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Chin J Plan Ecolo    1958, 1 (1): 90-180.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.1958.01.003
Abstract2799)      PDF (8661KB)(6918)       Save
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GONG Chun-Mei, NING Peng-Bo, WANG Gen-Xuan, LIANG Zong-Suo
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2009, 33 (1): 206-221.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2009.01.023
Abstract3180)      PDF (722KB)(5067)       Save
Three photosynthetic pathways are used by plants: C3, which most plants use, C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). C3 is the ancestral pathway, with C4 and CAM representing recently diverged forms. We conclude that the variation and evolution of photosynthetic pathway of C3 and C4 are adaptations to environmental stresses. First, we discuss the evolutional future of photosynthetic pathways. It has been suggested that low atmosphere CO2, enhanced temperatures, drought and salinity are external drivers of C4 photosynthetic evolution. Second, we analyze the possibility of evolution from C3 to C4. The polyphyletic evolution of the C4 pathway suggests that the transition from C3 to C4 was relatively simple. This suggestion is supported by the observation that both C3 and C4 plants possess inherent plasticity in their photosynthetic characteristics. The stress causing the shift from C3 to C4 was involved in the environmental regulation of plants, and the C4 pathway in C3 plants evolved as an adaptation. The environmental stresses may have involved plant capacities for survivorship and competition in arid areas. Third, we present a simplistic model of the main phases of C4 photosynthetic evolution and discuss the variation and evolution of C3 and C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilating pathways. Evolution was not directly to C4 photosynthesis, so each step had to be stable, beginning with numerous preconditions needed for an evolutionary lineage to begin evolving C4 characteristics. A current complication of C4 photosynthetic evolution is global climate change and human manipulation of the biosphere. It is possible that C4 photosynthesis can be used to resist adversity and increase the yield of C3 crops. In conclusion, study of the evolution of photosynthetic pathway in plants provided insight into the photosynthetic physiology of plants under stress and provided new theory to reconstruct vegetation, enhance crop yield, and explain adaptation of C3 species in arid areas.
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Review of current progress in the metabolomics for plant response to abiotic stress
TENG Zhong-Qiu, FU Hui-Qing, JIA Shao-Hua, MENG Wei-Wei, DAI Rong-Ji, DENG Yu-Lin
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2011, 35 (1): 110-118.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2011.00110
Abstract2928)      PDF (296KB)(5065)       Save

Metabolomics is an important platform for studying stress in plants. We can qualify and quantify the metabolites of plants with environment stress using modern analytical techniques. The metabolomics data can be further studied by correlating with transcriptomics and genomics data. The combination of ‘omics’ platforms is an essential tool for systems analyses of plants to determine the mechanics of plant response to environment stress. We review recent studies of plant response to abiotic stress using metabolomics method and combination of different ‘omics’ platforms.

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Cited: CSCD(17)
Advances and perspective in research on plant-soil-microbe interactions mediated by root exudates
WU Lin-Kun, LIN Xiang-Min, and LIN Wen-Xiong
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2014, 38 (3): 298-310.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2014.00027
Abstract2793)      PDF (367KB)(4797)       Save

Root exudates have specialized roles in nutrient cycling and signal transduction between a root system and soil, as well as in plant response to environmental stresses. They are the key regulators in rhizosphere communication, and can modify the biological and physical interactions between roots and soil organisms. Root exudates play important roles in biogeochemical cycle, regulation of rhizospheric ecological processes, and plant growth and development, and so on. Root exudates also serve roles in the plant-plant, plant-microbe, and microbe-microbe interactions. Plant allelopathy, intercropping system, bioremediation, and biological invasion are all the focal subjects in the field of contemporary agricultural ecology. They all involve the complex biological processes in rhizosphere. There are increasing evidences that various positive and negative plant-plant interactions within or among plant populations, such as allelopathy, consecutive monoculture problem, and interspecific facilitation in intercropping system, are all the results of the integrative effect of plant-microbe interactions mediated by root exudates. Recently, with the development of biotechnology, the methods and technologies relating to soil ecological research have achieved a remarkable progress. In particular, the breakthroughs of meta-omics technologies, including environmental metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabonomics, have largely enriched our knowledge of the soil biological world and the biodiversity and function diversity belowground. Research on plant-soil-microbe interactions mediated by root exudates has important implications for elucidating the functions of rhizosphere microecology and for providing practical guidelines. The concept and components of root exudates as well as the functions are reviewed in this paper. An overview on the root-bacteria, root-fungi, and root-fauna interactions is presented in detail. Methods to study root exudates and microbial communities are reviewed and the aspects needed to be further studied are also suggested.

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Cited: CSCD(98)
Distribution pattern and environmental interpretation of plant species diversity in the mountainous region of Ili River Valley, Xinjiang, China
XU Yuan-Jie, CHEN Ya-Ning, LI Wei-Hong, FU Ai-Hong, MA Xiao-Dong, GUI Dong-Wei, CHEN Ya-Peng
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (10): 1142-1154.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.10.003
Abstract2897)      PDF (538KB)(4596)       Save
Aims Our major objective was to reveal the distribution pattern of plant species diversity in the mountainous region of Ili River Valley, Xinjiang, China and explore how environmental gradients influenced the pattern. Methods Based on a survey of 94 sample plots in the study area, DCCA was performed to analyze the relationships between diversity indices and environmental gradients and GAM was employed to model the response curve of diversity indices to elevation. Important findings We recorded 259 plant species, including 235 herbaceous species; the species of woody plants were very limited. Communities with complex vertical structure had higher values of diversity. The distribution pattern of species diversity on the northern slope was affected by elevation, slope aspect, slope gradient, total nitrogen, total potassium, soil water content, organic matter, etc., and that on the southern slope was mainly affected by slope gradient, elevation, available phosphorus, soil water content, etc. On the northern slope, Patrick index and Shannon-Wiener index had a bimodal pattern with elevation and Simpson index and Pielou index showed a partially unimodal pattern. On the southern slope all the distribution pattern of species diversity indices showed two peaks, though that of the Patrick index was not obvious. These patterns were formed by the synthetic action of a variety of environmental factors in which elevation played an important role.
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Cited: CSCD(42)
LIU En-Ke, ZHAO Bing-Qiang, LI Xiu-Ying, JIANG Rui-Bo, LI Yan-Ting, HWAT Bing So
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2008, 32 (1): 176-182.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2008.01.020
Abstract4610)      PDF (371KB)(4289)       Save
Aims Cropping practices and fertilizer/organic matter application affects the soil microbial growth and activity. In china, only few studies have been conducted on the influence of long-term fertilizer and organic matter with fertilizer application on the soil biological properties. Our objective was to study the changes in soil biological and biochemical characteristics under a long-term (15 years) field experiment involving fertility treatments (inorganic fertilizers and organic matter with fertilizers) and two crop rotation systems.
Methods In 1990, thirteen different treatments were established in the Drab Fluvo-aquic soil in Beijing for the long-term experiment. Six treatments werechosen in this study. Four were in a wheat-maize rotation receiving no fertilizer (CK), mineral fertilizers (NPK), mineral fertilizers plus farmyard manure (NPKM) and mineral fertilizers with maize straw incorporated (NPKS). One was in a wheat-maize/wheat-soybean rotation receiving NPK (NPKF). The other was abandoned arable land (CK0) growing weeds. The amount of chemical fertilizer per year was N 150 kg•hm-2, P2O5 75 kg•hm-2, K2O 45 kg•hm-2, manure 22.5 Mg•hm-2 and maize straw 2.25 Mg•hm-2. Established methods were used to analyze soil enzymes and soil physical and chemical characteristics. Analysis was done using an integrative method combining correlation and component analyses in SPSS. Important findings The soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) content, microbial biomass C (SMB-C) & N (SMB-N), activities of soil invertase, phosphatase and urease, and the ratio of SMB-C/SOC and SMB-N/STN were found higher in long-term (15 years) abandoned arable land than those in cultivated arable land soils. However, the soil metabolic quotient, pH value and bulk density of fallow soil were lower than those in cultivated arable land soils. The soil nutrient concentration, microbial biomass C & N, activities of soil invertase, phosphatase and urease, were higher in treatments with fertilizer application
(NPK, NPKM, NPKS and NPKF) compared to no fertilizer application treatment (CK). The above soil parameters were also found higher in wheat-maize/wheat-soybean rotation cropping system compared to continuous wheat-maize cropping system. Among the fertilizer application treatments (NPK, NPKM, NPKS and NPKF), NPKM had relative higher soil nutrient concentration, microbial biomass C & N, and enzyme activities compared to other fertilizer application treatments. However, the soil metabolic quotient, pH value and bulk density of NPKM were lower than them.
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Cited: CSCD(136)
Advances in Plant Proteomics
LIANG Yu, JING Yu-Xiang, SHEN Shi-Hua
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2004, 28 (1): 114-125.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2004.0017
Abstract2598)      PDF (432KB)(3990)       Save

Proteomics is one of the most active research fields in the post-genomic era. The concepts, research methods and major applications of proteomics in plant science are briefly introduced in this paper. The term “proteomics" comes from two words, “protein" and “genome" and refers to the proteins expressed by the whole genome or the presence and action modes of all the proteins in a cell, tissue, organ, and whole organism. It is generally acknowledged that the field of plant proteomics was based much on the development and improvement of techniques and methods, such as two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E), mass spectrometry (MS), protein chips, yeast two-hybrid system, and proteomic databases. In population genetics, proteomic techniques are helpful in studies of genetic diversity and mutation. In individual plants, proteomic studies are helpful in understanding the response of plants to biotic and abiotic environmental factors. Proteomic differences among different plant tissues or organs could be used to better understand tissue differentiation and development of the plant embryo. Proteomic differences also exist between organelles in plant cells, and plant proteomic studies could be used to understand mechanisms that control many physiological processes. Different perspectives of proteomics were also discussed in this paper.

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Cited: CSCD(6)
A brief introduction of structural equation model and its application in ecology
WANG You-Shi, CHU Cheng-Jin
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2011, 35 (3): 337-344.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2011.00337
Abstract3169)      PDF (341KB)(3676)       Save

Natural systems are essentially complex. In most cases, fully understanding natural systems requires the capacity to examine simultaneous influences and responses among multiple interacting factors. Compared with traditional multivariate methods, structural equation model (SEM) could specify the causal or dependent relationships among variables using the prior knowledge of researchers before conducting relevant experiments, i.e. initial models. SEM could not only identify the individual path coefficient for each relationship, but also estimate the whole model fit to determine whether to revise the initial models. We attempt to introduce SEM from the following aspects: definition and types of variables in SEM, detailed procedures for how to analyze data through SEM, some applications of SEM in ecology and recommended software. We encourage more researchers to apply SEM in ecological data analyses in order to improve understanding of natural systems and advance the field of ecology.

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Cited: CSCD(13)
A review on modeling of responses of photosynthesis to light and CO2
YE Zi-Piao
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (6): 727-740.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.06.012
Abstract2662)      PDF (538KB)(3653)       Save
The light and CO2 response curve of photosynthesis is an important tool to study plant physiology and plant ecology that can provide a scientific basis for the response of plant photosynthetic properties to environmental factors. This review considered the progress and potential weaknesses of light and CO2 response models of photosynthesis and discussed research trends. Photosynthesis, which involves energy of light, absorption, energy conversion, electron transfer, ATP synthesis, CO2 fixation etc., is a complex physical and chemical reaction process. It includes three basic steps: the primary reaction, the assimilatory power forms and the carbon assimilation, and each link may directly influence other processes. Classical models on photosynthetic light response only involve with light energy absorption, and biochemistry models do with the assimilatory power to form as well as carbon assimilation. A future direction of research of the mechanistic model of photosynthetic light response is the primary reaction of photosynthesis, namely participation the energy of light absorption, the transmission and the transformation of the harvesting light pigment member the physical parameter (e.g., the light-harvesting pigment molecules, light energy absorption cross-section of the harvesting pigment, the mean lifetime of the harvesting light pigment) unify in the biochemistry model.
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Review of research advancements on the molecular basis and regulation of symbiotic nodulation of legumes
CHOU Min-Xia, WEI Xin-Yuan
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (7): 876-888.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.07.013
Abstract1824)      PDF (1104KB)(3490)       Save
The symbiosis between leguminous plants and rhizobia leads to the formation of a novel root organ, the nodule. In mature nodules, rhizobia provide the host plant with ammonium, which is produced through bacterial nitrogen fixation. The symbiotic interactions involve the perception of bacterial signaling factors called Nod factors (NFs) by plant host, the NF signaling pathway, the formation of infection threads and the development of nodule in the cortex. Although this nodule formation is beneficial for host plants to secure a nitrogen resource, overproduction of nodules could deleteriously affect plant growth. Legume plants avoid this by utilizing a negative feedback regulation known as autoregulation of nodulation (AON), in which earlier formed nodules suppress further nodulation through shoot-root communication. We summarize nodule formation and types and highlight recent studies on the molecular basis underlying NF signaling cascade, AON and effects of environmental nitrogen conditions on nodulation. We also discuss current research problems and reflect on the future of this field.
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Cited: CSCD(8)
ZHU Wen-Quan, PAN Yao-Zhong, ZHANG Jin-Shui
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2007, 31 (3): 413-424.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2007.0050
Abstract3881)      PDF (585KB)(3297)       Save

Aims Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Model simulation is commonly used to estimate regional and global NPP given difficulties to directly measureNPP at such spatial scales. A number of NPP models have been developed in recent years as research issues related to food security and biotic response to climatic warming have become more compelling. However, large uncertainties still exist because of the complexity of ecosystems and difficulties in determining some key model parameters.
Methods We developed an estimation model of NPP based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology. The vegetation types and their classification accuracy are simultaneously introduced to the computation of some key vegetation parameters, such as the maximum value of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for different vegetation types. This can remove some noise from the remote sensing data and the statistical errors of vegetation classification. It also provides a basis for the sensitivity analysis ofNPP on the classification accuracy. The maximum light use efficiency (LUE) for some typical vegetation types in China is simulated using a modified least squares function based on NOAA/AVHRR remote sensing data and field-observed NPP data. The simulated values of LUE are greater than the value used in the CASA model and less than the values simulated with the BIOME-BGC model. The computation of the water restriction factor is driven with ground meteorological data and remote sensing data, and complex soil parameters are avoided. Results are compared with other studies and models.
Important findings The simulated mean NPP in Chinese terrestrial vegetation from 1989-1993 is 3.12 Pg C (1 Pg=1015 g). The simulated NPP is close to the observedNPP, and the total mean relative error is 4.5%for 690 NPP observation stations distributed in the whole country. This illustrates the utility of the model for the estimation of terrestrial primary production over regional scales.

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Cited: CSCD(196)
MENG Ting-Ting, NI Jian, Wang Guo-Hong
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2007, 31 (1): 150-165.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2007.0019
Abstract3803)      PDF (682KB)(3254)       Save

Plant traits link environmental factors, individuals and ecosystem structure and functions as plants respond and adapt to the environment. This review introduces worldwide classification schemes of plant functional traits and summarizes research on the relationships between plant functional traits and environmental factors such as climate (e.g., temperature, precipitation and light), geographical variation (e.g., topography, ecological gradients and altitude), nutrients and disturbance (including fire, grazing, invasion and land use), as well as between plant functional traits and ecosystem functions. We synthesize impacts of global change (e.g., climate change) on plant functional traits of individuals and plant communities. Research on plant functional traits is very fruitful, being applicable to research on global change, paleovegetation and paleoclimate reconstruction, environmental monitoring and assessment and vegetation conservation and restoration. However, further studies at large scale and including multi-environmental factors are needed and methods of measuring traits need to be improved. In the future, study of plant functional traits in China should be accelerated in a clear and systematic way.

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Cited: CSCD(157)
Comparative evaluation of multiple models of the effects of climate change on the potential distribution of Pinus massoniana
ZHANG Lei, LIU Shi-Rong, SUN Peng-Sen, and WANG Tong-Li
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2011, 35 (11): 1091-1105.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2011.01091
Abstract2541)      PDF (1078KB)(3243)       Save

Aims New, powerful statistical techniques and GIS tools have resulted in a plethora of methods for modelling species distribution. However, little is known about the relative performance of different models in simulating and projecting species’ distributions under future climate. Our objective is to compare novel ensemble learning models with other conventional models by modelling the potential distribution of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) and identifying and quantifying differences in model outputs.
Methods We simulated Masson pine potential distribution (baseline 1961–1990) and projected future potential distributions for three time periods (2010–2039, 2040–2069 and 2070–2099) using three global circulation models (GCM) (MIROC32_medres, JP; CCCMA_CGCM3, CA, and BCCR-BCM2.0, NW), one pessimistic SRES emissions scenario (A2), three ensemble learning models (random forest, RF; generalized boosted model, GBM, and NeuralEnsembles) and three conventional models (generalized linear model, GLM; generalized additive models, GAM, and classification and regression model, CART). The environmental envelope method was used to select absence of species. The area under the curve (AUC) values of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve, Kappa and true skill statistic (TSS) were used to objectively assess the predictive accuracy of each model. National standards for seed zone of Masson pine (GB 8822.6-1988) was employed to intuitively assess model performance. We developed ClimateChina software to downscale current and future GCM climate data and calculate seasonal and annual climate variables for specific locations based on latitude, longitude and elevation.
Important findings Ensemble learning models (GBM, NeuralEnsembles and RF) achieved a higher predictive success in simulating the distribution of Masson pine compared to other conventional models (CART, GAM and GLM). RF had the highest predictive accuracy, and CART had the lowest. Masson pine shows a globally consistent pattern in response to climate change for the three GCMs and six models, i.e., Masson pine will likely gradually shift northward and expand its distribution under altered future climate, with the magnitude of range changes dependent on model classes and GCMs. RF predicts a greater magnitude of range changes than other models. Projections of Masson pine distribution by NW are more conservative than JP and CA climate scenarios. In the case of Masson pine, range changes are mainly attributed to the colonization of newly available suitable habitat in high-latitudes and unchanging habitat suitability in the south-central part of its baseline range. Differences among 18 projections (6 models × 3 GCMs) increase with increasing time, and the greatest spatial uncertainty in projections is mainly in the north and west borders of the potential distribution range.

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Cited: CSCD(28)
TENG Nian-Jun, CHEN Tong, LIN Jin-Xing
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2006, 30 (6): 1054-1063.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2006.0134
Abstract2409)      PDF (399KB)(3198)       Save

Plant reproductive traits are key characteristics for predicting the impacts of global changes on plant community, agro-ecosystem and plant ecological fitness. This review seeks to integrate current results about the effects of elevated CO2 on plant reproductive traits in detail based on the existing experimental data in the past few decades. Earlier investigations demonstrate that elevated CO2 advances the flowering time through increasing relative growth rate and accelerating developmental process. All the numbers of flowers, fruits, and seeds, the mass of seed as well as the production of pollen and nectar of plants have been found to be stimulated by CO2 enrichment. It is further revealed that the increase in plant yields results largely from an increase in seed number rather than from individual seed mass. Elevated CO2 concentrations have little effect on seed [N] of legumes, but significantly reduce seed [N] of most nonlegumes. Contents of proteins, amino acids, and some mineralions usually decrease in seeds of most nonlegumes. Different functional groups of plants are often found to differ markedly in their reproductive responses to elevated CO2: 1) crops allocate more mass to reproduction and produce more fruits and seeds than do undomesticated species; 2) indeterminate plants have stronger responses to elevated CO2 in comparison with determinate species; 3) legumes are most responsive to elevated CO2, followed by nonlegume C3 species, then C4 species. Based on the data available, it seems rational to believe that changes in plant reproductive traits resulting from elevated CO2 may alter the competitive hierarchy, the species composition, and hence the functioning of plant community. Finally, some issues note worthy for future researches in this field are also put forward with reference to the existing unsolved questions.

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Suggestions for data analysis and use of statistics
HU Feng-Qin, LI Shuo, and MOU Pu
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2013, 37 (6): 583-588.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2013.00060
Abstract1073)      PDF (502KB)(3195)       Save

We discuss standards for the data analysis portion of the materials and methods section of ecology theses. We also comment on statistical questions frequently encountered in ecological theses, including: more effective statistical approaches, correlated dependent variables, heteroscedasticity, statistical significance vs. biology/ecology significance, and pseudo-replication.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
A review of leaf morphology plasticity linked to plant response and adaptation characteristics in arid ecosystems
LI Yong-Hua, LU Qi, WU Bo, ZHU Ya-Juan, LIU Dian-Jun, ZHANG Jin-Xin, and JIN Zhan-Hu
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2012, 36 (1): 88-98.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2012.00088
Abstract1932)      PDF (410KB)(3174)       Save

Leaf morphology is closely related to the specific environment and provides the most useful characteristics to understand plant response and adaptation strategy to environmental change. Leaf morphology plasticity is obviously related to the temporal and spatial variation of environmental variables, which are useful to plants to enhance their ability to survive. Consequently, for many years, studies on plant physiology, plant ecology and physiological ecology focused on leaf morphology. We establish a simple category of leaf morphology classification. Simultaneously, based on the principle of material and energy balances, we systematically review the relationships among environment, leaf morphology and energy balances (or material changes), and emphasize that leaf morphology responded or adapted to lower water availability and higher radiation (or temperature) in arid ecosystems. In conclusion, we submit and discuss existing problems in leaf morphology based on the weaknesses of previous studies.

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Cited: CSCD(35)
Tripathi OP, Pandey HN, Tripathi RS
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2008, 32 (1): 73-79.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2008.01.008
Abstract4123)      PDF (434KB)(3162)       Save

Aims Our study was conducted in the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve (NBR) in the Garo hills districts of Meghalaya, Northeast India. Our aim was to assess the effects of human activities on plant diversity, population structure and regeneration. 
Methods We selected a representative 1.2 hm2 stand in both the core and buffer zones of NBR. Structure and composition were determined by randomly sampling square quadrats, population structure was assessed by determining age structure, and regeneration was assessed by measuring densities of seedling, sapling and adult trees.
Important findings More woody species were recorded from the core zone than the buffer zone (87 vs.81 species), and there were a large number of tropical, temperate, and Sino-Himalayan, Burma-Malaysian and Malayan elements, primitive families and primitive genera. The trees were distributed in three distinct strata, canopy, subcanopy and sapling. Subcanopy and sapling layers had the highest species richness (81%-88%). Lauraceae and Euphorbiaceae were the dominant families in terms of the number of species, and a large number of families were represented by single species. Most woody species (57%-79%) were contagiously distributed and had low frequency (<20%). Although stand density was high in the buffer zone, its basal area was low compared to the stand in the core zone. Low similarity and high β-diversity indicate marked differences in species composition of the stands. Shannon diversity index was high in both the stands, while Simpson dominance index was low. The diameter-class distribution for dominant species revealed that the most had a large number of young individuals in their populations. Preponderance of tree seedlings, followed by a steep decline in population density of saplings and adult trees, indicated that the seedling to sapling stage was the most critical in the life cycle of the tree populations. Most species (42%-48%) had no regeneration, 25%-35% had good/fair regeneration, and the rest had poor regeneration or reoccurred as immigrants.

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Advances in the study of photosynthate allocation and its controls
PING Xiao-Yan, ZHOU Guang-Sheng, SUN Jing-Song
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (1): 100-111.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.01.013
Abstract2295)      PDF (389KB)(3160)       Save
Photosynthate allocation is influenced by both environmental and biological factors. This paper reviews recent advances in the mechanism of photosynthate allocation and its controls at individual and community/ecosystem levels in order to improve understanding of plant responses to global change. At the individual level, more photosynthate will be allo-cated to roots under conditions of high light, low water and low nutrient availabilities. The effect of increased atmos-pheric carbon dioxide concentration on photosynthate allocation depends on soil nitrogen availability. The root mass fraction (RMF) will increase under low nitrogen and is unchanged under high nitrogen. At the community/ecosystem levels, photosynthate allocation is insensitive to environmental change. The RMF decreases with increasing stand age. The functional equilibrium hypothesis (optimal partitioning) can explain the regulation of photosynthate allocation in response to environmental change, the source-sink relationship can reflect the effect of ontogeny on photosynthate allocation and the allometric relationship provides an important theoretical baseline prediction to disentangle the effects of plant size and environmental variation on photosynthate allocation. Research is needed on 1) the fraction of photosynthate allocated to respiration at the ecosystem level, 2) accurate estimation of belowground biomass and belowground net primary productivity (BNPP), 3) comparative study of photosynthate allocations between young and mature forests and between field and greenhouse experiments, 4) effects of multiple factors and their interactions on photosynthate allocation at the ecosystem level and 5) cooperative effects of ontogeny and environmental factors on the regulation of photosynthate allocation.
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Cited: CSCD(42)
Relationship between forest lighting fire occurrence and weather factors in Daxing’an Mountains based on negative binomial model and zero-inflated negative binomial models
GUO Fu-Tao, HU Hai-Qing, JIN Sen, MA Zhi-Hai, ZHANG Yang
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (5): 571-577.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.05.011
Abstract2415)      PDF (515KB)(3108)       Save
Aims Much research has been carried out on the relationship between forest fire occurrence and weather factors by use of modeling in recent years. However, the data organization used in past research can not satisfy the requirements of models well. Our aims are to determine the regression model that best fits the forest fire data set and provides a new model theory for research on forest fire and its influencing factors in order to forecast lighting fire occurrence.
Methods We used negative binomial (NB) and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models to describe the relationship between lighting fire occurrence and weather factors in the Daxing’an Mountains for 1980–2005 using SAS 9.1 version and R-Project statistic software and comparing results from these models by use of AIC and Vuong methods.
Important findings Both NB and ZINB models produced results with high significance for each weather factor. Comparison of the two models according to AIC, Vuong and other methods showed that the fitting ability and predictive power of ZINB model are better than those of the NB model. The advantage was also found when we compared the modeling results with Ordinary Least Squares. Then we obtained the best model for the relationship between lighting fire and weather factors.
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Cited: CSCD(15)
Pierre Legendre
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2007, 31 (5): 976-981.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2007.0124
Abstract3085)      PDF (263KB)(3092)       Save

Aims Beta diversity is the variation in species composition among sites in a geographic region. Beta diversity is a key concept for understanding the functioning of ecosystems, for the conservation of biodiversity, and for ecosystem management. This paper describes how to analyze it from community composition and associated environmental and spatial data tables.
Methods Beta diversity can be studied by computing diversity indices for each site and testing hypotheses about the factors that may explain the variation among sites. Or, one can carry out a direct analysis of the community composition data table over the study sites, as a function of sets of environmental and spatial variables. These analyses are carried out by the statistical method of partitioning the variation of the diversity indices or the community composition data t able with respect to environmental and spatial variables. Variation partitioning is briefly described in this paper. 
Important findings Variation partitioning is a method of choice for the interpretation of beta diversity using tables of environmental and spatial variables. Beta diversity is an interesting “currency" for ecologists to compare either different sampling areas, or different ecological communities co-occurring in an area. Partitioning must be based upon unbiased estimates of the variation of the community composition data table that is explained by the various tables of explanatory variables. The adjusted coefficient of determination provides such an unbiased estimate in both multiple regression and canonical redundancy analysis. After partitioning, one can test the significance of the fractions of interest and plot maps of the fitted values corresponding to these fractions.

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Review on influence mechanisms of light in seed germination
ZHANG Min, ZHU Jiao-Jun, and YAN Qiao-Ling
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2012, 36 (8): 899-908.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2012.00899
Abstract1749)      PDF (407KB)(3046)       Save

Seed germination is a key process in the natural regeneration of plant populations and is mainly controlled by favorable temperature, water or light conditions. Light plays a critical role in determining the ability and rate of germination of photoblastic seeds. Furthermore, the regulation of seed germination by light involves not only
complicated physiological processes but also rigorous signal transductions and gene expression pathways. We summarized available data on the relationships between seed germination and other factors (i.e., light attributes, coupling of light and water/heat and phytochromes in seeds). To assess the effects of light on seed germination, we also comprehensively summarized the physiological reaction and light signal transduction mechanisms regulated by phytochromes in seed germination.

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Cited: CSCD(25)
Ecological stoichiometry: Searching for unifying principles from individuals to ecosystems
HE Jin-Sheng, HAN Xing-Guo
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (1): 2-6.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.01.002
Abstract2575)      PDF (316KB)(2990)       Save
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Review of the roles of plants and soil microorganisms in regulating ecosystem nutrient cycling
JIANG Jing, SONG Ming-Hua
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (8): 979-988.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.08.011
Abstract2347)      PDF (665KB)(2990)       Save
Above- and below-ground are important components of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants and microorganisms are dependent on each other, and they are important in the linkage between above- and below-ground processes. The relationship between plants and soil microorganisms and the fundamental role played by above- and below- ground feedbacks are important in controlling ecosystem processes and properties. Plant species play a fundamental role in nutrient absorption, nutrient accumulation, nutrient distribution and nutrient return. Soil microorganisms are important in controlling plant nutrient availability and soil quality. Our main objective is to summarize the relationships between plants and microbes, such as facilitation and competition. Plants, as producers, provide nutrients for soil microorganisms via leaf litter and root exudation. Soil microorganisms, as decomposers, break down organic matter and provide nutrients to plants. A wide range of soil microbes form intimate symbiotic associations with plants, and this can stimulate plant productivity by delivering limited nutrients to their host plants. However, both plants and microbes compete for nutrients because plant nutrient uptake and microbial immobilization occur simultaneously. We provide an integrated analysis of effects of plant diversity on soil microbial diversity, as well as direct and indirect effects of soil microbes on plant diversity and productivity. Previously, the mechanisms of plants and microorganisms in regulating ecosystem nutrient cycling have been controversial. Litter chemical composition and diversity should be considered important functional traits that explain the mechanisms. It is clear that interactions between plants and microbes play a fundamental role in maintaining the stability of natural ecosystems. This review elucidates the linkage between aboveground and belowground processes, which have been treated separately in the past.
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Carbon Storage and Budget of Major Chinese Forest Types
ZHOU Yu-Rong, YU Zhen-Liang, ZHAO Shi-Dong
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2000, 24 (5): 518-522.  
Abstract3276)      PDF (444KB)(2952)       Save

The regional characteristics of carbon storage and carbon dioxide fluxes of major Chinese forest ecosystems were studied from the points of internal biological cycle, based on published data regarding forest biomass, productivity, the organic carbon content of soil profile, stand and annual weight of the litter, soil respiration etc. The results are as follows: the average carbon density of Chinese forest ecosystem is 258.83 t·hm-2, showing a generally increasing trend with increasing latitude; carbon density of the vegetation, soil and litter is 57.07 t·hm-2,193.55 t·hm-2, and 8.21 t·hm-2, respectively; the characteristics of the carbon density of these three fractions (vegetation, soil, litter) were also analyzed; from the recent areal data provided by the Ministry of Forestry of China in 1989-1993 the total carbon storage of Chinese forests was estimated to be 281.16 ×108 t, in which the vegetation, soil and litter were 62.00×108 t, 210.23×108 t,8.92×108 t, making up 22.2% ,74.6%, 3.2%, respectively of the total, the carbon storage of deciduous broad-leaved forests, warmer temperate coniferous forests, evergreen/evergreen-deciduous broad-leaved forests, Picea-Abies forests, and Larix forests were the major carbon pool of the forest, making up 87% of the total; in China the net flux between the forest ecosystem and the atmosphere is 4.80×108 t·a-1 , and the forest ecosystem acts as a carbon sink when exchanged with the atmosphere, absorbing 48.7% of the carbon dioxide from burning of biomass, fossil fuel and human respiration (9.87×108 t·a-1). Generally, the carbon dioxide fixing capacity of the deciduous forest is higher than the coniferous forests, decreasing with increasing latitude.

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Seasonal variations of leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of three herbaceous species in Hangzhou Bay coastal wetlands, China
WU Tong-Gui, WU Ming, LIU Li, XIAO Jiang-Hua
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (1): 23-28.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.01.005
Abstract3044)      PDF (406KB)(2942)       Save
Aims Homeostasis constrains the elemental composition of individual species within narrow bounds no matter the chemical composition of the environment or the resource base. Our objective was to determine the dynamics of leaf stoichiometry during the growth period of plants and the optimum time for stoichiometry study. Methods We monitored leaf N, P stoichiometry of Scirpus mariqueter, Carex scabrifolia and Phragmites australis, the dominant species in Hangzhou Bay coastal wetlands, at different growth stages from May to October 2007. Important findings Leaf N, P stoichiometry of the Scirpus, Carex and Phragmites species showed differences: 7.41–17.12, 7.47–13.15 and 6.03–18.09 mg·g–1 for N, 0.34–2.60, 0.41–1.10 and 0.35–2.04 mg·g–1 for P, and 7.19–30.63, 11.58–16.81 and 8.62–21.86 for N:P ratios, respectively. The arithmetic means for the three species were (11.69 ± 2.66), (10.17 ± 1.53) and (11.56 ± 3.19) mg·g–1 for N, (0.93 ± 0.62), (0.74 ± 0.23) and (0.82 ± 0.53) mg·g–1 for P, and 16.83 ± 8.31, 14.53 ± 3.91 and 16.49 ± 5.51 for N:P, respectively, but there was no sig-nificant difference of N, P stoichiometry (p > 0.05). It showed high N, P concentrations at the early stage of growth because of small biomass and then decreased greatly with leaf expansion during the fast growth period, increased as leaf growth became stable and decreased again with leaf senescence. Leaf N:P was low at the early stage of growth and then increased, decreased strongly at the fast growth period, and became stable after leaf maturation.
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Ecological adaptation of plants and control of rocky-desertification on karst region of Southwest China
GUO Ke, LIU Chang-Cheng, and DONG Ming
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2011, 35 (10): 991-999.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2011.00991
Abstract2288)      PDF (389KB)(2937)       Save
Karst region of Southwest China is ecologically very fragile. It has been suffering from severe rock-desertification and its vegetation has been damaging heavily. The restoration or reconstruction of the vegetation is extremely difficult. In recent years, a lot of pure and application-oriented basic researches have been performed in order to scientifically and technologically support the management of the rock-desertification. In this paper, we summarize habitat characteristics of the karst region and review the progress in ecological researches on plant adaptation, plant population, plant community and ecosystem in the region. In addition, as for current situation in management of the rock-desertification, we propose, particularly from angle of plant ecology, expectations for further researches in the region.
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Adaptive regulation in reproductive strategy of two bunchgrasses under mowing disturbance in Inner Mongolia grassland
ZHANG Xiao-Na, HADA ChaoLu, PAN Qing-Min
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (3): 253-262.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.03.002
Abstract2475)      PDF (443KB)(2927)       Save

Aims Stipa grandis and Cleistogenes squarrosa are two important bunchgrass species in Inner Mongolia typical steppe. Stipa grandis is a dominant species in undisturbed communities, while C. squarrosa becomes the dominant species in degraded communities. It is important to understand the regulation mechanisms of the two populations under mowing disturbance, especially those regulating sexual and asexual reproduction. We addressed four questions: 1) Do the two populations exhibit density-dependent regulation under mowing disturbance? 2) If so, how do they regulate sexual and asexual reproduction? 3) Do the species modify their biomass allocation patterns
under mowing disturbance, and, if so, how do they change their allocation patterns? 4) Does mowing disturbance affect plant basal area and tiller number?
Methods This study was conducted in a long-term fenced site and a long-term mowed site at the Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2007. We examined the density regulation
and resource allocation regulation of S. grandis and C. squarrosa under different management regimes.
Important findings Under mowing disturbance, S. grandis exhibited no significant change in population biomass, while C. squarrosa significantly increased. Because mean plant biomass of S. grandis decreased significantly
and that of C. squarrosa did not change, density increase plays an important role for the two species in population biomass production. The two species exhibited different strategies in density-dependent regulation of asexual and sexual reproductive processes. For S. grandis, density increased in non-reproductive plants, but was unchanged in reproductive plants under mowing disturbance, which led to relative density increasing in non-reproductive plants and decreasing in reproductive plants. For C. squarrosa, the densities of both reproductive and non-reproductive plants increased significantly at the mowed site. The relative density increased in reproductive plants, but decreased in non-reproductive plants. The two species showed opposite reproductive allocation manipulation strategies under mowing disturbance. Stipa grandis significantly decreased reproductive biomass allocation by decreasing the biomass fraction of spikes in reproductive tillers. In contrast, C. squarrosa significantly increased reproductive biomass allocation by increasing the fraction of reproductive tiller biomass in plant biomass. No significant changes were found in S. grandis basal area and tiller number under mowing disturbance. Likewise, no significant change was found in C. squarrosa tiller number, but its basal area significantly decreased.

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Advances research in plant nitrogen, phosphorus and their stoichiometry in terrestrial ecosystems: a review
LIU Chao, WANG Yang, WANG Nan, and WANG Gen-Xuan
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2012, 36 (11): 1205-1216.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2012.01205
Abstract1107)      PDF (401KB)(2798)       Save

Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and their stoichiometry play pivotal roles in plant structure and functions, development and ecological strategies in terrestrial ecosystems due to their coupling with each other and their irreplaceability. Plant N and P can be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, such as individual traits, climate change and human disturbance, and it is those factors that determine the plant community composition and structure that finally affect the ecosystem processes. According to previous studies, there is an allometric relationship between N and P. Relationships between plant N and P depend on the soil nutrient condition and species plasticity in N and P. Understanding the relationships between plant N and P in major ecological gradients can further our knowledge about vegetation restoration, succession, biodiversity, ecosystem trophic structure and biogeochemical cycles. This information could help predict potential changes in terrestrial ecosystems in response to future climate change. We review recent advances in the influencing factors and mechanism of stoichiometry in order to improve understanding of plant responses to global change.

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Community characteristics of main vegetation types along two altitudinal transects on mountains of northwestern Beijing, China
ZHANG Wei-Kang, LI He, and WANG Guo-Hong
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2013, 37 (6): 566-570.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2013.00058
Abstract845)      PDF (328KB)(2787)       Save
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An overview of research progress on responses of grassland ecosystems to global warming based on infrared heating experiments
HOU Yan-Hui, ZHOU Guang-Sheng, and XU Zhen-Zhu
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2013, 37 (12): 1153-1167.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2013.00118
Abstract661)      PDF (421KB)(2777)       Save

In order to understand the mechanisms in the responses of grassland ecosystems to global warming, this paper overviews the principle, the warming effect, and the advantages and disadvantages of infrared heating techniques. Recent advancement in research on the responses of grassland ecosystems to climate warming by using infrared heating techniques is reviewed, which covers the areas of plant phenology, photosynthetic physiology, growth and development, community structure and function, and soil characteristics, especially underground processes of plant communities. The key future research needs on the responses of grassland ecosystems to global warming are suggested.

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Cited: CSCD(5)
HAN Wen-Xuan, FANG Jing-Yun
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2008, 32 (4): 951-960.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2008.04.025
Abstract2976)      PDF (407KB)(2767)       Save
Allometric scaling relations are characteristic of all organisms. A challenging task is how the typical allometric scaling relationship—Kleiber’s Law, which depicts the proportionality between the metabolic rate of an animal and its body mass raised to the 3/4 power and is well established and supported by data—can be predicted from a purely theoretical standpoint. Scientists have proposed diverse models to do this, but almost all of the models are criticized for theoretical or methodological difficulties. However, ecologists and physicists recently proposed new models. Here we highlight the Fractal-Like Distribution Network Models and other models, such as Multi-Causes Model, Minimal Overall Entropy Production Model, Constructal Theory, Cell Model and Energy Consumption Model.
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Cited: CSCD(48)
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2014, 38 (6): 654-654.  
Abstract337)      PDF (121KB)(2749)       Save
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Regionalization and distribution pattern of vegetation of Northeast China
ZHOU Dao-Wei, ZHANG Zheng-Xiang, JIN Ying-Hua, WANG Ping, WANG Xue-Zhi
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (12): 1359-1368.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.12.001
Abstract2975)      PDF (785KB)(2742)       Save

Aims Our objectives were to consider a new scheme for vegetation regionalization of Northeast China, especially for vegetation in the Songliao Plain, and to illustrate the distribution pattern of vegetation as determined by altitude. Methods We clustered the sites from Inner Mongolia steppe, east forest and central Songliao Plain with temperature, precipitation, soil types and underground water depth using principle component analysis (PCA). We also analyzed the physiognomy, topography of Northeastern China using GIS, vegetation types and soil types of Songnen Plain. Important findings The dominant vegetation of Songliao Plain is meadow, an unzonal vegetation type. The Stipa communities, an indicator of the zonal vegetation type, mainly distributed on the second mesa in Songnen Plain, are a sandland vegetation type that is distributed discontinuously among meadow vegetation. Therefore, the vegetation of Songliao Plain should be regionalized as an area of temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest, and the east boundary of temperate steppe region should be moved toward to the west of the Da Hinggan Mountains. The vegetation distribution of Northeast China shows a vertical zonation determined by altitude.

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A review of progress in roles of organic acids on heavy metal resistance and detoxification in plants
FU Xiao-Ping, DOU Chang-Ming, HU Shao-Ping, CHEN Xin-Cai, SHI Ji-Yan, CHEN Ying-Xu
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (11): 1354-1358.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.11.013
Abstract2274)      PDF (289KB)(2727)       Save

Mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance and detoxification in plants can be divided into two categories, external exclusion and internal tolerance. We reviewed the effects of organic acids as a kind of metal chelators in both processes in plants. In the external detoxification process, organic acids excreted from plant roots may form stable metal-ligand complexes with heavy metal ions and change their mobility and bioavailability, thus preventing the metal ions entering plants or avoiding their accumulation in the sensitive sites of roots. In internal metal detoxification, organic acids may chelate with heavy metal in cytosol, where the ions can be transformed into a non-toxic or less toxic form.

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Effects of N addition on nutrient resorption efficiency and C:N:P stoichiometric characteristics in Stipa bungeana of steppe grasslands in the Loess Plateau, China
AN Zhuo, NIU De-Cao, WEN Hai-Yan, YANG Yi, ZHANG Hong-Rong, and FU Hua
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2011, 35 (8): 801-807.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2011.00801
Abstract2522)      PDF (478KB)(2693)       Save

Aims Our purpose was to study the effects of deposition of nitrogen (N) on plant carbon (C), N, phosphorus (P), N and P nutrient resorption efficiencies, C : N : P stoichiometry and their internal relations on Stipa bungeana of Loess Plateau natural grassland.
Methods Deposition of N was simulated by N fertilization at four levels. Changes of C, N and P contents were detected, and C : N : P and the N and P nutrient resorption efficiencies were estimated for S. bungeana.
Important findings The C and N contents of leaves and N and P contents of standing litter increased significantly with N addition. However, the P content of leaves and C content of standing litter did not response to N addition. The N and P resorption efficiencies of S. bungeana decreased significantly with N addition. When there was no N addition, N and P resorption efficiencies were highest (60.35% and 71.75%, respectively). Meanwhile, the P resorption efficiency was greater than that of N in same treatment. The C : N of S. bungeana decreased gradually with N addition, but the N : P and C : P increased with N addition. Values of the N : P were 18.25–29.01. The results showed the Loess Plateau natural grassland was mainly limited by P, and the strength of P limitation was enhanced with N deposition. Higher N and P resorption efficiencies were an important strategy for S. bungeana to survive soil infertility.

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Cited: CSCD(50)
TIAN Han-Qin, WAN Shi-Qiang, MA Ke-Ping
Chin J Plant Ecol    2007, 31 (2): 173-174.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2007.0022
Abstract2670)      PDF (72KB)(2657)       Save
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Use of 15N natural abundance in nitrogen cycling of terrestrial ecosystems
YAO Fan-Yun, ZHU Biao, and DU En-Zai
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2012, 36 (4): 346-352.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2012.00346
Abstract1644)      PDF (393KB)(2656)       Save

Stable isotope technique has been widely used in ecology research with the increasing concern on global change. Our objectives are to better understand the impacts of nitrogen addition and other environment changes on the nitrogen cycling of terrestrial ecosystem, predict the consequent changes in environmental conditions, and provide a reference for policy making to help ensure the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystems. Based on the relationship between nitrogen (N) isotope composition (δ15N) in ecosystem N status and soil N cycle, we summarized the effects and mechanisms of N input and other environment changes on δ15N of plant and soil. Most studies show significant positive relationships between N input and δ15N values of plant and soil. Higher N input increases soil N availability, which leads to 15N enrichment in soil because of mass discrimination during soil N cycling processes. Foliar δ15N also will be higher as plants take up the relatively 15N-enriched soil available N. 15N natural abundance can be a useful tool for assessing nitrogen saturation and N cycling.

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Combined effects of simulated nitrogen deposition and drought stress on growth and photosynthetic physiological responses of two annual desert plants in Junggar Basin, China
ZHOU Xiao-Bing, ZHANG Yuan-Ming, WANG Sha-Sha, ZHANG Bing-Chang
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (12): 1394-1403.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.12.005
Abstract2060)      PDF (340KB)(2634)       Save

Aims The two primary limiting factors for biological activities in desert ecosystems are nitrogen and water. Our study, which examined their combined effects, can provide insight into the responses of arid ecosystems to global climate change. We selected two typical annual desert plants, Malcolmia africana and Bassia hyssopifolia to determine the combined effects of nitrogen deposition and drought stress on their growth and photosynthetic physiological responses. Methods Three levels of N addition (0, 0.18 and 0.72 g N·m–2·week–1) and two soil watering regimes (60%–70% and 30%–40% of field capacity) were randomly provided in order to simulate nitrogen deposition and drought stress. Changes in plant growth and photosynthetic physiological traits were measured shortly before flowering. Important findings N supply and drought stress significantly affected growth of both species. With the enhancement of N supply, we found an increase in growth parameters (including root length, root weight, leaf number, leaf area, total biomass and shoot/root (S/R)). At the same N level, increased drought stress could counteract the positive effects of N supply on plant growth. Increased N, however, could also alleviate the negative effects caused by drought stress. With the increasing N addition, we also observed increase of physiological indices (net photosynthetic rate, content of chlorophyll and soluble protein). Malcolmia africana was more sensitive to N supply and drought stress than B. hyssopifolia. The different responses of the two species may due to their different biological characteristics, such as life form. The results indicated that N and water pulses in spring in this desert would be beneficial to the growth and productivity of M. africana and B. hyssopifolia, especially for aboveground parts. Moreover, N deposition could partially alleviate the negative effects caused by drought stress during the severe dry season.

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Cited: CSCD(19)
C : N : P stoichiometric characteristics of four forest types’ dominant tree species in China
WANG Jing-Yuan, WANG Shao-Qiang, LI Ren-Lan, YAN Jun-Hua, SHA Li-Qing, HAN Shi-Jie
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2011, 35 (6): 587-595.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2011.00587
Abstract2256)      PDF (532KB)(2629)       Save

Aims The nitrogen and phosphorus characteristics of plants represent plant features and responses to environmental factors. Our objectives are to distinguish leaf and litter C : N : P stoichiometric characteristics, nitrogen and phosphorus resorption of trees, and the relationship between stoichiometric ratio and temperature and precipitation for four typical regions in China.
Methods We studied temperate coniferous, subtropical evergreen broad-leaved, tropical monsoon and tropical plantation forest in the Changbaishan, Dinghushan, Xishuangbanna and Qianyanzhou Ecological Stations, respectively. We analyzed leaf and litter C : N : P, N, P and the relation of N, P nutrition limitation at each station.
Important findings Leaf C : N : P in temperate needle and broad-leaved mixed, subtropical evergreen broad-leaved, tropical rain and subtropical plantation forests were 321 : 13 : 1, 561 : 22 : 1, 442 : 19 : 1 and 728 : 18 : 1, respectively. Litter C : N : P of the four forest types were 552 : 14 : 1, 1 305 : 35 : 1, 723 : 24 : 1, 1 950 : 27 : 1, respectively. The C : N of evergreen coniferous forest is higher than in evergreen broad-leaved and deciduous broad-leaved forests, but C : P has no relationship with forest type. Leaf N : P was highest in evergreen broad-leaved forest and lowest in deciduous broad-leaved forest. Plant N : P has a linear relation with latitude and mean monthly temperature, but neither N or P concentration has such a relationship. Plant at high latitude are easily limited by N, those in low latitude are easily limited by P, but results show that plants limited by N or P don’t have higher N or P resorption. Stoichiometric ratios of leaf and litter are consistent, but environmental factors have different effects on different kinds of plant.

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Linkages of functional traits among plant organs in the dominant species of the Inner Mongolia grassland, China
ZHOU Peng, GENG Yan, MA Wen-Hong, HE Jin-Sheng
Chin J Plan Ecolo    2010, 34 (1): 7-16.   DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.01.003
Abstract2850)      PDF (788KB)(2624)       Save
Aims The temperate grasslands in Inner Mongolia, representing a great diversity in vegetation types (desert steppe, typical steppe and meadow steppe) and function groups (grass/herb, legume/non-legume), are ideal places to test the hypothesized functional trait relationships among plant organs. Our main objective in this study was to test whether plant functional traits vary in a coordinated fashion both within and across organs. Methods Based on the field observation during July and August in both 2006 and 2007, we measured suites of ecophysiological traits of 42 grassland species from 19 sites in Inner Mongolia. The longitude of the study region ranges from 112.82° to 120.12° (E), and the latitude ranges from 41.76° to 49.89° (N). N and P concentrations, N:P ratios of leaves, stems, reproductive structures, fine roots (diameter < 1 mm) and coarse roots (diameter > 1 mm) as well as tissue density of leaf and fine root and specific leaf area/specific root length were determined. Important findings At both population and interspecific level, N and P concentrations were positively correlated within each organ. Specific leaf area was negatively correlated with leaf N and P concentrations and tissue density at the population level but not at the interspecific level. Specific root length was negatively related to fine root tissue density at population level. Plants with low leaf or fine root tissue density had leaves or fine roots with high N concentrations and large specific leaf area or specific root length. N and P concentrations as well as N: P ratios were also consistently correlated across all organs, but no correlation between specific leaf area and specific root length was observed. At the population level there existed a weak negative correlation between leaf and fine root tissue density while at interspecific level this relationship disappeared. Grasses had lower N and P concentrations than herbs in leaves, reproductive structures and roots, but not in stems. Legumes had higher N concentrations than non-legumes in all organs, but they showed no significant differences in P concentrations.
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Cited: CSCD(48)

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