Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2016, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (2): 127-139.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0365

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Composition and temporal dynamics of tree seedlings at different successional stages of conifer and broad-leaved mixed forests in Jiaohe, Jilin Province, China

Yan YAN, Xin-Na ZHANG, Jie YAO, Chun-Yu ZHANG, Xiu-Hai ZHAO*()   

  1. Key Laboratory for Forest Resources & Ecosystem Processes of Beijing, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Online:2016-03-08 Published:2016-02-10
  • Contact: Xiu-Hai ZHAO E-mail:zhaoxh@bjfu.edu.cn

Abstract:

AimsOur objective was to explore the composition and temporal dynamics of woody plant seedlings and the ecological processes that affect the amount of seedlings in Jiaohe, Jilin Province, China. Methods We established a total of 415 seed-seedling census stations in three large permanent field plots belonging to three successional stages in the conifer and broad-leaved mixed forests. Based on three seedling censuses from 2012 to 2014, we analyzed species composition, quantitative character, height-classes structure and their inter-annual dynamics. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between the abundance of seedlings for five major species and the forest types, the sum of the basal area of conspecific adult within 20 m away from a seed trap, as well as canopy openness.Important findings Our results show that: (1) The species composition of seedlings slightly varied among different successional stages, and was similar with that of trees in the plots. The rank of important values for seedling species among different years and successional stages varied slightly. (2) The number of seedlings and seedling species distributed mainly between 5-20 cm height classes, and decreased with the increasing height class. The number of seedlings decreased faster than that of seedling species, indicating that compared with interspecific competition, intraspecific competition was the main driver that led to seedling death. It confirmed the role of the negative density dependence in affecting seedling regeneration. (3) The amount of seedlings for all of the five major species was significantly positively related to the sum of the basal area of conspecific adults, which indicated that the quantity and distribution of seedlings were affected by dispersal limitation as well as niche processes. Our research confirmed the role of negative density dependence, dispersal limitation and niche processes on seedling composition.

Key words: seedling composition, successional stage, negative density-dependence, dispersal limitation, niche processes

Table 1

Summary of permanent forest plots in Jiaohe, Jilin Province, China"

林型
Forest type
样地面积
Plot area
经纬度
Longitude and Latitude
海拔
Elevation (m)
样站数
No. of stations
原始植被
Primary vegetation
中龄林
Half-mature forest
420 m × 520 m 43.97º N, 127.73º E 468-519 99 阔叶红松林
Broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest
成熟林
Mature forest
500 m × 840 m 43.95º N, 127.73º E 459-517 209 阔叶红松林
Broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest
老龄林
Old-growth forest
500 m × 600 m 43.97º N, 127.75º E 576-784 143 阔叶红松林
Broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest

Fig. 1

The layout of monitoring stations in each of three forest plots. HF, half-mature forest; MF, mature forest; OGF, old-growth forest."

Fig. 2

Quadrat layout at each of the sampling station."

Fig. 3

Relative abundance and the number of species by height class distribution in different successional stages. HF, half-mature forest; MF, mature forest; OGF, old-growth forest."

Table 3

Results of the multiple linear regression analysis on the seedling abundance of five species against the forest types, the sum of conspecific basal area within 20 m (A) and canopy openness"

年份 Year 物种 Species CMF COGF A 林冠开阔度 Canopy openness
2013 五角枫 Acer pictum subsp. mono 0.141 0.584 0.473 -0.083
东北枫 Acer mandshuricum -0.187 0.329 0.521 -0.039
水曲柳 Fraxinus mandshurica -0.059 -0.589 0.214 -0.010
青楷枫 Acer tegmentosum 0.086 0.413 0.223 -0.092
紫椴 Tilia amurensis 0.031 0.100 0.246 -0.015
2014 五角枫 Acer pictum subsp. mono 0.135 0.361 0.242 -0.068
东北枫 Acer mandshuricum -0.031 0.281 0.265 0.035
水曲柳 Fraxinus mandshurica 0.061 -0.267 0.193 0.001
青楷枫 Acer tegmentosum 0.021 0.274 0.140 -0.067
紫椴 Tilia amurensis 0.208 0.237 0.301 -0.005
[1] Bin Y, Ye WH, Cao HL, Huang ZL, Lian JY (2011). Seedling distribution in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest plot in the Dinghu Mountain.Biodiversity Science, 19, 127-133.(in Chinese with English abstract)[宾粤, 叶万辉, 曹洪麟, 黄忠良, 练琚愉 (2011). 鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林20公顷样地幼苗的分布. 生物多样性, 19, 127-133.]
[2] Chen JW, Zhang Q, Li XS, Cao KF (2011). Steady and dynamic photosynthetic responses of seedlings from contrasting successional groups under low-light growth conditions.Physiologia Plantarum, 141, 84-95.
[3] Chen L, Mi XC, Comita LS, Zhang LW, Ren HB, Ma KP (2010). Community-level consequences of density dependence and habitat association in a subtropical broad- leaved forest.Ecology letters, 13, 695-704.
[4] Clark CJ, Poulsen JR, Levey DJ (2012). Vertebrate herbivory impacts seedling recruitment more than niche partitioning or density-dependent mortality.Ecology, 93, 554-564.
[5] Comita LS, Hubbell SP (2009). Local neighborhood and species shade tolerance influence survival in a diverse seedling bank.Ecology, 90, 328-334.
[6] Comita LS, Uriarte M, Thompson J, Jonckheere I, Canham CD, Zimmerman JK (2009). Abiotic and biotic drivers of seedling survival in a hurricane-impacted tropical forest.Journal of Ecology, 97, 1346-1359.
[7] Connell JH (1971). On the role of natural enemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in rain forest trees. In: den Boer PJ, Gradwell GR eds. Dynamics of Population. Center for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 289-312.
[8] D'Amato AW, Orwig DA, Foster DR (2009). Understory vegetation in old-growth and second-growth Tsuga canadensis forests in western Massachusetts.Forest Ecology and Management, 257, 1043-1052.
[9] Davies SJ (2001). Tree mortality and growth in 11 sympatric Macaranga species in Borneo.Ecology, 82, 920-932.
[10] Deb P, Sundriyal RC (2008). Tree regeneration and seedling survival patterns in old-growth lowland tropical rainforest in Namdapha National Park, northeast India.Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 3995-4006.
[11] Guo QJ (2013). Effects of Selection and Prescribed Fire Disturbances on Longleaf Pine Seedling Regeneration. PhD dissertation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi. 2-3(in Chinese with English abstract).[郭秋菊 (2013). 择伐和火干扰对长叶松幼苗更新的影响. 博士学位论文, 西北农林科技大学, 陕西杨凌. 2-3.]
[12] Harms KE, Condit R, Hubbell SP, Foster RB (2001). Habitat associations of trees and shrub in a 50-ha neotropical forest plot.Journal of Ecology, 89, 947-959.
[13] Harms KE, Wright SJ, Calderon O, Hernandez A, Herre EA (2000). Pervasive density-dependent recruitment enhances seedling diversity in a tropical forest.Nature, 404, 493-495.
[14] Hou JH, Ma KP (2002). On mechanisms of species coexistence in plant communities.Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 26, 1-8.(in Chinese with English abstract)[侯继华, 马克平 (2002). 植物群落物种共存机制的研究进展. 植物生态学报, 26, 1-8.]
[15] Jansen PA, Visser MD, Wright SJ, Rutten G, Muller-Landau HC, Rejmanek M (2014). Negative density dependence of seed dispersal and seedling recruitment in a neotropical palm.Ecology letters, 17, 1111-1120.
[16] Janzen DH (1970). Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests.The American Society of Naturalists, 104, 501-528.
[17] Kang B, Liu SR, Wang DX, Zhang Y, Liu HR, Du YL (2011). Regeneration characteristics of woody plant seedlings in typical secondary forests in Qinling Mountains.Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 22, 3123-3130.(in Chinese with English abstract)[康冰, 刘世荣, 王得祥, 张莹, 刘红茹, 杜焰玲 (2011). 秦岭山地典型次生林木本植物幼苗更新特征. 应用生态学报, 22, 3123-3130.]
[18] Kang B, Wang DX, Li G, Gao YX, Zhang Y, Du YL (2012). Characteristics of seedlings regeneration in Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata secondary forests in Qinling Mountains.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 32, 2738-2747.(in Chinese with English abstract)[康冰, 王得祥, 李刚, 高妍夏, 张莹, 杜焰玲 (2012). 秦岭山地锐齿栎次生林幼苗更新特征. 生态学报,32 , 2738-2747.]
[19] Lebrija-Trejos E, Wright SJ, Hernandez A, Reich PB (2014). Does relatedness matter? Phylogenetic density-dependent survival of seedlings in a tropical forest.Ecology, 95, 940-951.
[20] LePage PT, Canham CD, Coates KD, Bartemucci P (1999). Seed abundance versus substrate limitation of seedling re- cruitment in northern temperate forests of British Colum- bia.Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30, 415-427.
[21] Li JQ, Zhu N (1990). Population structure of Korean pine and its dynamics.Journal of Ecology, 9, 6-10.(in Chinese with English abstract)[李俊清, 祝宁 (1990). 红松的种群结构与动态过程. 生态学杂志,9, 6-10.]
[22] Li SF, Liu WD, Su JR, Zhang JR, Liu QY (2008). Woody seedling regeneration in secondary succession of monsoon broad-leaved evergreen forest in Puer, Yunnan, Southwest China.Acta Ecologica Sinica,18, 5653-5662.(in Chinese with English abstract)[李帅锋, 刘万德, 苏建荣, 张志钧, 刘庆云 (2008). 普洱季风常绿阔叶林次生演替中木本植物幼苗更新特征. 生态学报, 18, 5653-5662.]
[23] Li X, Xu ZB, Tao DL (1989). Natural regeneration of Korean pine in broad-leaved Korean pine stands Fenglin Natural Reserve of Xiaoxing'anling.Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 17(6), 1-7.(in Chinese with English abstract)[李昕, 徐振邦, 陶大立 (1989). 小兴安岭丰林自然保护区阔叶红松林红松天然更新研究. 东北林业大学学报, 17(6), 1-7.]
[24] Li XL, Wang H, Zheng Z, Lin LX, Deng XB, Cao M (2009). Composition, spatial distribution and survival during the dry season of tree seedlings in a tropical forest in Xinshuangbanna, SW China.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 33, 658-671.(in Chinese with English abstract)[李晓亮, 王洪, 郑征, 林露湘, 邓晓保, 曹敏 (2009). 西双版纳热带森林树种幼苗的组成,空间分布和旱季存活. 植物生态学报,33, 658-671.]
[25] Li XS, Liu WY, Chen JW, Yuan CM (2009). Seedling regeneration in primary moist evergreen broad-leaved forest and different types secondary vegetations in Ailao Mountains.Chinese Journal of Ecology, 28, 1921-1927.(in Chinese with English abstract)[李小双, 刘文耀, 陈军文, 袁春明 (2009). 哀牢山湿性常绿阔叶林及不同类型次生植被的幼苗更新特征. 生态学杂志,28, 1921-1927.]
[26] Li XS, Peng MC, Dang CL (2007). Research progress on natural regeneration of plants.Chinese Journal of Ecology, 26, 2081-2088.(in Chinese with English abstract)[李小双, 彭明春, 党承林 (2007). 植物自然更新研究进展. 生态学杂志, 26, 2081-2088.]
[27] Li Y, Tao JP, Wang YJ, Yu XH, Xi Y (2007). Effects of Far- gesia nitida on regeneration of Abies faxoniana seedlings near the edge of subalpine dark coniferous forest. Journal of Plant Ecology (Chinese Version), 31, 283-290.(in Chi- nese with English abstract)[李媛, 陶建平, 王永健, 余小红, 席一 (2007). 亚高山暗针叶林林缘华西箭竹对岷江冷杉幼苗更新的影响 . 植物生态学报,31,, 283-290.]
[28] Lin LX, Comita LS, Zheng Z, Cao M (2012). Seasonal differentiation in density-dependent seedling survival in a tropical rain forest.Journal of Ecology, 100, 905-914.
[29] Liu ZG, Ji LZ, Hao ZQ, Zhu JJ, Kang HZ (2004). Effect of cone-picking on natural regeneration of Korean pine in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 15, 958-962.(in Chinese with English abstract)[刘足根, 姬兰柱, 郝占庆, 朱教君, 康宏樟 (2004). 松果采摘对长白山自然保护区红松天然更新的影响. 应用生态学报, 15, 958-962.]
[30] Nilsen ET, Walker JF, Miller OK, Semones SW, Lei TT, Clinton BD (1999). Inhibition of seedling survival under Rhododendron maximum (Ericaceae): Could allelopathy be a cause?American Journal of Botany, 86, 1597-1605.
[31] Peng SJ, Huang ZL, Peng SL, Ouyang XJ, Xu GL (2004). Factors influencing mortality of seed and seedling in plant nature regeneration process. Guihaia, 24, 113-121.(in Chinese with English abstract)[彭闪江, 黄忠良, 彭少麟, 欧阳学军, 徐国良 (2004). 植物天然更新过程中种子和幼苗死亡的影响因素. 广西植物,24, 113-121.]
[32] Rüger N, Huth A, Hubbell SP, Condit R (2009). Response of recruitment to light availability across a tropical lowland rain forest community.Journal of Ecology, 97, 1360-1368.
[33] Shang ZH, Long RJ, Ma YS, Ding LM (2008). Spatial heterogeneity and similarity of adult plants and seedlings in "black soil land" secondary weed community, Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Plant Ecology (Chinese Version), 32, 1157-1165.(in Chinese with English abstract)[尚占环, 龙瑞军, 马玉寿, 丁路明 (2008). 青藏高原"黑土滩"次生毒杂草群落成体植株与幼苗空间异质性及相似性分析 . 植物生态学报,32, 1157-1165.]
[34] Su Y, Jiao JY, Wang ZJ (2014). Characteristics of seedling survival in habitats of hill and gully slopes in hill-gully Loess Plateau region of northern Shaanxi.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 38, 694-709.(in Chinese with English abstract)[苏嫄, 焦菊英, 王志杰 (2014). 陕北黄土丘陵沟壑区坡沟立地环境下幼苗的存活特征. 植物生态学报, 38, 694-709.]
[35] Szwagrzyk J, Szewczyk J, Bodziarczyk J (2001). Dynamics of seedling banks in beech forest: Results of a 10-year study on germination, growth and survival.Forest Ecology and Management, 141, 237-250.
[36] Teegalapalli K, Hiremath AJ, Jathanna D (2010). Patterns of seed rain and seedling regeneration in abandoned agricultural clearings in a seasonally dry tropical forest in India.Journal of Tropical Ecology, 26, 25-33.
[37] Turner IM (1990). Tree seedling growth and survival in a Malaysian rain forest.Biotropica, 22, 146-154.
[38] Uriarte M, Canham CD, Thompson J, Zimmerman JK, Brokaw N (2005). Seedling recruitment in a hurricane-driven tropical forest: Light limitation, density-dependence and the spatial distribution of parent trees.Journal of Ecology, 93, 291-304.
[39] von Breugel M, Bongers F, Martíínez-Ramos M (2007). Species dynamics during early secondary forest succession: Recruitment, mortality and species turnover.Biotropica, 35, 610-619.
[40] Wang CH, Li JQ, Chen FQ, Yang Y (2011). Factors affecting seedling regeneration of Liquidambar formosana in the L. formosana forests in hilly regions of Southeast Hubei, China. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 35, 187-194.(in Chinese with English abstract)[王传华, 李俊清, 陈芳清, 杨莹 (2011). 鄂东南低丘地区枫香林下枫香幼苗更新限制因子. 植物生态学报, 35, 187-194.]
[41] Willand JE, Baer SG, Gibson DJ, Klopf RP (2013). Temporal dynamics of plant community regeneration sources during tallgrass prairie restoration.Plant Ecology, 214, 1169-1180.
[42] Yan Y, Zhang C, Wang Y, Zhao X, von Gadow K (2015). Drivers of seedling survival in a temperate forest and their relative importance at three stages of succession.Ecology and Evolution. 5, 4287-4299.
[43] Yao J, Yan Y, Zhang CY, Pi TH, Zhao XH (2015). Composi- tion and monthly dynamics of tree seedlings in a conifer- ous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Jiaohe, Jilin Prov- ince, China.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 39, 717-725.(in Chinese with English abstract)[姚杰, 闫琰, 张春雨, 邳田辉, 赵秀海 (2015). 吉林蛟河针阔混交林乔木幼苗组成与月际动态. 植物生态学报, 39, 717-725.]
[44] Yin HJ, Cheng XY, Lai T, Lin B, Liu Q (2011). Seed rain, soil seed bank and seedling regeneration in a 65-year Picea asperata plantation in subalpine coniferous, western Sichuan, China.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 35, 35-44.(in Chinese with English abstract)[尹华军, 程新颖, 赖挺, 林波, 刘庆 (2011). 川西亚高山65年人工云杉林种子雨,种子库和幼苗定居研究 . 植物生态学报,35, 35-44.]
[45] Yu F, Shi XX, Chen LL, Huang QP, Song B (2013). Species composition and regeneration characteristics of main woody plant seedlings in a pine-oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains.Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 33, 592-598.(in Chinese with English abstract)[于飞, 史晓晓, 陈莉莉, 黄青平, 宋彬 (2013). 秦岭山地松栎混交林主要木本植物组成及更新特征 . 西北植物学报, 33, 592-598.]
[46] Yu XY, Li YH (2010). Characteristics of woody plant regeneration in karren-habitats successional plant communities in Yunnan Shilin karst area of China. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 34, 889-897.(in Chinese with English abstract)[俞筱押, 李玉辉 ( 2010). 滇石林喀斯特植物群落不同演替阶段的溶痕生境中木本植物的更新特征. 植物生态学报, 34, 889-897.]
[47] Zhang J, Li BH, Bai XJ, Yuan ZQ, Wang XG, Ye J (2009). Composition and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings in broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in Changbai Mountain.Chinese Biodiversity, 17, 385-396.(in Chinese with English abstract)[张健, 李步杭, 白雪娇, 原作强, 王绪高, 叶吉 (2009). 长白山阔叶红松林乔木树种幼苗组成及其年际动态. 生物多样性,17, 385-396.]
[1] SHI Jing-Jing,ZHAO Ming-Fei,WANG Yu-Hang,XUE Feng,KANG Mu-Yi,JIANG Yuan. Community assembly of herbaceous layer of the planted forests in the central Loess Plateau, China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(9): 834-842.
[2] Liu Xiangyu, Zhao Ciliang, Xu Mingshan, Liang Qiming, Zhu Xiaotong, Li Liang, Yan Enrong. Beta diversity of vascular plants and its drivers in sea-islands of eastern China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(4): 380-387.
[3] LIU Jin-Liang, YU Ming-Jian. Community assembly processes in fragmented forests and its testing methods [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(11): 929-945.
[4] LIU Xiang-Yu, HE Dong, TIAN Wen-Bin, SONG Yan-Jun, YIN Fang, XU Ming-Shan, CHENG Jun-Yang, YAN En-Rong. Patterns of species associations in woody plants in forest communities of Putuoshan Island, Zhejiang, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2017, 41(12): 1219-1227.
[5] Yang Meng, Yue Qiu, Liang Zhang, Cuiling Wang, Zhenhua Zang, Xueyao Zhang, Guozhen Shen, Caifeng Yan, Quansheng Chen. Effects of geographical distance and differences in climate and altitude on species dissimilarity of vascular plant communities in the Dulongjiang River Watershed Area [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(12): 1313-1320.
[6] Mingfei Zhao,Guoyi Wang,Kaixiong Xing,Yuhang Wang,Feng Xue,Muyi Kang,Kai Luo. Patterns and determinants of species similarity decay of forest communities in the western Qinling Mountains [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(1): 3-10.
[7] Xinhui Li,Yanhong Liu,Ye Liu,Yue Xu,Yang Yang,Zehao Shen. Impacts of geographical distances and environmental differences on the beta diversity of plant communities in the dry-hot valley of the Yuanjiang River [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(4): 399-406.
[8] Jiaxiang Li,Xu Zhang,Zongqiang Xie,Congfa Lu,Xiangyang Tu,Yuan Xun. Community composition and structure of Rhododendron simsii shrubland in the Dawei Mountain, Hunan Province [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(6): 815-823.
[9] Bei Yao,Jianping Yu,Xiaojuan Liu,Xiangcheng Mi,Keping Ma. Effect of seed traits on spatial aggregation of trees in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(2): 157-166.
[10] CHEN Yun-Yu,XIONG De-Cheng,HUANG Jin-Xue,WANG Wei-Wei,HU Shuang-Cheng,DENG Fei,XU Chen-Sen,FENG Jian-Xin,SHI Shun-Zeng,ZHONG Bo-Yuan,CHEN Guang-Shui. Fine root production of Pinus massoniana plantation and Castanopsis carlesii plantation at different successional stages in subtropical China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2015, 39(11): 1071-1081.
[11] HUANG Yun-Feng, DING Yi, ZANG Run-Guo, LI Xiao-Cheng, ZOU Zheng-Chong, and HAN Wen-Tao. Spatial pattern of trees in tropical lowland rain forest in Bawangling of Hainan Island, China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2012, 36(4): 269-280.
[12] Yue Bin, Wanhui Ye, Honglin Cao, Zhongliang Huang, Juyu Lian. Seedling distribution in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest plot in the Dinghu Mountain [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2011, 19(2): 127-133.
[13] Yan Zhu, Fan Bai, Haifeng Liu, Wenchao Li, Liang Li, Guangqi Li, Shunzhong Wang, Weiguo Sang. Population distribution patterns and interspecific spatial associations in warm temperate secondary forests, Beijing [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2011, 19(2): 252-259.
[14] Shengbin Chen, Zhiyun Ouyang, Weihua Xu, Yi Xiao. A review of beta diversity studies [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2010, 18(4): 323-335.
[15] ZHOU Chuan-Yan, ZHOU Guo-Yi, YAN Jun-Hua, WANG Xu. LONG-TERM COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE HYDROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FORESTS IN DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL STAGES IN THE DINGHUSHAN BIOSPHERE RESERVE, GUANGDONG PROVINCE, CHINA [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2005, 29(2): 208-217.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 19 .
[2] Xiao Xiao and Cheng Zhen-qi. Chloroplast 4.5 S ribosomol DNA. II Gene and Origin[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1985, 3(06): 7 -9 .
[3] CAO Cui-LingLI Sheng-Xiu. Effect of Nitrogen Level on the Photosynthetic Rate, NR Activity and the Contents of Nucleic Acid of Wheat Leaf in the Stage of Reproduction[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(03): 319 -324 .
[4] SONG Li-Ying TAN Zheng GAO Feng DENG Shu-Yan. Advances in in vitro Culture of Cucurbitaceae in China[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2004, 21(03): 360 -366 .
[5] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 76 .
[6] LI Jun-De YANG Jian WANG Yu-Fei. Aquatic Plants in the Miocene Shanwang Flora[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2000, 17(专辑): 261 .
[7] XU Jing-Xian WANG Yu-Fei YANG Jian PU Guang-Rong ZHANG Cui-Fen. Advances in the Research of Tertiary Flora and Climate in Yunnan[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2000, 17(专辑): 84 -94 .
[8] Sun Zhen-xiao Xia Guang-min Chen Hui-min. Karyotype Analysis of Psathyrostachys juncea[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(01): 56 .
[9] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 8 -9 .
[10] Yunpu Zheng;Jiancheng Zhao * ;Bingchang Zhang;Lin Li;Yuanming Zhang . Advances on Ecological Studies of Algae and Mosses in Biological Soil Crust[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2009, 44(03): 371 -378 .