± 0.29a*1.50 ± 0.05b*
ODLN (No.)0.00 ± 0.00a*0.00 ± 0.00a*0.00 ± 0.00a0.00 ± 0.00a0.00 ± 0.00a
OGR (cm·d-1)0.23 ± 0.03a*0.17 ± 0.03a*0.17 ± 0.03a*0.18 ± 0.01a*0.07 ± 0.00b*
60OSL (cm)19.95 ± 1.08a*11.23 ± 0.43b*5.55 ± 0.75c*4.44 ± 0.87c*3.65 ± 0.61c*
ODLN (No.)0.10 ± 0.04a*0.14 ± 0.05a*0.15 ± 0.05a*0.25 ± 0.16a*0.06 ± 0.06a*
OGR (cm·d-1)0.52 ± 0.03a0.26 ± 0.03b*0.07 ± 0.04cd*0.03 ± 0.02d*0.14 ± 0.04c
90OSL (cm)28.82 ± 1.16a*24.56 ± 0.76b*14.46 ± 1.00c*8.45 ± 0.25d*4.13 ± 0.12e*
ODLN (No.)2.23 ± 0.28a*1.83 ± 0.11ab*1.40 ± 0.26ab*1.86 ± 0.34ab*1.21 ± 0.44b*
OGR (cm·d-1)0.30 ± 0.06b0.44 ± 0.03a0.30 ± 0.05b0.13 ± 0.03c*0.03 ± 0.02c*

Table 4

Results of two-way ANOVA of the effect of Pb and water stress on rhizome growth, number of buds and offspring shoots of Phragmites australis"

生长指标 Growth parameters双因素方差分析 Two-way AVONA
铅 Pb水 Water铅 × 水 Pb × water
FpFpFp
根长 Root length184.571< 0.001273.946< 0.0014.605< 0.01
根茎长 Rhizome length65.735< 0.001126.045< 0.0025.271< 0.01
根茎数 No. of rhizomes92.408< 0.001207.906< 0.0038.108< 0.001
芽数 No. of buds42.807< 0.00151.986< 0.0046.879< 0.001
子株数 No. of offspring shoots12.658< 0.001442.488< 0.0054.293< 0.01

Fig. 1

Effects of Pb pollution on growth of below-ground organs and abundance of above-ground offspring shoots of Phragmites australis in flood and dry environment (mean ± SE, n = 40). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between Pb levels within one water treatment level, and * indicates significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between water treatment and drought treatment within one Pb level."

Table 5

Results of two-way ANOVA of the effect of Pb and water stress on biomass of Phragmites australis"

双因素方差分析 Two-way AVONA
铅 Pb水 Water铅 × 水 Pb × water
FpFpFp
根 Roots63.55< 0.001124.45< 0.0012.560.06
根茎 Rhizomes55.76< 0.00177.79< 0.0014.41< 0.01
母株 Parent shoots7.31< 0.00139.32< 0.0017.48< 0.001
子株 Offspring shoots42.52< 0.001270.30< 0.0016.95< 0.001

Fig. 2

The effects of Pb pollution on biomass accumulation of different organs of Phragmites australis in flood and dry environment (mean ± SE, n = 40). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between Pb levels within one water treatment level, and * indicates significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between water treatment and drought treatment within one Pb level."

Fig. 3

The percentage of different organ biomass in total biomass of Phragmites australis subjected to Pb concentration in flood and dry environment (mean ± SE, n = 40). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between Pb levels within one water treatment level, and * indicates significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between water treatment and drought treatment within one Pb level."

Table 6

Results of two-way ANOVA of the effect of Pb and water stress on photosynthesis of Phragmites australis"

光合参数 Photosynthetic parameters双因素方差分析 Two-way AVONA
铅 Pb水 Water铅 × 水 Pb × water
FpFpFp
净光合速率 Net photosynthetic rate12.69<0.00120.38<0.0016.92<0.001
气孔导度 Stomatal conductance16.90<0.00195.36<0.0013.80<0.01
胞间CO2浓度 Intercellular CO2 concentration9.80<0.001111.35<0.0011.540.23
蒸腾速率 Transpiration rate6.08<0.00188.80<0.0011.070.38

Fig. 4

The effects of Pb pollution on photosynthesis of parent and offspring shoots of Phragmites australis in flood and dry environment (mean ± SE, n = 16). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between Pb levels within one water treatment level, and * indicates significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between water treatment and drought treatment within one Pb level."

Fig. 5

The Pb concentrations in different parts of Phragmites australis subjected to Pb in flood and dry environment (mean ± SE, n = 4). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (p ≤0.05) between Pb levels within one water treatment level, and * indicates significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between water treatment and drought treatment within one Pb level."

Table 7

Results of two-way ANOVA of the effect of Pb and water stress on Pb concentrations in organs of Phragmites australis"

双因素方差分析 Two-way AVONA
铅 Pb水 Water铅×水 Pb × water
FpFpFp
根 Roots472.06<0.0011 061.42<0.001166.30<0.001
根茎 Rhizomes174.54<0.001317.95<0.00179.07<0.001
母株 Parent shoots3 304.20<0.001369.17<0.001434.26<0.001
子株 Offspring shoots2 392.36<0.00142.83<0.00131.27<0.001
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