Ficus microcarpa and its pollinating fig wasp Eupristina verticillata (Photographed by PENG Yan-Qiong). Upper left, pollinating fig wasp visiting female phase syconium; upper right, fig wasp of pollination and oviposition inside the syconium; lower left, male phase syconia; lower right, Ficus microcarpa. Zhang et al. used the methods of chemical ecology to extract and analyze the volatiles of syconia from Ficus microcarpa at different developmental phases. The active compounds that attracted the pollinating fig wasps at female phase were constituted by multiple chemical compounds so that the mutualistic relationship between F. microcarpa and E. verticillata is maintained by chemical communication of “generalization” strategy (Pages 549–558 of this issue).