Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (8): 697-708.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0131

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Responses of foliar anatomical traits to soil conditions in 11 tree species on coastal saline-alkali sites of Shandong, China

CHEN Xu1,LIU Hong-Kai1,ZHAO Chun-Zhou2,WANG Qiang3,WANG Yan-Ping1,*()   

  1. 1Key Laboratory of State Forestry Administration for Silviculture of the Lower Yellow River, Forestry College, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong 271018, China;
    2Shouguang National Machinery Forest Farm, Shouguang, Shandong 262716, China
    3Shandong Forestry Foreign Investment and Project Management Office, Jinan 250014, China
  • Received:2019-05-30 Revised:2019-08-04 Online:2020-01-03 Published:2019-08-20
  • Contact: WANG Yan-Ping ORCID:0000-0003-1892-1409 E-mail:wangyp@sdau.edu.cn

Abstract:

Aims As an important link between plants and atmospheric environment, foliar organs have strong responses to stress. Understanding the adaptive mechanisms of plants to environments based on leaf traits is of great significance for establishment of plant communities in saline-alkali land.
Methods Eleven tree species used for afforestation were studied under three soil conditions in the coastal saline-‌alkali land of Shandong Province. The foliar anatomical traits were measured, and the responses of these traits to saline-alkali soil environment were determined to reveal the relationships between foliar functional traits and soil conditions.
Important findings (1) The leaves of the 11 tree species studied were thicker on the saline-alkali sites than on other sites, with 3-5 layers of well-developed palisade tissue closely arranged on the paraxial surface of the leaf mesophyll. The thickness ratio of palisade tissue to spongy tissue (PT/ST) was generally high but with large variations among the tree species. (2) The foliar anatomical traits differed among the three sites in different tree species. (3) Both correlation analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the foliar anatomical traits were closely related to soil conditions; PT/ST was highly significantly correlated with soil indexes, positively with soil pH and soil conductivity at 25 ℃, and negatively with soil nitrate nitrogen content. Leaf characteristics and vein characteristics could explain 84% of the variations in leaf functional characteristics with environments. Overall, the foliar anatomical traits were closely related to soil conditions in saline-alkali land. The analysis of foliar anatomical traits could be used to study the adaptation of tree species to saline-alkali land, and as basis for tree species selection for vegetation restoration and community establishment.

Key words: coastal saline-alkali land, foliar, vein, anatomical traits, palisade tissue, spongy tissue, soil physiochemical properties

Table 1

The 11 tree species for afforestation of different sites on the coastal saline-alkali land of Shandong Province"

立地
site
树种
Species
代码
Abbreviation

Family
落叶/常绿
Deciduous/Evergreen
生活型
Life form
叶型 Simple/
Compound leaf
立地1: 重度盐碱
Site 1: Severe saline alkali
白榆 Ulmus pumila ULPU 榆科 Ulmaceae D A S
白蜡2 Fraxinus chinensis 2 FRCH2 木犀科 Oleaceae D A C
立地2: 中度盐碱
Site 2: Moderate saline alkali
皂角 Gleditsia sinensis GLSI 豆科 Leguminosae D A C
臭椿 Ailanthus altissima AIAL 苦木科 Simaroubaceae D A C
白蜡1 Fraxinus chinensis 1 FRCH1 木犀科 Oleaceae D A C
Sophora japonica SOJA 蝶形花科 Papilionaceae D A C
欧美杨I-107 Populus × euramericana ‘I-107’ POEU 杨柳科 Salicaceae D A S
旱柳 Salix matsudana SAMA 杨柳科 Salicaceae D A S
三球悬铃木 Platanus orientalis PLOR 悬铃木科 Platanaceae D A S
立地3: 轻度盐碱
Site 3: Mild saline alkali
枣树 Ziziphus jujuba ZIJU 鼠李科 Rhamnaceae D A S
桃树 Amygdalus persica AMPE 蔷薇科 Rosaceae D A S
白梨 Pyrus bretschneideri PYBR 蔷薇科 Rosaceae D A S

Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for vein sampling of different leaf types. A, Simple leaf. B, Compound leaf."

Fig. 2

Cross-section schematic photos of the anatomical structure of leaves on the saline-alkali land (Ailanthus altissima). A, Anatomical structure of leaves. B, Anatomical structure of veins. Ca, cambium; LE, lower epidermis; MVD, main vascular diameter; Ph, phloem; PT, palisade tissue; ST, sponge tissue; UE, upper epidermis; X, xylem."

Table 2

Physiochemical properties of the forest sites for the 11 tree species on the coastal saline-alkali land of Shandong Province (mean ± SE)"

立地
Site
树种
Tree species
pH 电导率
Electrical
conductivity (μs·cm-1)
铵态氮含量
Ammonium nitrogen content (mg·kg-1)
硝态氮含量
Nitrate nitrogen content (mg·kg-1)
速效磷含量
Available phosphorus content (mg·kg-1)
立地1: 重度盐碱
Site 1: Severe saline-alkali
ULPU 8.530 ± 0.024a 1 079.213 ± 5.468a 16.445 ± 0.563b 15.121 ± 2.274d 2.821 ± 0.588d
FRCH2 8.416 ± 0.008ab 891.560 ± 1.240b 14.312 ± 2.176b 12.314 ± 2.300d 3.080 ± 0.903d
立地2: 中度盐碱
Site 2: Moderate saline-alkali

GLSI 8.318 ± 0.018b 462.107 ± 2.981ef 16.019 ± 0.958b 20.833 ± 4.088cd 1.055 ± 0.408d
AIAL 8.262 ± 0.024bc 467.480 ± 21.513ef 17.102 ± 0.585ab 26.875 ± 1.522abcd 1.392 ± 0.323d
FRCH1 8.384 ± 0.029ab 426.147 ± 5.373fg 8.277 ± 0.053c 18.472 ± 3.017d 1.160 ± 0.352d
SOJA 8.339 ± 0.064b 413.747 ± 4.195g 19.815 ± 2.244ab 18.142 ± 1.287d 1.787 ± 0.310d
POEU 8.119 ± 0.035cd 447.640 ± 11.251efg 16.652 ± 1.018b 17.927 ± 4.372d 1.946 ± 0.360d
SAMA 8.028 ± 0.133d 476.987 ± 32.966de 19.002 ± 1.703ab 25.899 ± 12.187bcd 1.414 ± 0.205d
PLOR 8.123 ± 0.073cd 439.787 ± 16.580efg 17.741 ± 0.522ab 27.589 ± 5.318abcd 0.997 ± 0.249d
立地3: 轻度盐碱
Site 3: Mild saline-alkali
ZIJU 8.018 ± 0.086d 511.293 ± 4.195cd 16.886 ± 2.191ab 38.628 ± 2.160ab 33.517 ± 2.265b
AMPE 8.020 ± 0.018d 534.440 ± 1.432c 6.704 ± 1.078c 41.849 ± 3.668a 13.716 ± 0.301c
PYBR 7.998 ± 0.071d 460.453 ± 2.981ef 22.404 ± 3.787ab 35.951 ± 4.004abc 38.846 ± 2.215a

Fig. 3

Cluster analysis of tree species based on soil physiochemical properties on the coastal saline-alkali land of Shandong Province."

Table 3

Foliar anatomical characteristics of tree species on different sites on the coastal saline-alkali land of Shandong Province (mean ± SE)"

Table 4

Foliar anatomical traits of trees on different sites on the coastal saline-alkali land of Shandong Province (mean ± SE)"

Table 5

Correlations between physiochemical properties of forest sites and foliar anatomical characteristics on the coastal saline-alkali land of Shandong Province "

相关性
Correlation
中脉直径
MV diameter
木质部厚度
X thickness
叶厚度
Leaf thickness
栅栏组织厚度
PT thickness
海绵组织厚度
ST thickness
栅栏/海绵组织
PT/ST
土壤pH Soil pH -0.355 -0.446 0.052 0.154 -0.288 0.667*
土壤电导率
Soil EC25℃
-0.002 -0.166 0.330 0.362 -0.114 0.782**
铵态氮含量 NH4-N content 0.531 0.597* 0.318 0.157 0.427 -0.282
硝态氮含量 NO3-N content 0.357 0.428 -0.094 -0.195 0.202 -0.592*
速效磷含量 AP content 0.373 0.462 0.469 0.297 0.561 -0.226

Fig. 4

Redundancy analysis (RDA) based on foliar anatomical characteristics and soil physiochemical properties correlation. Arrows indicate the foliar anatomical characteristics of tree species and soil physiochemical properties of sites, and the solid triangles designate the 11 tree species. AP, soil available phosphorus content; EC, soil electrical conductivity (25 ℃); LT, leaf thickness; MVD, main vascular diameter; NH4-N, soil ammonium nitrogen content; NO3-N, soil nitrate nitrogen content; pH, soil pH; PT/ST, palisade tissue/sponge tissue; PTT, palisade tissue thickness; STT, sponge tissue thickness; UET, upper epidermis thickness; XT, xylem diameter. See table 1 for species abbreviation."

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