The Beishan Mountain of Jinhua is located in the northern part of the mid-subtropical region. In vegetation division, this region belongs to the northern sub-zone of mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest vegetation belt. The vegetation in this mountain is a secondary forest restored from a severe deforestation. It is currently in a rapid process of positive succession. Thus, this region is suitable for studying the dynamics and succession mechanisms of plant communities and the restoration of degraded ecosystems. To further understand the community characteristics of the main vegetation types in Beishan Mountain, we surveyed the main plant communities on its southern slope with a fixed plot method (the plot area is 30 m × 30 m for forests and 20 m × 10 m, 30 m × 10 m for shrubs) based on the internationally accepted forest survey approach used in the survey of dynamic forest plots. The species composition, quantitative characteristics and habitat information of all plant communities were investigated and recorded. The importance values of trees and shrubs were calculated. The community types and their characteristics were analyzed. The spatial distribution maps of the major trees and shrubs in each plot were also drawn. In the present study, detailed community data for 24 sampled plots representing 11 formations were presented (consisting of 21 forest plots and 3 shrub plots).
Scrubland is the most important vegetation component in Helan Mountains, Nei Mongol, but remians very poorly studied. In order to understand the distribution and growth status of the scrubland resources in this area, the shrub communities in the National Nature Reserve of Helan Mountains were sampled. Using the community data, the characteristics of the community structure were quantitatively analyzed. The results show that the shrub communities along an altitudinal gradient in the National Nature Reserve of Helan Mountains include the following formations: Form. Cotoneaster soongoricus, Form. Syringa oblata, Form. Potentilla parvifolia, Form. Ostryopsis davidiana, Form. Lonicera microphylla, Form. Potentilla glabra, Form. Salix oritrepha and Form. Caragana jubata. Furthermore, we also provide the data on species composition and structures of these montane shrub communities, which could provide insight for the conservation and management of these valuable communities.
Thymus mongolicus steppe was a vegetation formation dominated by typical dwarf semi-shrub of Lamiaceae. Based on the previous literatures and primary plot data sampled during the growing seasons from 2015 to 2017, the distribution, ecological features, community characteristics and classification of Thymus mongolicus steppe were summarized. (1) Thymus mongolicus steppe is mainly distributed on the loess hills of Xar Moron River Watershed, Bashang region in the northwest of Hebei Province, the hills surrounding the Yinshan Mountains, the east part of Erdos Plateau and the northern Loess Plateau. This formation occurrs mainly on the stony slopes or loess hills with severe soil erosion. (2) In total, 167 seed plant species belonging to 101 genera of 34 families were recorded in the 91 sample sites, and families of Compositae, Leguminosae and Gramineae played crucial roles in the species composition. Eight of these families were semi-shrub and dwarf semi-shrub species, and 112 were perennial forb species. Typical xerophytes (58 species) and Meso-xerophytes (45 species) account for more than half part of all species. Eight geographic elements were involved. East Palaearctic (70 species) and East Asia (46 species) were the two major floristic elements. (3) Based on life form and dominance of species in the community, the formation was classified into 6 association groups (Thymus mongolicus, dwarf shrubs/dwarf semi-shurbs association group; Thymus mongolicus association group; Thymus mongolicus, bunchgrasses association group; Thymus mongolicus, rhizomatous grasses association group; Thymus mongolicus, Carex association group; Thymus mongolicus, forbs association group), consisting of 28 associations.
Aims Stipa tianschanicavar. gobica steppe is mainly distributed on the rocky slopes or rocky hills of desert steppe region, and can also be found in rocky hills or mountains of the typical steppe area eastwardly and some rocky slopes of the desert region westwardly. The main vegetation types of S. tianschanicavar. gobica steppe in China were investigated in this paper, and based on the 115 plot samples, the characteristics of the main desert steppe plant communities from the main vegetation types were quantitatively described. And the results showed that: according to the quadrat data, 272 seed plants belonging to 38 families and 127 genera (including the subspecies, varieties and forms) were recorded in the S. tianschanicavar. gobica steppe of China, among which there were 3 gymnosperm species belonging to 1 families and 1 genera, and 269 angiosperm species belonging to 37 families and 126 genera. The families having more than 10 species were Compositae, Poaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Liliaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Caryophyllaceae respectively. Hemicryptophyte, with a total of 178 species is the dominant life form in S. tianschanicavar. gobica steppe, which accounted for 65.44% of the total species. As for the ecological type of water, xerophytes was the dominant plants, with a total of 120 species, accounting for 44.12% of all species. East Palaeo-North element areal-type (including 82 species) and Middle Asia element (included the variants) areal-type (including 80 species) were the major floristic elements, containing 30.14% and 29.41% of the total species. The coverage of 0.1%-1% was the dominant level in the cover class distribution of the species, including 63.97% of the total species. The constancy degree of I (0-20%) was the dominant level in the constancy degree distribution of the species in S. tianschanicavar. gobica steppe, containing 94.85% of all the species. In accordance with the classification principle of community-appearance, Form. S. tianschanicavar. gobica was divided into 8 S. tianschanicavar. gobica steppe association groups, and 106 associations were divided from these 8 association groups based on community survey data.
Stipa tianschanica var. klemenzii steppe is the most typical formation of desert steppe in China. Based on the primary plots data obtained from fieldworks during the growing seasons from 2010 to 2016 as well as some earlier records, we studied the Stipa tianschanica var. klemenzii steppe across China systematically, including the eco-geographical distributions, community characteristics and classifications. The results showed that S. tianschanica var. klemenzii steppe distributed mainly on the Ulan Qab Plateau and western Xilin Gol Plateau. Due to the arid biotope of S. tianschanica var. klemenzii steppe, quantitative characteristics of the assemblage including height, coverage, biomass and species richness were normally lower than that of most Stipa formations in Eurasian steppe region. Moreover, 165 seed plants belonging to 85 genera and 29 families were recorded in the 80 study sites, in which rare species (occurrence frequency <20%) made up 87% of the total plants while common species and constant species could only be found occasionally. Species with the occurrence frequency exceeding 50% included S. tianschanica var. klemenzii, Convolvulus ammannii, Cleistogenes songorica, Allium tenuissimum. In addition, Hemicryptophyte and therophyte were the two dominant life forms, covering 55% and 20% of the species, respectively. As for the ecological type of water, typical xerophytes accounted for 47% of all species which is followed by super-xerophytes and meso-xerophytes. Middle Asian areal-type and east Palaeo-North areal-type were the two major floristic elements, containing 37% and 26% of the species, respectively. Based on the life forms and dominances of the species within the community, S. tianschanica var. klemenzii steppe in China could be classified into 6 association groups, 29 associations.
The endangerment mechanism of rare conifer species is a very critical problem in conservation biodiversity. Thus, the studies on the protection of the rare and endangered coniferous trees have received extensive attention. The objective of this study was to understand the survival and distribution of the rare coniferous tree species in natural forests of the Poyang Lake Basin. Field investigations on plant communities were conducted in 21 plots from Oct. 2014 to Oct. 2015. These plots were distributed in the Nanling Mountains, Luoxiao Mountains, Wuyi Mountains, Huangshan Mountains, and Jiuling Mountain. The dimensions of each plot were 20 m × 20 m. Community species composition and quantitative characteristics in each plot were recorded. The importance values of trees, shrubs and herbs were computed, respectively. The community types and structural properties were analyzed. A total of 23 sets of community sampling data were obtained in details. A number of 11 species of rare conifers were found in 14 different formations. Rare conifer trees mainly occurred in the communities as co-edificatos or companion species. The formations included Form. Taxus wallichiana var. mairei, Form. Pseudotsuga sinensis, Form. Fokienia hodginsii and Form. Torreya grandis, where the dominant species was coniferous trees. In conclusion, our study provides valuable field investigation data of rare coniferous in Poyang Lake basin, which could provide insight into the protection and management of these species.
The main vegetation types of Kalamaili Nature Reserve in east Junggar Basin were investigated in this paper, and based on the data from 54 plot samples, the characteristics of the main desert plant communities from the main vegetation types were quantitatively described. And the results showed that, the vegetation in this reserve can be divided in to 9 major desert plant community types were recognized: Form. Haloxylon ammodendron, Form. Krascheninnikovia ceratoides, Form. Atraphaxis spinosa, Form. Reaumuria songarica, Form. Artemisia songarica, Form. Convolvulus tragacanthoides, Form. Anabasis salsa, Form. Stipa glareosa and Form. Seriphidium terrae-albae, and then, 16 associations were divided from these 9 major community types.
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