Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (9): 806-816.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0215

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Classification and characteristics of Helianthemum songaricum communities in western Erdos region, Nei Mongol, China

LI Zi-Jing,SHA Na,SHI Ya-Bo,TONG Xu-Ze,DONG Lei,ZHANG Xiao-Qing,SUN Qiang,LIANG Cun-Zhu()   

  1. College of Ecology and Environment, Inner Mongolia University, Key Laboratory of Ecology and Resource Utilization of the Mongolian Plateau, Ministry of Education, Hohhot 010021, China
  • Received:2018-08-29 Accepted:2018-10-31 Online:2020-01-03 Published:2019-09-20
  • Contact: LIANG Cun-Zhu
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Basic Work of Science and Technology of China(2011FY110300);Supported by the National Basic Work of Science and Technology of China(2015FY210200)


Aims Helianthemum songaricum is an ancient Mediterranean remnant plant species endemic to central Asia, and it is a dominant species of a unique desert community in west Erdos, Nei Mongol, China. We studied the distributions, classification and characteristics of the H. songaricum communities.
Methods We collected species composition for 18 plots from literatures and field investigation during the growing seasons of 2016 and 2017. We then applied TWINSPAN to classify community types.
Important findings (1) The H. songaricum communities were primarily distributed in the north and south of the Arbas Mountains and Qianli Ravine in west Erdos, with some in the southern and northern Helan Mountain. (2) In total, 58 seed plant species belonging to 39 genera from 17 families were recorded, including 18 shrub and subshrub, 27 perennial and 13 annual herbaceous species. Super-xerophytes and xerophytes were the two major ecological types, accounting for 26% and 50%, respectively. The Central Asia-Eastern Asia was the major floristic elements, followed by the Palaeo-Mediterranean and the Gobi elements. (3) Based on the life forms and species composition, the H. songaricum communities was divided into three major association groups, i.e., H. songaricum-herbs desert group, H. songaricum-shrubs-herbs desert group and H. songaricum-subshrub desert group, which were further divided into 10 associations.

Key words: Helianthemum songaricum, desert, community characteristic, life form, community classification

Fig. 1

Location of the studied sites of Helianthemum songaricum communities."

Table 1

Species composition of Helianthemum songaricum community"



type of water
禾本科 Gramineae 针茅属 Stipa 短花针茅 Stipa breviflora H C X 1
石生针茅 S. tianschanica var. klemenzii H C X 9
戈壁针茅 S. tianschanica var. gobica H C X 1
沙生针茅 S. glareosa H C X 1
隐子草属 Cleistogenes 糙隐子草 Cleistogenes squarrosa H C M 8
无芒隐子草 C. songorica H C X 4
冰草属 Agropyron 冰草 Agropyron cristatum H C X 6
细柄茅属 Ptilagrostis 中亚细柄茅 Ptilagrostis pelliotii H C SX 1
狗尾草属 Setaria 狗尾草 Setaria viridis T D M 10
九顶草属 Enneapogon 九顶草 Enneapogon borealis T D M 1
三芒草属 Aristida 三芒草 Aristida adscensionis T D XM Undetermined
锋芒草属 Tragus 锋芒草 Tragus mongolorum T D X Undetermined
画眉草属 Eragrostis 小画眉草 Eragrostis minor T D M Undetermined
菊科 Compositae 亚菊属 Ajania 蓍状亚菊 Ajania achilleoides C B SX 4
细裂亚菊 A. przewalskii H C X 9
短舌菊属 Brachanthemum 星毛短舌菊 Brachanthemum pulvinatum C B SX 3
栉叶蒿属 Neopallasia 栉叶蒿 Neopallasia pectinata T D XM 1
革苞菊属 Tugarinovia 革苞菊 Tugarinovia mongolica H C SX 11
蒿属 Artemisia 黄蒿 Artemisia annua T D M 13
鸦葱属 Scorzonera 桃叶鸦葱 Scorzonera sinensis H C MX 15
棉毛鸦葱 S. capito H C X Undetermined
紫菀属 Aster 阿尔泰狗娃花 Aster altaicus H C MX 6



type of water
藜科 Chenopodiaceae 猪毛菜属 Salsola 松叶猪毛菜 Salsola laricifolia C A SX 3
珍珠猪毛菜 S. passerina C B SX 3
猪毛菜 S. collina T D XM 14
藜属 Chenopodium Chenopodium album T D M 10
雾冰藜属 Bassia 雾冰藜 Bassia dasyphylla T D X Undetermined
盐生草属 Halogeton 盐生草 Halogeton glomeratus T D SX 2
豆科 Leguminosae 锦鸡儿属 Caragana 荒漠锦鸡儿 Caragana roborovskyi P A SX 1
狭叶锦鸡儿 C. stenophylla P A X 1
藏锦鸡儿 C. tibetica P A X 2
棘豆属 Oxytropis 猫头刺 Oxytropis aciphylla C B X 4
黄耆属 Astragalus 乳白黄耆 Astragalus galactites H C X 5
灰叶黄耆 A. discolor H C X 4
蒺藜科 Zygophyllaceae 霸王属 Sarcozygium 霸王 Sarcozygium xanthoxylon P A SX 3
蝎虎霸王 S. mucronatum C C SX 3
四合木属 Tetraena 四合木 Tetraena mongolica P A SX 16
骆驼蓬属 Peganum 骆驼蓬 Peganum harmala C C X 2
蒺藜属 Tribulus 蒺藜 Tribulus terrestris T D M Undetermined
百合科 Liliaceae 葱属 Allium 砂韭 Allium bidentatum Cr C X 5
碱韭 A. polyrhizum Cr C SX 1
蒙古韭 A. mongolicum Cr C X 4
细叶韭 A. tenuissimum Cr C X 12
柽柳科 Tamaricaceae 红砂属 Reaumuria 红砂 Reaumuria soongarica P A SX 2
黄花红砂 R. trigyna P A X 11
十字花科 Cruciferae 庭荠属 Alyssum 灰毛庭荠 Alyssum canescens C B X 7
西伯利亚庭荠 A. sibiricum H C X Undetermined
旋花科 Convolvulaceae 旋花属 Convolvulus 刺旋花 Convolvulus tragacanthoides P B X 2
银灰旋花 C. ammannii H C X 7
远志科 Polygalaceae 远志属 Polygala 卵叶远志 Polygala sibirica H C MX 6
远志 P. tenuifolia H C X Undetermined
半日花科 Cistaceae 半日花属 Helianthemum 半日花 Helianthemum songaricum P A SX 2
补血草属 Limonium 细枝补血草 Limonium tenellum H C X Undetermined
亚麻科 Linaceae 亚麻属 Linum 野亚麻 Linum stelleroides H D M 5
蔷薇科 Rosaceae 桃属 Amygdalus 蒙古扁桃 Amygdalus mongolica P A X 17
茜草科 Rubiaceae 野丁香属 Leptodermis 薄皮木 Leptodermis oblonga P A X 18
麻黄科 Ephedraceae 麻黄属 Ephedra 斑子麻黄 Ephedra rhytidosperma P A SX 19
蓼科 Polygonaceae 木蓼属 Atraphaxis 锐枝木蓼 Atraphaxis pungens P A X 8

Fig. 2

Frequency distribution of species with different presence classes in Helianthemum songaricum desert. I, 0-20%; II, 20%-40%; III, 40%-60%; IV, 60%-80%; V, 80%-100%."

Fig. 3

Floristic geographic distribution of the species in Helianthemum songaricum desert. 1, Central Asia-Eastern Asia element; 2, Palaeo-Mediterranean element; 3, gobi element; 4, gobi-mongolian element; 5, Dawuli-Mongolian element; 6, temperate Asian element; 7, Kazakhstan-Mongolia element; 8, Black Sea-Kazakhstan-Mongolia element; 9, Mongolia element; 10, world distribution; 11, East Alashan-West Ordos endemic species; 12, East Palaeo-North element; 13, Pan-North element; 14, Palaeo-North element; 15, old continent temperate element; 16, west Ordos endemic species; 17, Alashan-Western Ordos-Ulanchabu North endemic species; 18, Helan Mountain-Arbas Mountain endemic species; 19, Helan Mountain and South-Helan Mountain endemic species."

Fig. 4

Raunkiaer’s life form spectrum of the species in Helianthemum songaricum desert. C, chamaephytes; Cr, cryptophytes; H, hemicryptophytes; P, phanerophytes; T, therophytes."

Fig. 5

Frequency distribution of the species with different ecological type of water in Helianthemum songaricum desert. M, mesophytes; MX, meso-xerophytes; SX, super-xerophytes; X, xerophytes; XM, xero-mesophytes."

Table 2

Classification of Helianthemum songaricum desert at alliance level"

群丛组 Association group 群丛 Association 样地编号 Plot number
Helianthemum songaricum - Herbs desert
Helianthemum songaricum - Stipa tianschanica var. klemenzii + Stipa breviflora desert
Helianthemum songaricum - Shrubs - Herbs desert
Helianthemum songaricum + Atraphaxis pungens - Stipa breviflora desert
Helianthemum songaricum + Reaumuria soongarica - Stipa glareosa desert
Helianthemum songaricum + Reaumuria soongarica - Stipa tianschanica var. gobica desert
Helianthemum songaricum + Reaumuria soongarica - Stipa breviflora desert
S2, S5, S10
Helianthemum songaricum + Salsola laricifolia - Stipa glareosa + Stipa breviflora desert
Helianthemum songaricum + Reaumuria trigyna - Stipa tianschanica var. gobica desert
Helianthemum songaricum + Amygdalus mongolica - Ptilagrostis pelliotii desert
Helianthemum songaricum + Ephedra rhytidosperma - Stipa breviflora desert
S13, S14, S15
Helianthemum songaricum + Tetraena mongolica + Reaumuria soongarica - Ptilagrostis pelliotii desert
Helianthemum songaricum - Subshrubs desert
Helianthemum songaricum + Convolvulus tragacanthoides - Stipa tianschanica var. klemenzii + Stipa tianschanica var. gobica desert
半日花+珍珠猪毛菜荒漠 Helianthemum songaricum + Salsola passerine desert S17
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