Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (5): 550-561.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2017.0263

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Classification of plant associations based on a 20 hm2 dynamics plot of evergreen broad- leaved forest in Mt. Tiantong, Zhejiang, China

SUN Xiao-Wei,YANG Qing-Song,LIU He-Ming,WANG Xi-Hua()   

  1. Tiantong National Station for Forest Ecosystem Research, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2017-10-19 Revised:2018-05-07 Online:2018-07-20 Published:2018-05-20
  • Contact: Xi-Hua WANG
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Basic Research Priorities Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China(2015FY210200)


Aims Our objectives were to obtain typical plant association types in a 20 hm 2 forest dynamic monitoring plot in Mt. Tiantong, and provide methodological references for determining transitional types and identifying typical types in vegetation classification.

Methods We used two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) to remove transitional community and identify typical association types. DCA method was also used to analyze the relationship between the distributions of different plant associations and environmental variables.

Important findings The results showed that the classification of typical plant associations was greatly improved by the removal of transitional communities. The forest was divided into three associations: 1) Viburnum erosum- Ternstroemia gymnanthera/Lithocarpus harlandii + Cyclobalanopsis sessilifolia Association, 2) Daphniphyllum oldhami-Lithocarpus glaber/Schima superba + Castanopsis carlesii Association, and 3) Illicium lanceolatum- Phoebe sheareri/Choerospondias axillaries + Machilus leptophylla Association. The results of DCA revealed the importance of environmental variables (elevation, convexity, slope, and aspect) on spatial distribution of plant associations. Elevation and convexity had significant effects on the distribution of associations, while slope and aspect had weak effects. The results confirmed the high accuracy of the association classification we used.

Key words: vegetation classification, transitional community, floristic composition, two-way indicator species analysis, detrended correspondence analysis, habitat, Mt. Tiantong

Fig. 1

The location and topography of the 20 hm2 forest dynamics plot in Mt. Tiantong, Zhejiang Province."

Fig. 2

Quadrats with uneven distribution of species (A, stands for quadrat 83; B, stands for quadrat 324). Dots represent the plant individuals in each quadrat."

Fig. 3

Map of quadrats for classification at the scale of 20 m × 20 m in Tiantong 20 hm2 plot (198 quadrats in total) (The contour lines with 10 m intervals were shown). Gray polygons represent forest gaps, and shadow circles stand for the quadrats used for classification."

Fig. 4

The result of TWINSPAN classification for 198 quadrats in Tiantong 20 hm2 plot. N represents total number of quadrats. Species in the box are indicator species, and a negative group and a positive group are included at each level of classification, they are separated by “/”. CARVIM, Carpinus viminea; CASCAR, Castanopsis carlesii; DISMYR, Distylium myricoides; EURLOQ, Eurya loquaiana; EURRUB, Eurya rubiginosa var. attenuata; LITELO, Litsea elongata; MACLEP, Machilus leptophylla; MYRRUB, Myrica rubra; PHOSHE, Phoebe sheareri; SCHSUP, Schima superba; SYMANO, Symplocos anomala."

Fig. 5

Distributions of five clusters at the scale of 20 m × 20 m in Tiantong 20 hm2 plot. A, B, C, D, E represent the distributions of the quadrats from clusters A-E, respectively."

Fig. 6

DCA ordination diagram for the classification of 198 quadrats in Tiantong 20 hm2 plot with the five clusters. The numbers in the figure are the identification code for each quadrat. A, B, C, D, E represent the distributions of the quadrats in clusters A-E, respectively."

Fig. 7

The results of TWINSPAN classification for 78 quadrats after removing the transitional quadrats. N represents total number of quadrats. EURLOQ, Eurya loquaiana; MACLEP, Machilus leptophylla."

Fig. 8

Distributions of three community types at the scale of 20 m × 20 m in Tiantong 20 hm2 plot. ,, and represent the distributions of the communities 1-3, respectively."

Fig. 9

DCA ordination diagram of 78 quadrats after removing the transitional quadrats. The numbers in the figure are the identification code for each quadrat. a, community 1; b, community 2; c, community 3."

Fig. 10

The silhouette width of three community types. The length of each horizontal line represents the silhouette width of one quadrat. n, total number of quadrats; j, cluster number; nj, total number of quadrats in the community j; avei∈cj si, the average silhouette width in the community j."

Table 1

The order of species important value in three community types in Tiantong 20 hm2 plot (top 5)"

value (%)
Growth form
群落1 Community 1
港柯 Lithocarpus harlandii 12.20 乔木 Tree
杨梅叶蚊母树 Distylium myricoides 10.97 小乔木 Small tree
云山青冈 Cyclobalanopsis sessilifolia 9.27 乔木 Tree
木荷 Schima superba 6.10 乔木 Tree
马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 6.06 小乔木 Small tree
群落2 Community 2
细枝柃 Eurya loquaiana 13.38 小乔木 Small tree
木荷 Schima superba 12.46 乔木 Tree
杨梅叶蚊母树 Distylium myricoides 12.12 小乔木 Small tree
米槠 Castanopsis carlesii 10.04 乔木 Tree
Castanopsis fargesii 6.01 乔木Tree
群落3 Community 3
黄丹木姜子 Litsea elongata 21.46 小乔木 Small tree
薄叶润楠 Machilus leptophylla 12.06 乔木 Tree
南酸枣 Choerospondias axillaris 10.48 乔木 Tree
细枝柃 Eurya loquaiana 9.34 小乔木 Small tree
云山青冈 Cyclobalanopsis sessilifolia 5.90 乔木 Tree

Table 2

The order of species indicator value (>0.5) in three community types in Tiantong 20 hm2 plot"

特异性Specificity 确限度Fidelity 指示值Indicator value p
群落1 Community 1
杜鹃 Rhododendron simsii 0.9659 0.7037 0.824 0.001***
宜昌荚蒾 Viburnum erosum 0.9298 0.5556 0.719 0.001***
厚皮香 Ternstroemia gymnanthera 0.9643 0.4444 0.655 0.001***
迎春樱桃 Cerasus discoidea 1.0000 0.3704 0.609 0.001***
山鸡椒 Litsea cubeba 0.9070 0.4074 0.608 0.002**
青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 0.8421 0.3704 0.558 0.003**
大青 Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum 0.8750 0.3333 0.540 0.007**
群落2 Community 2
虎皮楠 Daphniphyllum oldhami 0.9894 0.6957 0.830 0.001***
Lithocarpus glaber 0.9792 0.6087 0.772 0.001***
杨梅 Myrica rubra 0.8667 0.6087 0.726 0.001***
总状山矾 Symplocos botryantha 0.9375 0.4783 0.670 0.001***
刺毛越桔 Vaccinium trichocladum 0.8889 0.4783 0.652 0.001***
铁冬青 Ilex rotunda 0.5833 0.5217 0.552 0.045*
群落3 Community 3
薄叶润楠 Machilus leptophylla 0.9931 1.0000 0.997 0.001***
红毒茴 Illicium lanceolatum 0.9695 0.8214 0.892 0.001***
紫楠 Phoebe sheareri 1.0000 0.5714 0.756 0.001***
黄牛奶树 Symplocos cochinchinensis var. laurina 0.8482 0.6429 0.738 0.001***
西川朴 Celtis vandervoetiana 1.0000 0.3214 0.567 0.001***
锐角枫 Acer acutum 1.0000 0.2500 0.500 0.002**
胡桃楸 Juglans mandshurica 1.0000 0.2500 0.500 0.001***

Fig. 11

DCA ordination diagram of 78 quadrats with environmental variables. The numbers in the figure are the identification code for each quadrat. a, Viburnum erosum-Ternstroemia gymnanthera/Lithocarpus harlandii + Cyclobalanopsis sessilifolia Association; b, Daphniphyllum oldhami-Lithocarpus glaber/Schima superba + Castanopsis carlesii Association; c, Illicium lanceolatum-Phoebe sheareri/Choerospondias axillaris + Machilus leptophylla Association."

Table 3

The order of species indicator value in five clusters in Tiantong 20 hm2 plot"

特异性Specificity 确限度Fidelity 指示值Indicator value p
类群A Cluster A
杜鹃 Rhododendron simsii 0.8788 0.6667 0.765 0.001***
宜昌荚蒾 Viburnum erosum 0.8281 0.5000 0.643 0.001***
厚皮香 Ternstroemia gymnanthera 0.8056 0.5000 0.635 0.001***
山鸡椒 Litsea cubeba 0.5362 0.4000 0.463 0.001***
迎春樱桃 Cerasus discoidea 0.6071 0.3333 0.450 0.001***
南烛 Vaccinium bracteatum 0.5143 0.3333 0.414 0.003**
豆腐柴 Premna microphylla 0.6000 0.1333 0.283 0.045*
野鸦椿 Euscaphis japonica 0.7500 0.1000 0.274 0.026*
木蜡树 Toxicodendron sylvestre 1.0000 0.0667 0.258 0.029*
类群B Cluster B
Lithocarpus glaber 0.7833 0.6087 0.691 0.001***
杨梅 Myrica rubra 0.6047 0.6087 0.607 0.001***
刺毛越桔 Vaccinium trichocladum 0.5333 0.4783 0.505 0.001***
总状山矾 Symplocos botryantha 0.4688 0.4783 0.473 0.001***
类群E Cluster E
紫楠 Phoebe sheareri 0.9000 0.5806 0.723 0.001***
胡桃楸 Juglans mandshurica 0.9167 0.2581 0.486 0.001***
锐角槭 Acer acutum 0.8333 0.2258 0.434 0.001***
中华卫矛 Euonymus nitidus 0.7000 0.1613 0.336 0.006**
枳椇 Hovenia acerba 0.8750 0.1290 0.336 0.002**
类群B + C Cluster B + C
虎皮楠 Daphniphyllum oldhami 0.8685 0.5889 0.715 0.001***
皱柄冬青 Ilex kengii 0.7812 0.1889 0.384 0.013*
类群D + E Cluster D + E
薄叶润楠 Machilus leptophylla 0.9809 0.7436 0.854 0.001***
红毒茴 Illicium lanceolatum 0.9031 0.6539 0.768 0.001***
黄牛奶树 Symplocos cochinchinensis var. laurina 0.8273 0.5513 0.675 0.001***
西川朴 Celtis vandervoetiana 0.9730 0.3077 0.547 0.001***
无患子 Sapindus saponaria 0.8529 0.2564 0.468 0.001***
糙叶树 Aphananthe aspera 0.8846 0.2308 0.452 0.001***
紫弹树 Celtis biondii 0.8889 0.1923 0.413 0.003**
杭州榆 Ulmus changii 0.9853 0.1410 0.373 0.007**
青钱柳 Cyclocarya paliurus 0.8667 0.1282 0.333 0.009**
大叶旱樱 Cerasus subhirtella 0.8750 0.0897 0.280 0.04*
黐花 Mussaenda esquirolii 1.0000 0.0769 0.277 0.036*
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