Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (12): 1179-1191.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0176

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Impact of environmental factors on the decoupling coefficient and the estimation of canopy stomatal conductance for ever-green broad-leaved tree species

ZHANG Zhen-Zhen1,*(),ZHAO Ping2,ZHAO Xiu-Hua2,ZHANG Jin-Xiu1,ZHU Li-Wei2,OUYANG Lei2,ZHANG Xiao-Yan1   

  1. 1 School of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 231004, China
    2 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China
  • Received:2018-07-30 Revised:2018-10-23 Online:2019-04-04 Published:2018-12-20
  • Contact: Zhen-Zhen ZHANG
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(41630752);Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(41701226);Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(41030638)


Aims Accurate simulation of canopy stomatal conductance (GS) is quite important for the assessment of regional evapotranspiration.

Methods In this study, two planted broad-leaved tree species, Eucalyptus urophylla (exotic species) and Schima superba (native species), were chosen to estimate their GS with two different methods of K?stner (GS1) and inversed Penman-Monteith equation (GS2). The effect of environmental factors on canopy decoupling coefficient (Ω) was evaluated before they were adopted to assess the reasonability of GSsimulated by the two methods.

Important findings Results showed that the GS of the two tree species was well coupled with meteorological conditions (Ω = 0.10 ± 0.03 for E. urophylla and 0.17 ± 0.03 for S. superba). Principal component analysis showed that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (D) significantly dominated the variations of Ω, while the effect of wind speed (u) was very weak. Multivariate correlation analysis also found weak relations between those environmental factors and Ω. Boundary line analysis revealed that the increase of D and PAR would eventually force Ω approaching a constant value as determined by tree species (S. superba ≈ 0.20, E. urophylla ≈ 0.05), while Ω decreases exponentially with the increase of u. Compared with S. superba, E. urophylla has higher GS. The annual averages GS2 of E. urophylla and S. superba were (33.42 ± 9.37) mmol·m-2·s-1 and (23.40 ± 2.03) mmol·m-2·s-1, respectively. Linear fitting showed that the GS2/GS1 ratio of E. urophylla and S. superba was 0.92 (R2 ≈ 0.70) and 0.98 (R2 ≈ 0.76), respectively, implying the overestimated canopy stomatal conductance for GS1 (p < 0.01). In addition, the ratio of the sensitivity of canopy stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit to stomatal conductance at D = 1 kPa (GSiref) for GS1 and GS2 is closely related to Ω. Based on the estimation, GS1 was relatively reliable when Ω = 0.05-0.15 (83.1% of all the data) and 0.10-0.20 (47.8% of all the data) for E. urophylla and S. superba.

Key words: plant transpiration, canopy stomatal conductance, the decoupling coefficient, environmental factor

Table 1

Stand parameters of Schima superba and Eucalyptus urophylla"

树种 Species 密度 Density n DBH H As LAI l Al Ac
木荷 S. superba 603 21 15.5 (1.3)a 12.7 (0.5)a 0.018 (0.002)a 4.3 (0.1)a 9.1 (0.4)a 66.6 (10.2)a 20.7 (2.9)a
尾叶桉 E. urophylla 1 375 15 10.1 (0.6)b 11.5 (0.8)a 0.007 (0.001)b 1.5 (0.1)b 10.9 (0.2)b 21.0 (2.7)b 4.0 (0.2)b

Fig. 1

Meteorological conditions during study periods. A, Photosynthetic photon flux density (PAR). B, Vapor pressure deficit (D). C, Daily mean air temperature (Ta). D, Soil water content (SWC)."

Fig. 2

Monthly decoupling coefficients (Ω) of Eucalyptus urophylla and Schima superba stands."

Fig. 3

Diurnal course of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, μmol m-2·s-1) (A, B), vapor pressure deficit (D, kPa) (C, D), and decoupling coefficient (Ω) (E, F) for Eucalyptus urophylla and Schima superba stands (mean ± SE) respectively."

Fig. 4

Relationships between decoupling coefficient (Ω) and (A, D) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR,) as well as (B, E) vapor pressure deficit (D), (C, F) wind speed in Eucalyptus urophylla and Schima superba stands. Only boundary line data area shown in the figure."

Fig. 5

Decoupling coefficient (Ω) in relation to canopy stomatal conductance estimated with the inverse Penman-Monteith equation (GS2)."

Fig. 6

Daily variation of canopy stomatal conductance (GS) estimated from the K?stner equation (GS1, ○) and the inverse Penman-?Monteith equation (GS2, △) for Eucalyptus urophylla (A-D) and Schima superba (E-H)."

Fig. 7

Relationship between stomatal conductance estimated from the K?stner equation (GS1) and the inverse Penman-Monteith equation (GS2) for Eucalyptus urophylla and Schima superba."

Fig. 8

Proportional increase of sensitivity of tree crown-level stomatal conductance (GS) to vapor pressure deficit (-m) with the conductance at vapor pressure deficit (D) = 1 kPa (GSref). Values are from boundary line fits of one month subsets of data. Lines are the least-square fit (p < 0.001) for each method combination. GS1, line and open circle; GS2, dash dot and asterisk"

Table 2

Common variables and their abbreviations"

变量 Variables 缩写 Abbreviations 单位 Units
冠层气孔导度 Canopy stomatal conductance GS mmol·m-2·s-1
冠层脱耦联系数 Canopy decoupling coefficient Ω 无纲量 No dimension
光合有效辐射 Photosynthetically active radiation PAR μmol·m-2·s-1
水汽压亏缺 Water vapor deficit D kPa
风速 Wind speed u m·s-1
水汽导度 Water vapor conductance GT mmol·m-2·s-1
冠层导度 Canopy conductance gc mmol·m-2·s-1
空气动力学导度 Aerodynamic conductance ga mmol·m-2·s-1
树木蒸腾速率 Tree transpiration rates E g·m-2·s-1
叶面积指数 Leaf area index LAI m2·m-2
胸径 Diameter at breast height DBH cm
树高 Tree height H m
边材面积 Sap wood area AS m2
总叶面积 Total leaf area Al m2
气动阻力 Stomatal resistance ra s·m-1
土壤含水量 Soil water content SWC m3·m-3

Table 3

The proportion between the ratio of the sensitivity of canopy stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit (-m) and stomatal conductance at vapor pressure deficit = 1 kPa (GSiref) (Pi) for Ecalyptus urophylla and Schima superba at each canopy decoupling coefficient (Ω) interval"

树种 Species Ω区间 Ω interval Pi
0.00-0.05 -
0.05-0.10 0.57 (0.06)
E. urophylla
0.10-0.15 0.58 (0.06)
0.15-0.20 1.04 (0.16)**
0.20-0.25 8.32 (7.62)**
0.25-0.3 1.43(5.02)**
0.00-0.05 -
0.05-0.10 0.75 (0.13)**
S. superba
0.10-0.15 0.61 (0.10)
0.15-0.20 0.58 (0.08)
0.20-0.25 0.70 (0.13)**
0.25-0.30 1.21 (0.40)**
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