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Table of Content
    Volume 43 Issue 华北专辑
    30 September 2019
      
    Community assembly, diversity patterns and distributions of broad-leaved forests in North China
    Jinshi Xu Yong-Fu CHAI Xiao LIU Ming YUE Yaoxin Guo Mu-Yi KANG ZHENG ChengYang Ming YAN Feng Zhang Xian-Ming GAO Ren-Qing WANG Qin-Di Zhang Mao Wang
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2019, 43 (华北专辑):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0183
    Abstract ( 158 )   PDF (546KB) ( 11 )   Save
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    Aims To understand the key community assembly process and diversity dynamics in Northern China, some comprehensive analyses based on environmental factors and plant species data should be done. These analyses may provide explore the reason of community distribution patterns. Methods In this paper, we used phylogenetic approach to assess the community structure and diversity along environmental gradients, and combined with information of community distributions. A variance decomposition was performed to explore the relative importance of each environmental factor that influencing the patterns of community assembly and diversity process. Also, phylogenetic structures, and diversity patterns which calculated by phylogeny and species composition data along environmental gradients showed the patterns of community assembly and diversity. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to analyze reason of community distributions. Important findings Similar communities showed similar habitat preferences, demonstrating that similar ecological conditions may shape communities with the same or similar species composition. Temperature dominated the phylogenetic structure of broad-leaved forests in North China region. In the areas where the mean annual temperature (MAT) were relatively low, environmental filtering process acted as a leading factor in community assembly processes. In addition, with mean annual precipitation (MAP) increasing, the effect of environment filtering was increasing as well. Because of the strong disturbance on high-MAT regions, the phylogenetic diversity showed a bell shaped pattern along the MAT gradient, but a increasing pattern along the MAP gradient.
    Distribution, community structures and species diversity of larch forests in North China
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2019, 43 (华北专辑):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0244
    Abstract ( 309 )   PDF (7204KB) ( 15 )   Save
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    Aims Larch forests are important for timber harvesting and water-soil conservation in North China. To explore the distribution, community structure and species diversity of larch forests is important for the vegetation conservation and sustainable utilization in North China. Methods We collected species composition and local environment for 215 forest plots dominated by three common larch species, namely, Larix principis-rupprechtii, L. kaempferi and L. chinensis, in North China during 2000-2017. Of these types, L. kaempferi forests are planted, while L. chinensis forests are almost natural, and most of L. principis-rupprechtii forests are natural. Based these data, we used the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to explore the relationship between species composition and environment. We also explored the pattern of community structure and species diversity of these three forests in relation to environmental factors. Important findings Mean annual air temperature (MAT) was the most important factor for the distribution of these larch forests. The proportion of natural forest decreased, while that of panted forest increased, with MAT. Diameter at breast height (DBH) and height distribution of three larch forests were right-skewed, indicating that all of these larch forests are at relatively stable successional stage. Species richness differ remarkably among different larch forests, which was highest in the L. chinensis forests (39.3 ± 17.9), followed by the L. kaempferi forests (37.4 ± 22.4), and lowest in the L. principis-rupprechtii forests (planted forests 27.2 ± 17.7, natural forests 27.5 ± 13.8). Species richness, the maximum DBH and the maximum height decreased with latitudes and longitudes. Species richness, the maximum DBH and the maximum height increased with annual precipitation. However, species richness showed no significant trend, and the maximum height increased, while the maximum DBH decreased, with MAT. The patterns of species richness along geographical and climatic gradients were consistent between the planted, the natural and the overall (including both planted and natural) larch forests. However, the patterns of community structure differed remarkably among planted, natural and overall larch forests. The maximum height of planted forests increased, while that of natural forests decreased, with latitude and longitude. The maximum DBH and height of natural forests decreased, while those of planted forests increased, with MAT and annual precipitation, respectively.
    Distribution pattern and community assembly rules of Juglans mandshurica in North China
    Tang Lili Mei Zhang Xianglin Zhao Mu-Yi KANG Hong-Yan Liu Xian-Ming GAO Tong Yang Pufan Zheng
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2019, 43 (华北专辑):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0161
    Abstract ( 224 )   PDF (1077KB) ( 7 )   Save
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    Aims Distribution pattern and community assembly rules are very important to explore species diversity and development of plant community structure. Juglans mandshurica is one of the most important species in North China, and the distribution pattern and community assembly rules of Form. J. mandshurica are remaining. Methods We conducted filed investigations and statistical analysis on 84 J. mandshurica community plots in North China. We classified them by diameters, and applied canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and ArcGIS to the data to explore its distribution of Form. J. mandshurica. We calculated phylogenetic index and used Gaussian kernel density estimation (Gaussian KDE) to explain the community assembly rules of Form. J. mandshurica Important findings With regards to the result, it mainly located at 12 spatial focal areas in North China, among which the abundance of J. mandshurica in Tianjin (Yanshan) was the largest, followed by Hebei (Xiaowutai Mountain), Shanxi (Taihang Mountain), Beijing (Lingshan) , Shaanxi (Qinling) and Henan (Yuxi Mountain (Funniu Mountain)). The diameters at breast height (DBH) were relatively small, ranging from 1.01cm to 17.13cm. The highest diversity of DBH was in Tianjin, and the J. mandshurica with the largest DBH also existed in Tianjin. Altitude, slope, slope position and human disturbance affected the distribution of J. mandshurica in North China. Negative density-dependent controlled the speciation of Form. J. mandshurica in Hebei, Shaanxi and Tianjin, while environmental filtering dominated the community assembly process of Form. J.mandshurica in Beijing and Shanxi. In addition, as for the illustration methods for net relatedness index (NRI) and nearest taxon index (NTI) values such as Gaussian KDE, scattered point and mean ± standard deviation, they all had their own advantages and disadvantages and suited different aims.
    Altitudinal patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of forest communities in Mount Guandi, Shanxi
    Yi BoZhang Gang Dong Feng Zhang
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2019, 43 (华北专辑):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0088
    Abstract ( 299 )   PDF (2212KB) ( 13 )   Save
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    Aims Exploring and understanding the spatial patterns and maintenance mechanisms of biodiversity is one of the fundamental tasks in ecology and biogeography. In the past, the researches on altitudinal patterns of diversity focus mainly on the taxonomic diversity, and less attention to the comprehensive information of taxonomic, phylogenetic evolution and functional traits. Based on the systematic investigation of forest communities in Mount Guandi, the major aim of this paper was to preliminarily explore the altitudinal patterns and maintenance mechanisms of diversity of forest communities. Methods The altitudinal patterns of diversity were analyzed using the indices of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional α and β diversity based on 52 forest plots in Mount Guandi, Shanxi. Important findings The values of species richness (S), phylogenetic diversity (PD) and funcitional richness (FRic) of forest communities in Mount Guandi showed a monotonically increasing pattern along the altitude gradient (1 409 m-2 150 m), especially in altitude above 1 800 m above sea level. There were obvious increasing trends for total β diversity (βtotal) and replacement (βrepl), and declining trend for richness difference (βrich) along the altitude gradient. The taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity patterns were significantly different for the woody and herbaceous plants. With the increase of altitude, the increasing trends of S and species diversity (H’) for the herbaceous plants were more obvious than those of the woody plants. The topography factor was the main factor affecting on S of the herbaceous plants; while the most important influencing factor for the woody plants was the historical process. With the increase of altitude, the increasing trend of βtotal for the woody plants was more obvious than that for herbaceous plants. For the woody plants, the βrepl and βrich showed a unimodal pattern and U-shaped pattern, respectively. While the βrepl and βrich showed a monotonically increasing and decreasing pattern respectively for the herbaceous plants. With the increases of environmental distance and geographical distance, taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional β diversity among communities increased significantly (P < 0.001). Environmental distance (environmental filtering) had a relatively strong effect on β diversity of woody plants; however, environmental distance (environmental filtering) and geographical distance (dispersal limitation) jointly influenced β diversity for the herbaceous plants.
    Response of abundance distribution of five species in Quercus Linn. to climate change in North China
    Xue-Jiao ZHANG Xian-Ming GAO Mu-Yi KANG Ren-Qing WANG Ming YUE Feng Zhang Zhi-Yao TANG
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2019, 43 (华北专辑):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0249
    Abstract ( 216 )   PDF (11571KB) ( 9 )   Save
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    Aims To develop a statistically appropriate abundance distribution model for five species of Quercus Linn. in North China, and further use the model to predict the change of abundance under climate change. Methods Based on the surveyed abundance data of Quercus Linn. from 1045 plots in North China, we conducted general linear model, generalized additive model and random forest model and then compared their performances. We further used the best model (RF) to predict the abundance of Quercus Linn. in 2050 and 2070 under RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. Important findings The change magnitudes of abundance for all 5 species under RCP 8.5 were larger than under RCP 2.6. Except for Quercus variabilis Bl., abundances of other four species declined under climate change to 2050 and 2070 in more than half of the area. Moreover, the northeastern part of Inner Mongolia Region and the northern part of Heilongjiang Province will be the hotspots of decrease of abundance. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the monitoring and species protection in the areas mentioned above with the increasing threaten of climate change.
    Responses of tree growth to nitrogen addition in Quercus wutaishanica forests in Mt. Dongling, Beijing
    An-Long ZOU xiuping li xiaofeng ni
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2019, 43 (华北专辑):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0232
    Abstract ( 229 )   PDF (747KB) ( 12 )   Save
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    Abstract Aims Temperate forest is one of the important components of global largest forest vegetation and main carbon sink. Traditionally, temperate forest is generally considered to be nitrogen limited. However, the heterogeneities in plant species and individual sizes were largely ignored in previous researches on the effects of nitrogen addition on plant growth. Hence, further researches about how nitrogen affect the growth of different size trees and species are in great needed. Quercus wutaishanica is a dominant species in most temperate and boreal forests in North China. We aim to investigate the growth respond to nitrogen addition in Quercus wutaishanica forests. Methods Nitrogen addition experiment was started in 2011. We conducted a 7-year N fertilization experiment in Quercus wutaishanica forests in Mt. Dongling, Beijing with three treatment levels (0 kg N·hm?2·a?1, 50 kg N·hm?2·a?1, 100 kg N·hm?2·a?1). Nitrogen was added at the beginning of each month from May to October each year. We used electronic vernier caliper to measure tree growth rate for each year and divided trees into three groups based on their diameter at breast height (DBH). Particularly, we regarded the Quercus wutaishanica as species level and all trees of the whole forest system as community level. Important findings (1) Nitrogen is the limit nutrient for temperate forest. (2) At species level, the growth rate of Q. wutaishanica showed positive responding to nitrogen addition. (3) At community level, the growth rate of all treatments showed no difference to nitrogen addition. (4) When we divided Q. wutaishanica and all community trees to three groups respectively, according to their diameter at breast height (DBH), we found both Quercus wutaishanica and community level trees showed similar effect to nitrogen addition: the low DBH (3–10 cm) showed negative responses to nitrogen deposition, but medial (10–20 cm) and high (> 20 cm) DBH of Q. wutaishanica and community trees had rising trend although they had no significant difference among treatments.
    Species composition and phylogenetic structure of major shrublands in North China
    Yong-Fu CHAI Jinshi Xu Xiao LIU Mao Wang Yu Chen Ming YUE
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2019, 43 (华北专辑):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0173
    Abstract ( 226 )   PDF (509KB) ( 24 )   Save
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    Abstract Aims The shrublands are widely distributed in the North China, and studying their species composition and community assembly has important implications for promoting vegetation restoration. Community phylogenetic structure can reflect ecological process of community species composition and is of great significance to reveal the mechanism of community assembly. In the present study, we explored the distribution patterns, species composition and phylogenetic structure of major shrubland types from North China. Using the climate data from Worldclim datasets, we then analyzed the effects of temperature and precipitation on phylogenetic structure of major shrubland types. Methods A total 2331 plots were setup to survey species composition and phylogenetic structure of major shrubland types in North China. A multiple stepwise regression was used to determine the effects of climate factors on community phylogenetic structure. A generalize linear model was used to test the interaction of environmental factors and formation types or vegetation types. Important findings A total of 570 woody species belonging to 75 families, 207 genera were found. A total of 1221 herb species belonging to 99 families, 491 genera were found. Five vegetation types and 195 formation types were identified, and the major formation types were Ostryopsis davidiana formation, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla+ Hippophae rhamnoides and Hippophae rhamnoides formation. The species richness of herb layer was higher than that of shrub layer. The phylogenetic structure was over dispersed for herb layer and was convergent for shrub layer, and it was different among different vegetation types. Climate factors showed significant effects on the phylogenetic structure of either shrub layer or herb layer, and the interaction of climate factors and vegetation types or formation types were significant. Our results indicates that variation of climate factors at large scale can affect community phylogenetic structure of different construction layers in shrub community , and the effects depend on vegetation types and formation types.
    Community characteristics and classification of Helianthemum songaricum Desert in Western Erdos Region, Nei Mongol
    Zi-Jing LI Sha-Na Ya-bo SHI Xu-Ze TONG Lei DONG Xiao-Qing ZHANG Qiang SUN Cun-Zhu LIANG
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2019, 43 (华北专辑):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0215
    Abstract ( 218 )   PDF (3567KB) ( 12 )   Save
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    Aim Helianthemum songaricum Schrenk is a central Asia endemic species and ancient Mediterranean remnant plants, and its community is a unique desert community in west Erdos, Nei Mongol. We studied the distributions, community characteristics and classifications of H. songaricum Desert, the research based on the primary plot data obtained from fieldwork during the growing seasons from 2016 to 2017 as well as some earlier literatures. Methods The quantitative classification on community types were made by the methods of TWINSPAN. Important findings The results showed that: (1) H. songaricum Desert primarily distributed in the north and south of the Arbas Mountains and Qianli Ravine in west Erdos, which located in east of the Yellow River, and rare in the southern and northern Helan Mountain, which located in the west of the Yellow River. The southern part is along to the Ming Great Wall, which is the junction of Alxa League and Ningxia. The north part is located in the junction of Wuhai City and Alxa League. (2) 58 seed plants belonging to 39 genera and 17 families were recorded in the study sites, 18 of them were shrubs and subshrubs species, 27 were perennial herbs species and 13 were annual herbs species. Super-xerophytes and xerophytes were the two major ecological type of water, accounting for 26% and 50%, respectively. Central Asia-Eastern Asia element was major floristic elements, followed by Palaeo-Mediterranean element and Gobi element. (3) Based on the life forms and dominances of the species in community, H. songaricum desert alliance was divided into three major association groups (H. songaricum - Herbs Desert, H. songaricum - Shrubs - Herbs Desert, H. songaricum - Subshrubs Desert), and then, subdivided into 10 associations.
    The Spatial Distribution Patterns and Correlation of Tamarix chinensis population in Coastal Wetlands of Shandong Province
    Pan WU Xi-Qiang PENG Shu-Ren ShuYANG Ya-Nan GAO Feng-Hua BAI Shi-Jie YI Wei-Hua GUO
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2019, 43 (华北专辑):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0186
    Abstract ( 232 )   PDF (926KB) ( 14 )   Save
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    Aims Tamarix chinensis is a pioneering shrub species in temperate coastal saline wetlands, which plays an important role in plant community succession and preventing seawater intrusion in coastal wetlands. The population distribution characteristics and their correlations of Tamarix chinensis communities with different diameters are studied to reveal the characteristics of population development, which can reveal the characteristics of population development and provide reference for species conservation and management of protected areas. The study also can provide basic information for scientific research on the succession and ecological management of coastal wetland vegetation ecosystems. Methods In the core area of Changyi National Marine Ecological Special Protection Zone, two sample tapes with a spacing of about 800 m arrange along the parallel coastline. Each plot has three plots of 50 m × 50 m and the spacing of the plot is 600 m. A total of six sample plots are set up for each wood survey and the spatial distribution map of Tamarix chinensis population is drawn by Origin. The obtained data is divided into three different diameter grades according to their base diameter: diameter grade I (base diameter ≤ 4 cm) and diameter grade II (4 < base diameter ≤ 8 cm), diameter grade III (base diameter > 8 cm). The distribution pattern of Tamarix chinensis population and the relationship between different diameter grades are analyzed by the point pattern analysis method and Programita software. Important findings (1) A total of 374 individuals of Tamarix chinensis are investigated in six plots, including 14 in plot 1 and 20 in plot 2, 36 in plot 3, 45 in plot 4, and 221 in plot 5, 38 in plot 6. (2) There is a large difference in population density of Tamarix chinensis between different plots, which shows that Tamarix chinensis is not evenly distributed on the regional scale. (3) Tamarix chinensis populations show a clustered distribution on small scale (less than 5 m), which appear as random distribution on large scale (greater than 15 m). The population of Tamarix chinensis shows a trend of transition from clustered distribution to random distribution with the increase of spatial scale. (4) The spatial association of Tamarix chinensis on diameter grade I and diameter grade II is positive on small scale, the spatial association on diameter grade I and diameter grade III is positive on small scale, the spatial association on diameter grade II and diameter grade III also is positive on small scale. There is no spatial association of them on large scale. However, the spatial association on diameter grade II and diameter grade III becomes negative at the scale of 15 m.
    Distribution patterns and species abundance distribution of form.Vitex negundo var. heterophylla in North China
    Tang Lili Tong Yang Hong-Yan Liu Mu-Yi KANG Ren-Qing WANG Feng Zhang Xian-Ming GAO Ming YUE Mei Zhang Pufan Zheng
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2019, 43 (华北专辑):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0162
    Abstract ( 183 )   PDF (1320KB) ( 18 )   Save
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    Aims Spatial heterogeneity is an important factor for plant species richness. In different distribution patterns, the species diversity and species composition are various, and the structure, function, and even ecological processes of different ecosystems will also be different. Methods We conducted filed investigations and statistical analysis on 370 Form.Vitex negundo var. heterophylla plots in North China. Then we applied biodiversity index,multivariate regression trees (MRT), multiple linear regression and ArcGIS to explore their distribution patterns and species abundance distribution in both horizontal and vertical gradients. Important findings The results showed that in horizontal gradients, the latitudes and longitudes of form. Vitex negundo var. heterophylla all spanned more than 10°, which mainly located at Yanshan-Lingshan Mountain (YL) of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei province, Lvliang-Taihang Mountain (LT) of Shanxi province, Yimeng Mountain (YM) of Shandong province and Funiu Mountain (FN) of Henan province. There were sporadic distributions in Ziwu-Huashan Mountain (ZH) of Shaanxi province. In vertical gradients, the distribution of form. Vitex negundo var. heterophylla ranged from 70m to 1497m. Each of them had different vertical gradients distribution. Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index and Pielou index of herbaceous layer in Form. Vitex negundo var. heterophylla were higher than that of shrub layer. Comparing to elevation (P<0.01), latitude (P<0.001) brought more effect to those indexes. All indexes for shrub layer increased when latitude (except YL area) and elevation (except LT area) went up, while the diversity of herbal layer did not show any association with latitude gradient, but was negatively related to elevation, especially in the YM, FN, and ZH areas. The results showed the Form. Vitex negundo var. heterophylla was at the initial stage of community development in northern China, we believe both environmental factors and community development have affected the spatial differentiation of their species diversity.
    Community assembly of herbaceous layer under artificial forests in the centre of Loess Plateau,China
    Jingjing SHI Ming-Fei ZHAO Feng XUE Mu-Yi KANG
    Chin J Plant Ecol. 2019, 43 (华北专辑):  0-0.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2018.0153
    Abstract ( 199 )   PDF (1292KB) ( 10 )   Save
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    Aims Many competing theories seek to identify the mechanisms behind community assembly. Niche theory and neutral theory are the two main theories explaining these mechanisms, but there is still a controversy of which theory could be the better driver explaining the mechanisms. Our aim is to reveal the beta-diversity pattern of understory in artificial forests of Loess Plateau and to evaluate the relative influences of deterministic (environmental filtering) and stochastic (dispersal limitation) processes on the community assembly, to provide a case study for finally determining the drivers of mechanisms behind community assembly. Methods We schematically sampled in total 107 sites of artificial forests spatially spreading over the Loess Plateau region. In each sampling site 3 sub-plots (10 m × 10 m) were randomly designed at a ca. 50 m distance intervals, and the floristic composition, community structure, and environmental conditions were recorded in each subplot (321 in total). We calculated the dissimilarity (beta-sim) of species composition for 5671 site pairs, geographic distance and environmental divergence for each plot pairs. Random forest (RF) was used to quantify the influence of the selected factors on species composition, and distance-based multivariate regression method (MRM) was used to fit the relationship between dissimilarity, geographic distance and environmental heterogeneity. To quantify how and in what extent the environmental filtering and the dispersal limitation influence the species composition among sites, we performed the principle coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM) and distance-based RDA (db-RDA) to select the pronounced independent variables. Then departed the variance into three parts, namely, (1) independent contributions of geographic distance; (2) independent contributions of environmental heterogeneity; and (3) the joint contribution of geographic distance and environmental heterogeneity. Important findings The results of our research showed that the community similarity declined with increasing geographical and environmental distance. Geographical distance together with the environmental heterogeneity in total explained about 47.8% of variance in species composition of understory in the artificial forests. About 14.1% of the variance was accounted by the spatial factors, a little bit more than that of 9.8% explained by the environmental factors. The annual precipitation and the basal area are the two most important environmental factors influencing the pattern of beta diversity, though they are not comparable with the importance of the geographical distance. Those results implied that both environmental filtering and the dispersal limitation factors play an important role in shaping the community assembly of the artificial forests in Loess Plateau.

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