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Table of Content
    Volume 21 Issue 3
    10 March 1997
      
    Research Articles
    The Studies of Aspenrs of Biodiversity on Scrubs in the Warm Temperate Zone in China
    Xie Jinyang, Chen Lingzhi
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1997, 21 (3):  197-207. 
    Abstract ( 1965 )   PDF (547KB) ( 1150 )   Save
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    The results of the study show: (1) Eveness indices corellated more closely with dominance than did variety indices with richness indices. Among these indices,D4 (Shannon entropy) and D6(Gini index) highly contained the information of all the indices. (2) The species diversity indices of the scrubs did not decreased from initial stage to middle stage and to climax stage of succession. (3) Species abundance distributions were log series in the scrubs of Vitex chinensis and Quercus liaotungensis where biodiversity was relatively high. Species abundance distributions were geometry series in the scrubs of Caragana jubata and Corylus mandshurica where biodiversity was reletively low. Species abundance distributions were Broken-Stick model in shrub communities of Spirae atrilobata where biodiversity was intermediate. There was no log -normal distribution.
    A Preliminary Study on the Warte Balance for Some Sandland Shrubs Based on Transpiration Measurements in Field Conditions
    Dong Xuejun, Zhang Xinshi, Yang Baozhen
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1997, 21 (3):  208-225. 
    Abstract ( 2145 )   PDF (953KB) ( 779 )   Save
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    This paper aims at applying the principles of water balance and the semi-fixed dunes for the establishment of the product-protective systems in Maowusu Sandland (Zhang Xinshi, 1994; 1996)to the practices of afforestation and control of desertification. As water serves as alimiting factor for the shrubs ecosystems in China’s Maowusu Sandland,one of the shrubs ‘kingdoms’ in the temperate arid zones of the world, it is very important to estimate the appropriate planting densities with the aid of the principles and methodologies of water balance for the rational management and sustainable development for the area’s vegetation. In this, evapo-transpiration (ET) is the most difficult to be determined accurately. This paper proposes a method for the estimation of seasonal transpiration water loss based on field measured data of transpiration rate ,considering the typical pattern of change of above-ground green biomass during the typical growing seasons from mid-April to mid-October. The evaporation from sand surface during the growing seasons is estimated by using a semi-empirical model and taking the monthly mean temperatures at sand surface as the input. Finally, the appropriate planting densities for the major shrubs are discussed as constrained by the water balance equation. According to the results obtained, the evapo-transpiration of the shrubs ecosystems of Maowusu Sandland comes mainly from plants rather than the soil. As a result, the appropriate planting densities for the dominant shrubs ought to be controlled at such a level that the dunes are semi-fixed by the plants, with the exception of Sabina vulgaris stands having a high density owing to its powerful capability of transpiration control.
    Potential Effect of Extracts of Roots of Malus pumila and Populus canadensis on Wheat Growth
    Zhu Xinru, Wang Dali
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1997, 21 (3):  226-233. 
    Abstract ( 2172 )   PDF (431KB) ( 914 )   Save
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    Does tree root affect crop growth when they are planted near by each other? In aspect of allelopathy, the paper gives results based on the study in Agro-ecological research station of Feng Qiu in He Nan province. In a general survey, it was found that model of intercroping included corn with Paulownia elongata, wheat growing in orchard of Malus pumila, sweet potato planted in orchard of Prunus persica, and various crops growing near by the tree of Populus Canadensis in surveyed surroundings. Under normal climatic and nutrient condition, it did not occur that those crops grew apparently poor except sweet potato which gave bitterish taste in comparison with other sweet potato growing not near to Prunus persica. Results show that water extracts of tree roots inhibited germination and early growth of wheat. The germination inhibitory extents were in the order that by root of Prunus persica>by root of Populus canadensis>by root of Malus pumila>by root of Paulownia elongata. The shoot growth and root elongation of wheat were also affected by the water extract of tree roots. Populus canadensis was the strongest one in the three sorts of the trees, and Paulownia elongata was the weakest one. Ether extract of tree roots concentrated some organic compounds from the water extracts and exhibited more obvious inhibitory effect on wheat growth. The order of inhibitory extents by ether extracts was the same as that by the water extracts. From literature,it is known that in soil or water phlonzin from apple root bark will be degraded into phloretin,P-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid ,P-hydroxyhenzoic acid and phloroglucinol, gradually. An experiment by using the commercial chemicals of P-hydroxybenzoic acid and phloroglucinol was set up in order to answer if the compounds played role in the inhibitory effect of tree root . The results of experiment show that the water solution of organic compounds did take part in the inhibitory effect on the germination and early growth of wheat. At concentration of n × 10-2M,it showed inhibitory effect , but at n × 10-5M,it showed simulative effect. P-hydroxybenzoic acid was detected in the soil samples collected from the field station. The concentration of the compounds varied around the level of n × 10-5M. The paper elucidated the condition under which inverse effects occur.
    Biomass Responses to a Simulated Global Warming By Changing of Elevation and Fertilizer addition in Upland Grassland
    Yang Yonghui, A. F. Harrison, P. Ineson
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1997, 21 (3):  234-241. 
    Abstract ( 1929 )   PDF (486KB) ( 842 )   Save
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    Experiments were carried out to test the impacts of improved climate on biomass in three upland grassland systems . This was achieved by transplanting lysimeters of different soil/vegetation types between two sites down an altitudinal gradient at Great Dun Fell (GDF) in the northern Pennines, U. K. Three soil types were moved (acid brown earth, peaty gley and micropodzol) with associated vegetation,and the temperature difference between the sites was an annual average of 4.2℃. Parallel fertilizer experiments were performed using the three soil/vegetation types at the same two sites, to examine the vegetation responses to additions of N (20kg · hm-2 · a-1) and P (10kg · hm-2 · a-1) in order to assess whether climatically-linked improvements in growth were related to soil nutritional changes. The experiment showed that the change in altitude resulted in a marked and significant (p<0.01) increase in total above-ground productivity, with productivity at the warmer site being increased by 51%, 66 % and 78 % for the peaty gley, micropodzol and acid brown earth, respectively. Change in species composition were observed with, in particular , the grass Agrostis capillaris showing the greatest positive response to climatic improvement. The fertilizer additions did not show any significant effect on above ground productivity on any soil type, at either of the two transplant sites, Therefore, we conclude that temperature acting on the plants directly, and not through soil nutrient supply, is the major limiting factor to primary productivity at this upland site.
    Simulation Analysis of Spatial Patterns of Main Secies In the Korean-pine Broadleaved Forests In Changbai Mountain
    Hou Yongyang, Han Jinxuan
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1997, 21 (3):  242-249. 
    Abstract ( 1827 )   PDF (399KB) ( 1198 )   Save
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    Spatial patterns of main species and of different various age classes of Koreanpines in the Korean-pines broadleaved forest in Changbai mountain were studied using pattern simulation analysis method based on coordinate data sets. The results are as follows: (1) Spatial pattern of Korean-pine changed in different forest types and developmental stages. Adult Korean-pines distributed randomly but the aggregation is stronger in Pinus koraiensis- Picea jezoensis-Abies nephrolepis forest. (2) Patterns of Korean-pine changed from aggregation to randomness and random self-thinning is an important factor of the dynamics.
    Distribution of Rainfall Kinetic Energy By Canopies of Artificial Forest Tree Species, and Its Ecological Effects
    Zhou Guoyi
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1997, 21 (3):  250-259. 
    Abstract ( 1502 )   PDF (512KB) ( 992 )   Save
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    This research developed a systematic method of calculating waterdrop kinetic energy of rainfall and throughfall and explained how a forest canopy redistributes the rainfall kinetic energy and controls the throughfall kinetic energy. It was thus proposed that not all forests are suitable to functioning as water and soil conservation.For atmospheric precipitation, the number of raindrops distributes in a normal distribution, i.e. N(a,b), where, a is the average diameter of raindrops and b is the standard deviation. My research shows that there was the following relations among a,b and the precipitation intensity (P) that determines a and b,a = 1.32665 + 0.319051nP (r > 0.998);b = 0.75551 + 0.00223P(r > 0.995).However, for thoughfall, the a and b are not determined by P but by the structure of canopy. For a definite canopy ,a and b are definite. This is shown below for canopies of some tree species: Cunninghamia lanceolata: N (3.7, 0.98 ); Pinus massoniana: N (3.5, 0.97 ); Sassafras tzumu: N (4.1.1.14) :Eucalyptus exserta;N(3.9,1.09);Acacia mangium:N(3.8,1.06). For most canopies,the diameter of throughfall(in fact, it is not all throughfall but just dribbling waterdrop from leaves of canopy) is larger than the diameter of atmospheric precipitation raindrop, which will increase the dash of waterdrops to the forest land, especially in the situation of low intensity of rainfall. Therefore, in general, the forest canopy will hamper the topsoil conservation on forest land. However, forests often have underlayer vegetation which, unlike the forest canopy, actually plays an important part in soil conservation. The main function of forest in aspect of water and soil conservation is to protect the deep soil from landslide with its complex root system. When making water and soil conservation forest, we should consider a number of factors, such as precipitation characteristics in that region, the density of trees, the height of forest canopy, coexistence with other vegetation and so on. Herbs have always no negative effects on water and soil conservation, especially in keeping top soil. However, to protect the deep soil from landslide, herbs may have little function. Therefore, it had better to combine with mixed forest to strengthen the effects.
    Ecological Benefit of Plantation of Alltingia gracilipes and Schima superba Under Canopy of Sprout Land of Cuminghamia lanceloata
    Li Zhengji
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1997, 21 (3):  260-266. 
    Abstract ( 1901 )   PDF (410KB) ( 902 )   Save
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    2-year permanent plots of mixed stands of Cunninghamia lanceolata and broadleaved tree, formed by planting Altingia gracilipes and Schima superba of middle subtropical common sight evergreen broadleaved native soil species, were observed. Under the canopy of sprout land of Cunninghamia lanceolata, the function of water conservation was strengthened, the soil fertility was raised, the condition of forest microclimate was improved ,and the combustibility was dropped after transformed mixed stand of Altingia gracilipes and Cunninghamia lanceolata, and mixed stand of Schima superba and Cunninghamia lanceolata Cultivated evergreen broadleaved native soil species under canopy of Cunninghamia lanceolata was an effective biological measure for improving quality of ecological setting of Cunninghamia lanceolata and for improving scientific management of second growth and low yield stand of Cunninghamia lanceolata.
    The Application of the Ordered Plot Clustering to the Vertical Belt Partitioning of Vegetation of Main Mountains Shanxi
    Zhang Feng, Shanggua Tieliang
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1997, 21 (3):  267-273. 
    Abstract ( 1676 )   PDF (400KB) ( 894 )   Save
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    The ordered plot clustering, belonging to the non-hierarchical agglomerative algorithms, was introduced in the vertical belt partitioning of Mian Mountains, Shanxi in this paper. The result of the vertical belt partitioning is as follows: 1. the deciduous broad leaved forest belt (800~2000m above sea level),including 3 subbelts: [Ⅰ. the deciduous broad leaved shrub subbelt (800~1200m above sea level); Ⅱ. the pine and oak forest subbelt (1200~1700m above sea level) ;and Ⅲ. the deciduous broad leaved forest subbelt (1700~2000m above sea level)];2, the cold-temperate coniferous forest belt (2000~2200m above sea level) ;and 3, the subalpine meadow belt (2200~2440m above sea level).Based on the algorithm of the gold partitioning method(Fisher’s method),ordered plot clustering was carried out according to , firstly, the criterion of plot order from the first to last one, and secondly ,the criterion of the maximal similarity within each plot group (or the minimal similarity among plot groups). Thus, the classification is optimal. In order to compare with ordered plot clustering, TWINSPAN was applied to the vertical belt partitioning of the mountains. The results showed that the classification of the ordered plot clustering was superior to that of TWlNSPAN in the case of the serious disturbances of primary vegetation.
    Characteristics of Adaptation of Gordonia acuminata Seedlings to Different Neighbors
    Xiao Chunwang, Liu Yucheng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1997, 21 (3):  274-284. 
    Abstract ( 2130 )   PDF (480KB) ( 999 )   Save
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    The present study is to investigate influnces on resource availability for “target” Gordonia acuminata seedlings, their growth, morphology, canopy structure and biomass by their different neighbors individuals of Pinus massoniana, Symplocos setchuenensis and Gordonia acuminata seedlings . Attempts, was also made to find out the main factors of the neighbor influence on the growth of the “target” individuals in natural gap of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest. The results show that the growth and light interception differed significantly among different neighbors: The growth characters of target individuals were poorly correlated with the height、the leaf biomass、total biomass of neighbors and their light interception at 10 cm height above ground in canopy, but were highly correlated with their light interception at 30 cm height above ground. Therefore, the major factor for growth of the target individuals was light availability of the neighbor shading the target individuals. The growth dynamics of target individuals, in terms of tree height, number of leaves ,leaf area, leaf size, canopy structure and biomass, were significantly influenced by different neighbors. The height and growth、 the leaf area、the canopy width and the biomass of the target individuals were larger in G. acuminata+ no neighbor than those in G. acuminata+S. setchuenensis those of which were in turn larger than those in G. acuminata+P. massoniana. In G. acuminata+G. acuminata, those characters were smallest. The intraspecific competition in G. acuminata was greater than the interspecific one.
    A Rudimentary Analysis on Primary Production of Seawater in Chinese Great Wall Bay, Antarctica During Jan~Feb,1994
    Chen Haowen, Zhu Mingyuan, Hong Xuguang, Yuan Junfeng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1997, 21 (3):  285-289. 
    Abstract ( 1735 )   PDF (237KB) ( 796 )   Save
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    Summer primary production of seawater in Chinese Great Wall Bay, Antarctic during Jan.~Feb. 1994 was estimated. The results revealed that the yield of the carbon primary production was about 0.799g · m-3 · d-1 in the waters. We found that the yield in the deeper water column was fairly high as compared to the yield in the upper and middle columns. It showed that the deeper water surveyed lies still in the range of the euphoric zone. This meant that there was a quite high primary production in the waters. The yield of the gross production was rather consistent with the variates, such as. chlorophyll a, NH4- N,NO3-N, ΣN and ΣN/p. This seemed to indicate that there were sufficient nutrient salts there, which, however , was not consistent with the concentrations of NO2-N, PO4-P. This was not in coordination with the abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and suggests that these bacteria had a capability of degrading organic materials as well as strong mineralization.
    A Preliminary Study on Environmental Geochemistry in Saccharum sinense Plantations in Longan Count, Guangxi Province
    Li Xiankun, Su Zongming
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1997, 21 (3):  290-296. 
    Abstract ( 1622 )   PDF (404KB) ( 671 )   Save
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    Based on investigation on growth and yield of Saccharum sinense plantations in different geospheres in Longan county, Guangxi province, the plantable geosphere was recognized. Through sampling test for contents of 31 elements in rocks、 soils and plants in the different geosphere, the relationship between the plant and environmental geochemistry was studied and the major elements affecting growth of S. sinense were determined. The results indicate that geosphere type differed greatly in the yield of S. sonense. C3 geosphere was good region, D3 and Qp geosphere were bad region and C2 and D2d2 geosphere were intermediate. S. sinense yield could be increased with applying K, Na, B and N while decreased with the application of As, Cr, Cu and Ca.

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