Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2013, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (1): 26-36.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2013.00003

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Environmental factors correlated with species diversity in different tropical rain forest types in Jianfengling, Hainan Island, China

XU Han1,2, LI Yi-De2*, LUO Tu-Shou2, CHEN De-Xiang2, and LIN Ming-Xian2   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100191, China;

    2Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou 510520, China
  • Received:2012-05-14 Revised:2012-12-25 Online:2013-01-15 Published:2013-01-01
  • Contact: LI Yi-De E-mail:liyide@126.com

Abstract:

Aims Environmental factors are key factors impacting species distribution and determining species richness. An important question is whether the major environmental factor are the same in old-growth forests and secondary forests produced by logging. This question is very important for monitoring long-term changes in secondary tropical rain forests.
Methods A unique, robust data set consisting of 164 625 m2 quadrats in a 160 km2 tropical rainforest was set up from August 2007 to June 2009 in the middle of the Jianfengling Natural Reserve, Hainan Island, China. Forest logging history was determined and 17 environmental factors were measured for each quadrat. First, we analyzed the relationship among these 17 factors. Then, these quadrats were classified into three forest types with different logging history: old-growth forests, diameter-limit logged forests and clear-cut forests. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to analyze the environmental factors impacting species distributions. Step-forward multiple regression was used with and without considering spatial autocorrelation in the data set to disclose which environmental factors determined species richness.
Important findings The environmental factors impacting species distribution and determining species richness changed because of differences of forests logging history. Elevation is the second most important factor influencing patterns of species diversity. CCA showed that species distribution in old-growth forests is closely related to elevation, soil exchangeable calcium content, soil exchangeable magnesium content and four soil physical factors (soil density, maximum water holding content, capillary water-holding content and capillary porosity). Importance of soil total phosphorous content and available phosphorous content was greater in logged forests, but the importance of soil exchangeable calcium content and exchangeable magnesium content was lower in clear-cut forests. Multiple regression analysis also showed that species richness was significantly correlated with elevation and soil exchangeable calcium in the old-growth forests. While species richness was correlated with elevation, soil total phosphorous content and soil available potassium content in the diameter-limit logged forests and was only correlated with elevation in the clear-cut forests. Furthermore, it is suggested it is better to compare the spatial autocorrelation models with other models to describe the relationship between environmental factors and species richness, even it does not always exist in the ecological data set with spatial characteristics.

[1] Badgley C, Fox DL (2000). Ecological biogeography of North American mammals: species density and ecological structure in relation to environmental gradients. Journal of Biogeography, 27: , 1437-1467. CrossRef
[2] Beck J, Chey VK (2008). Explaining the elevational diversity pattern of geometrid moths from Borneo: a test of five hypotheses. Journal of Biogeography, 35, : 1452-1464. CrossRef
[3] Berry NJ, Phillips OL, Ong RC, Hamer KC (2008). Impacts of selective logging on tree diversity across a rainforest landscape: the importance of spatial scale. Landscape Ecology, 23:, 915-929. CrossRef
[4] Brown KA, Gurevitch J (2004). Long-term impacts of logging on forest diversity in Madagascar. Proceedings of The the National Academy of Sciences, 101: , 6045-6049. CrossRef
[5] Cannon CH, Peart DR, Leighton M (1998). Tree species diversity in commercially logged Bornean rainforest. Science, 281: , 1366-1368. CrossRef
[6] Cramer MJ, Willig MR (2002). Habitat heterogeneity, habitat associations, and rodent species diversity in a sand-shinnery-oak landscape. Journal of Mammalogy, 83: , 743-753. CrossRef
[7] De Deyn GB, Raaijmakers CE, Van van Der der Putten WH (2004). Plant community development is affected by nutrients and soil biota. Journal of Ecology, 92: , 824-834. CrossRef
[8] Diniz-Filho JAF, De de Campos Telles MP (2002). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and the identification of operational units for conservation in continuous populations. Conservation Biology, 16: , 924-935. CrossRef
[9] Diniz-Filho JAF, Bini LM, Hawkins BA (2003). Spatial autocorrelation and red herrings in geographical ecology. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 12: , 53-64. CrossRef
[10] Diniz-Filho JAF, Rangel TFLVB, Hawkins BA (2004). A test of multiple hypotheses for the species richness gradient of South American owls. Oecologia, 140: , 633-638. CrossRef
[11] Dormann CF (2007). Effects of incorporating spatial autocorrelation into the analysis of species distribution data. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16: , 129-138. CrossRef
[12] Dumbrell AJ, Clark EJ, Frost GA, Randell TE, Pitchford JW, Hill JK (2008). Changes in species diversity following habitat disturbance are dependent on spatial scale: theoretical and empirical evidence. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45: , 1531-1539. CrossRef
[13] Firn J, Erskine PD, Lamb D (2007). Woody species diversity influences productivity and soil nutrient availability in tropical plantations. Oecologia, 154: , 521-533. CrossRef
[14] Foody GM (2004). Spatial nonstationarity and scale-dependency in the relationship between species richness and environmental determinants for the sub-Saharan endemic avifauna. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 13: , 315-320. CrossRef
[15] Hawkins BA, Field R, Cornell HV, Currie DJ, Gue, Gan J-F, Kaufman DM, Kerr JT, Mittelbach GG, Oberdorff T, O’Brien E.M. OB, Porter EE, Turner JRG (2003). Energy, water, and broad-scale geographic patterns of species richness. Ecology, 84: , 3105-3117. CrossRef
[16] He JS (贺金生), Chen WL (陈伟烈) (1997). A review of gradient changes in species diveristy of land plant communities. Acta Ecologica Sinica (生态学报), 17: , 91-99. (in Chinses with English abstract) CrossRef
[17] Hurlbert AH, White EP (2005). Disparity between range map- and survey-based analyses of species richness: patterns, processes and implications. Ecology Letters, 8: , 319-327. CrossRef
[18] Jiang YX (蒋有绪), Lu JP (卢俊培) (1991). Tropical forest Forest ecosystems Ecosystems of Jianfengling, Hainan Island, China (中国海南岛尖峰岭森林生态系统). Beijing: Science Press, Beijing, 29-42. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[19] Kaboli M, Guillaumet A, Prodon R (2006). Avifaunal gradients in two arid zones of central Iran in relation to vegetation, climate, and topography. Journal of Biogeography, 33, : 133-144. CrossRef
[20] Kuhn I (2007). Incorporating spatial autocorrelation may invert observed patterns. Diversity and Distributions, 13: , 66-69. CrossRef
[21] Legendre P, Legendre L (1998). Numerical Ecology. Second 2 edn. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. CrossRef
[22] Li YD (李意德), Chen BF (陈步峰), Zhou GY (周光益), Wu ZM (吴仲民), ,Zeng QB (曾庆波), ,Luo TS (骆土寿), ,Huang SN (黄世能), ,Xie MD (谢明东), ,Huang Q (黄全) (2002). Research on tropical Tropical forest Forest and biodiversity Biodiversity conservation Conservation in Hainan Island, China (中国海南岛热带森林及其生物多样性保护研究). Beijing: Chinese Forest Publishing Houseress, Beijing, 47-51. (in Chinese with English abstract) CrossRef
[23] Lomolino MV (2001). Elevation gradients of species-density: historical and prospective views. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 10:, 3-13. CrossRef
[24] Ma ZW (马宗文), Xie ZL (谢正磊), Duan XF (段晓峰), Zhou X (周鑫), Rosen TR, Xu XG (许学工). (2012). Plant-soil relationship and plant niche in the Yellow River Delta National Natural Reserve, China. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis (北京大学学报·自然科学版), http://www.cnki.net/kcms/detail/11.2442.N.20120416.1333.001.html 48, 801-811. (in Chinsese with English abstract) CrossRef
[25] McCune B, Mefford MJ (1999). PC-ORD. : Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data. Version 5. 0. In: Gleneden Beach, Oregon, U. S. A. CrossRef
[26] Paoli GD, Currant LM, Zak DR (2006). Soil nutrients and beta diversity in the Bornean Dipterocarpaceae: evidence for niche partitioning by tropical rain forest trees. Journal of Ecology, 94: 157-170. CrossRef
[27] Pimm SL, Brown JH (2004). Domains of diversity. Science, 304, : 831-833. CrossRef
[28] Qian H, Wang S, Li Y, Wang X (2009). Breeding bird diversity in relation to environmental gradients in China. Acta Oecologica, 35: , 819-823. CrossRef
[29] R Development Core Team (2009). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. In: Vienna, Austria.
[30] Rahbek C, Graves GR (2000). Detection of macro-ecological patterns in South American humming birds is affected by spatial scale. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, 267:, 2259-2265. CrossRef
[31] Rossi JP, Queneherve P (1998). Relating species density to environmental variables in presence of spatial autocorrelation: a study case on soil nematodes distribution. Ecography, 21:, 117-123. CrossRef
[32] Rowe RJ, Lidgard S (2009). Elevational gradients and species richness: do methods change pattern perception? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 18: , 163-177. CrossRef
[33] Tognelli MF, Kelt DA (2004). Analysis of determinants of mammalian species richness in South America using spatial autoregressive models. Ecography, 27: , 427-436. CrossRef
[34] Van van Rensburg BJ, Chown SL, Gaston KJ (2002). Species richness, environmental correlates, andspatial scale: A test using South African birds. American Naturalist, 159: , 566-577. CrossRef
[35] Vetaas OR, Grytnes J-A (2002). Distribution of vascular plant species richness and endemic richness along the Himalayan elevation gradient in Nepal. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11: , 291-301. CrossRef
[36] Wang SX (王世雄), Wang XA (王孝安), Li GQ (李国庆), Guo H (郭华), Zhu ZH (朱志红) (2010). Species diversity and environmental interpretation in the process of community succession in the Ziwu Mountain of Shaanxi Province. Acta Ecologica Sinica (生态学报), 30:, 1638-1647. (in Chinses with English abstract) CrossRef
[37] Xu H (许涵), Li YD (李意德), Luo TS (骆土寿), Chen DX (陈德祥), Lin MX (林明献), Yang H (杨怀) (2012). Impacts of forest logging on the species diversity of endemic seed plants from Hainan Island. Biodiversity Science (生物多样性), 2012, 20 (2):, 168-176. (in Chinses with English abstract) 摘要
[38] Xu YJ (徐远杰), Chen YN (陈亚宁), Li WH (李卫红), Fu AH (付爱红), Ma XD (马晓东), Gui DW (桂东伟), Chen YP (陈亚鹏) (2011). Distribution pattern and environmental interpretation of plant species diversity in the mountainous region of Ili River Valley, Xinjiang, China. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology (植物生态学报), 2010, 34 (10):, 1142-1154. (in Chinses with English abstract) 摘要
No related articles found!
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Tong Zhe. Dr. Zhongchi Liu, a Molecular Geneticist of Plant Development[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(06): 759 -760 .
[2] WANG Shu-Cai XU Lang-Lai XIA Kai ZHOU Xie. Lateral Root Formation and Its Regulation by Phytohormones[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(02): 129 -136 .
[3] Guiling Wang;Zhiwei Qin;Xiuyan Zhou;Zhiyun Zhao. Genetic Analysis and SSR Markers of Tuberculate Trait in Cucumis sativus[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2007, 24(02): 168 -172 .
[4] Wen Ye-chun;Jin Bao-qi;Li En-shi and Chen Yu-qun. Identification of the Major Components of Stevia rebaudina[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1984, 2(23): 55 -56 .
[5] Zuo Jia-fu and Fu De-zhi. The Application Status and Discussion on the Method of Combination Line[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(增刊): 73 -76 .
[6] Yong Zhang;Shougong Zhang;Liwang Qi;Xiaoqiang Chen;Ruiyang Chen;Wenqin Song. Poplar as a Model for Forest Tree in Genome Research[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2006, 23(3): 286 -293 .
[7] Han Bi-wen. The Synthitic Activities of Roots and their Relation to the Above-grond Parts[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1984, 2(23): 23 -25 .
[8] LI Ming-Yin HE Yun-Xiao. Plant Chimeras and Application in the Breeding of the Ornamental Plant[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2005, 22(06): 641 -647 .
[9] DU Jian-Fang LIAO Xiang-Ru YE Bu-Qing LI Meng. Effect of Light Quality on the Growth and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Rape Seedings[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2002, 19(06): 743 -745 .
[10] Zhili Zhang Yun Yang Kuancan Liu Huosheng Su. A Rapid and Efficient Protocol for Total RNA Isolation from Latex of Hevea brasiliensis[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2007, 24(04): 516 -520 .