Chin J Plant Ecol ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (4): 342-351.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0310

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Influences of stand, soil and space factors on spatial heterogeneity of leaf area index in a spruce-fir valley forest in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China

YANG Huan-Ying1,SONG Jian-Da1,ZHOU Tao1,JIN Guang-Ze2,3,JIANG Feng2,LIU Zhi-Li2,3,*()   

  1. 1 School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
    2 Center for Ecological Research, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
    3 Key Laboratory of Sustainable Forest Ecosystem Management-Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
  • Received:2018-12-07 Revised:2019-04-16 Online:2019-05-30 Published:2019-04-20
  • Contact: LIU Zhi-Li
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31600587);the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2016M590271);the Heilongjiang Postdoctoral Foundation(LBH-TZ1802)


AimsSpatial heterogeneity of leaf area index (LAI) is very important for exploring the growth and spatial distributions of plants, as well as response strategy of plants to climate changes. Many previous studies have shown that biotic and abiotic factors had significant influences on spatial heterogeneity of LAI. However, few studies have been conducted to show the relative contributions of different influencing factors to the total variations of LAI. Our aim was to quantify the relative contributions of stand, soil and space factors to the total spatial variations of LAI in a spruce-fir valley forest in northeast China.
MethodsWe relied on a 9.12 hm 2 (380 m × 240 m) spruce-fir valley forest plot in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China, which was divided into 228 subplots (20 m × 20 m). First, we measured LAI for each subplot by using the LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer and then analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of LAI using geo-statistic methods (semivariogram and Kriging interpolation). Second, we measured 28 stand factors and 10 soil factors for each subplot, and quantified space factors using principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM). Finally, we quantified the relative contributions of stand, soil and space factors to the total spatial variations of LAI using the variance partitioning method.
Important findings The results showed that strong spatial autocorrelations of LAI values within 37 m distances in the spruce-fir valley forest, and the LAI presented different spatial patterns along distinct directions. The stand, soil and space factors totally explained 50.4% of the total spatial variations of LAI in the forest plot. The space factors explained greater spatial variations of LAI in relative to stand and soil factors, and solely explained 25.5% of the total spatial variations. The density of middle tree group (5 cm < diameter at breast height ≤ 10 cm) and basal area of major tree groups (including Abies nephrolepis and Picea spp.) were both significantly and positively correlated with LAI; and soil mass moisture content was significantly and negatively correlated with LAI. These results generally suggest that the spatial autocorrelation is more important than stand factor and soil factor for determining spatial heterogeneity of LAI of the spruce-fir valley forest in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China.

Key words: spruce-fir valley forest, leaf area index, spatial heterogeneity, geostatistical analysis

Fig. 1

Frequency distribution of leaf area index (LAI) in a spruce-fir valley forest in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China. CV, variable coefficient."

Table 1

Theory semivariogram theoretical models and fitted parameters for leaf area index (LAI) values in a spruce-fir valley forest in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China"

Theory model
Nugget (C0)
Sill (C0 + C)
Spatial structure ratio C0/(C0 + C)
Range (A, m)
高斯模型 Gaussian 0.204 1.751 0.117 37 0.887
指数模型 Exponential 0.251 2.541 0.099 53 0.859
球状模型 Spherical 0.079 2.519 0.031 43 0.880

Fig. 2

Spatial distribution of leaf area index (LAI) in a spruce-fir valley forest in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China."

Fig. 3

Anisotropic semivariograms at four directions (east- west (0°), south-north (90°), northeast-southwest (45°), and northwest-southeast (135°)) of leaf area index (LAI) in a spruce- fir valley forest in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China."

Fig. 4

Anisotropy ratios of semivariograms between two directions (0° vs 90° and 45° vs 135°) of leaf area index (LAI) in a spruce-fir valley forest in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China."

Fig. 5

Relative contribution (%) of stand, soil and space factors to variations of leaf area index (LAI) in a spruce-fir valley forest in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China. ***, p < 0.001."

Table 2

Summary statistics of significant influence factors of the spatial distribution of leaf area index (LAI) in a spruce-fir valley forest in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China."

因子 Factor 调整R2 Adjusted R2 F p
a中等树密度 aDensitymid (N·hm-2) 0.17 46.77 0.000 1
aBAmajor (m2·hm-2)
0.05 14.03 0.000 4
a全部树阔针比 aPBBNtotal (%) 0.02 6.36 0.013 0
b容重 bBulk density (g·cm-3) 0.04 9.89 0.036 5
bMass moisture content (g·g-1)
0.02 4.55 0.002 3

Table 3

Descriptive statistical characteristics of the significant influence factors of the spatial distribution of leaf area index (LAI) in a spruce-fir valley forest in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China"

林分因子 Stand factor 土壤因子 Soil factor
Densitymid (N·hm-2)
BAmajor (m2·hm-2)
Bulk density (g·cm-3)
Mass moisture content (g·g-1)
最大值 Maximum 2 750 37.8 2.70 0.63 5.53
最小值 Minimum 50 2.9 0.00 0.12 0.53
平均值 Mean 1 006 15.9 0.26 0.27 2.97
标准偏差 SD 553 6.3 0.31 0.11 1.15
变异系数 CV (%) 55 40 118 40 39

Fig. 6

Relationships between five significant influence factors and leaf area index (LAI) in a spruce-fir valley forest in Xiao Hinggan Ling, China. Densitymid, the density of middle tree group (5 cm < DBH ≤ 10 cm); BAmajor, basal area of major trees; PBBNtotal, the proportion of basal area of broadleaf species to needleleaf species for total trees in a plot."

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