Typical forests in the major eco-geographic regions of China. Photos illustrated temperate coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests in northeast China (upper left) and northwest China (upper middle), evergreen coniferous forest in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (lower left), warm temperate deciduous broadleaved forest (upper right), evergreen broadleaved forests (lower middle) and tropical rain forests (lower right). All photos were provided by the office of the “Evaluation on the carbon pools of China’s forest ecosystems―current status, capacities and sinks and studies on the mechanism” (Grant No. XDA05050200). The thirteen papers in this special issue introduced carbon pool patterns in typical forest ecosystems based on comprehensive investigations; estimated regional carbon storages, sequestration rates and capacities with investigation data and forest resource data; evaluated urban forest carbon sink with investigation data and remote sensing data; simulated forest carbon sinks and responses to climate change with models, etc.