Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2015, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (9): 890-900.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0085

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Dynamics and responses of sap flow of typical sand binding plants Haloxylon ammodendron to environmental variables

XU Shi-Qin1,2, JI Xi-Bin1,*(), JIN Bo-Wen1   

  1. 1Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
    2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2015-01-06 Accepted:2015-05-28 Online:2015-09-23 Published:2015-09-03
  • Contact: Xi-Bin JI E-mail:xuanzhij@ns.lzb.ac.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Abstract: <i>Aims</i>

Transpiration is one of important physiological activities for plants, which is regulated by many environmental variables. Our objectives were to understand the responses of sap flow density of Haloxylon ammodendron to environmental variables and simulate its diurnal change under different micrometeorological conditions.

<i>Methods</i>

Sap flow in stems of H. ammodendron was measured with stem heat balance method using commercial sap-flow gauges from May to October, 2014, in the oasis-desert ecotone, located in the middle range of Hexi Corridor, Northwestern China.

<i>Important findings</i>

Sap flow velocity of H. ammodendron exhibited a positive relationship with stem diameter, but sap flow density (Js) decreased with stem diameter. The first three axes of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 49%, 15%, 12% of variances in the environmental datasets, respectively, and vapour pressure deficit (VPD), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature in the first axes indicated the atmospheric evaporative demand. A sigmoid function could explain 86% of the variation in Js in typical sunny days, while only 65% on rainy days. It was worth noting the simulated Js using the established sigmoid function agreed well with the measurements (R2 = 0.90) if the time lags of Js to principle environmental variables were taken into consideration. Plots of 30-min Js against PAR, VPD, and evaporative demand index (EDI) revealed a counter-clockwise hysteresis for PAR, but a clockwise hysteresis for VPD and EDI, it was possibly affected by water stress and time lags of sap flow density to principle environmental variables.

Key words: heat balance method, hysteresis, principle component analysis, simulation, stem sap flow

Tab1

e 1 Basic parameters of measured stems"

编号
Numbers
探头型号
Type of probe
枝直径
Stem diameter (cm)
1 SGA5 0.27
2 SGA9 0.47
3 SGA13 0.75
4 SGA13 0.66
5 SGA19 1.02
6 SGA25 1.32
7 SGB25 1.24

Fig. 1

Variation of sap flow velocity of Haloxylon ammodendron with different diameters. A-G, diameters of 1.32, 1.24, 1.02, 0.75, 0.66, 0.47, 0.27 cm."

Fig. 2

The relationship between stem diameter and average sap flow velocity (A) and density (B)."

Fig. 3

The diurnal change of sap flow density (mean ± SD) and principle environmental variables during study period. PAR, photosynthetic active radiation; VPD, vapour pressure deficit."

Table 2

Correlations among the 30-min averages of weather variables measured during the study period"

环境变量
Environmental
variables
RH VPD Ta Ts Hs V P
PAR 0.45** 0.57** 0.54** 0.21** 0.08** 0.36** -0.08**
RH -0.84** -0.65** -0.50** 0.05** -0.34** 0.22**
VPD 0.89** 0.72** 0.19** 0.42** -0.14**
Ta 0.85** 0.36** 0.42** -0.08**
Ts 0.36** 0.30** -0.02
Hs 0.04** -0.01
V -0.02

Table 3

Eigenvalues and the variance explained by the first three axes of principle component analysis on the weather data"

主成分
Principle
component
特征值
Eigenvalue
解释方差
Total variance
explained (%)
累积解释方差
Cumulative variance
explained (%)
1 3.9 0.49 0.49
2 1.2 0.15 0.64
3 1.0 0.12 0.76

Table 4

Factor loadings of the environmental variables on the first three axes of principle component analysis"

环境变量
Environmental variables
主成分1
Factor 1
主成分2
Factor 2
主成分3
Factor 3
PAR 0.72 -0.02 -0.01
VPD 0.87 0.37 -0.16
Ts 0.54 0.70 -0.07
Hs -0.11 0.88 0.02
V 0.66 -0.03 0.20
P -0.05 0.01 0.96
Ta 0.77 0.58 -0.06
RH -0.82 -0.08 0.29

Fig. 4

Response of sap flow density photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (A), air temperature (B), and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) (C)."

Fig. 5

Daily variation of evaporative demand index (EDI) during the study period."

Fig. 6

Simulation of sap flow density in typical sunny days. SSF, standard sap flow density."

Fig. 7

Simulation of sap flow density in typical rainy days. SSF, standard sap flow density."

Fig. 8

Simulation of sap flow density including sap flow lags. SSF, standard sap flow density."

Fig. 9

Hysteresis between sap flow density and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)(A), vapour pressure deficit (VPD)(B), evaporative demand index (EDI)(C) ."

Fig. 10

Plots of sap flow density observed and simulated against evaporative demand index (EDI)."

Fig. 11

Sap flow density in relation to vapour pressure deficit (VPD) normalized by photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)."

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