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Table of Content
    Volume 40 Issue 11
    10 November 2016

    The autumn landscape of coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta (Photographed by HAN Guang-Xuan). Sun et al. conducted a manipulative warming experiment, using the infrared heaters, to explore the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of soil respiration and its responses to environmental factors in a coastal wetland during the non-growing season (Pages 1111–1123 of this issue).

    Research Articles
    Effects of elevated temperature on soil respiration in a coastal wetland during the non- growing season in the Yellow River Delta, China
    Bao-Yu SUN, Guang-Xuan HAN, Liang CHEN, Xiao-Jing CHU, Qing-Hui XING, Li-Xin WU, Shu-Yu ZHU
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2016, 40 (11):  1111-1123.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2015.0414
    Abstract ( 406 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1688KB) ( 760 )   Save
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    Aims Winter soil respiration plays a crucial role in terrestrial carbon cycle, which could lose carbon gained in the growing season. With global warming, the average near-surface air temperatures will rise by 0.3 to 4.8 °C. Winter is expected to be warmer obviously than other seasons. Thus, the elevated temperature can significantly affect soil respiration. The coastal wetland has shallow underground water level and is affected by the fresh water and salt water. Elevated temperature can cause the increase of soil salinity, and as a result high salinity can limit soil respiration. Our objectives were to determine the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of soil respiration in a coastal wetland during the non-growing season, and to explore the responses of soil respiration to environmental factors, especially soil temperature and salinity.
    Methods A manipulative warming experiment was conducted in a costal wetland in the Yellow River Delta using the infrared heaters. A complete random block design with two treatments, including control and warming, and each treatment was replicated each treatment four times. Soil respiration was measured twice a month during the non-growing season by a LI-8100 soil CO2 efflux system. The measurements were taken every 2 h for 24 h at clear days. During each soil respiration measurement, soil environmental parameters were determined simultaneously, including soil temperature, moisture and salinity.
    Important findings The diurnal variation of soil respiration in the warming plots was closely coupled with that in the control plots, and both exhibited single-peak curves. The daily soil respiration in the warming was higher than that in the control from November 2014 to January 2015. Contrarily, from March to April 2015. During the non-growing seasons, there were no significant differences in the daily mean soil respiration between the two treatments. However, soil temperature and soil salt content in the warming plots were significantly higher than those in the control plots. The non-growing season was divided into the no salt restriction period (November 2014 to middle February 2015) and salt restriction period (middle February 2015 to April 2015). During non-growing season, soil respiration in the warming had no significant difference compared with that in control. During the no salt restriction period, soil respiration in the warming was 22.9% (p < 0.01) greater than the control when soil temperature at 10 cm depth in warming was elevated by 4.0 °C compared with that in control. However, experimental warming decreased temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10). During salt restriction period, soil warming decreased soil respiration by 20.7% compared with the control although with higher temperature (3.3 °C), which may be attributed to the increased soil salt content (Soil electric conductivity increased from 4.4 ds·m-1 to 5.3 ds·m-1). The high water content can limit soil respiration in some extent. In addition, the Q10 value in the warming had no significant difference compared with that in control during this period. Therefore, soil warming can not only increase soil respiration by elevating soil temperature, but also decrease soil respiration by increasing soil salt content due to evaporation, which consequently regulating the soil carbon balance of coastal wetlands.

    Impacts of nitrogen addition on foliar nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Mount Wuyi
    Qiao-Shu-Yi WANG, Cheng-Yang ZHENG, Xin-Yang ZHANG, Fa-Xu ZENG, Juan XING
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2016, 40 (11):  1124-1135.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2016.0110
    Abstract ( 410 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1557KB) ( 904 )   Save
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    Aims Our purpose was to explore the effects of nitrogen addition on foliar nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and N:P stoichiometry and to assess their differences among different species and functional groups.
    Methods N addition experiment has been conducted in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Mount Wuyi, Fujian Province since 2011. Foliar concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were measured and foliar stoichiometry was estimated in tree, shrub, herb, fern and moss species following the N addition treatments from 2013 to 2015.
    Important findings Generally, foliar N increased for almost all species and herbaceous plants are much more sensitive than trees and shrubs under N addition. Foliar N of Castanopsis carlesii, Amomum villosum, Woodwardia japonica increased significantly under N addition. Foliar P for most species was sensitive to the N addition. Foliar P of herbaceous plants increased significantly but foliar P of Leucobryum chlorophyllosum decreased significantly. The results showed the subtropical evergreen forest in Mount Wuyi was mainly limited by P and mean foliar N:P ratios enhanced from 18.67 to 19.72 under N addition, indicating that the strength of P limitation was enhanced by N addition. N:P ratios of the dominant arboreal species in the communities tended to be stable, while N:P ratios of herbaceous plants and shrubs increased. The changes in N:P ratios were mainly determined by P dynamics instead of N dynamics under N addition, and our results confirmed that increasing N availability can affect P cycling.

    Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on fine root morphology, nitrogen and phosphorus efficiency of Pinus massoniana clone under phosphorus deficiency
    Ping SONG, Rui ZHANG, Yi ZHANG, Zhi-Chun ZHOU, Zhong-Ping FENG
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2016, 40 (11):  1136-1144.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2016.0109
    Abstract ( 481 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1113KB) ( 788 )   Save
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    Aims In forest ecosystems with phosphorus (P) deficiency, the impact of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on nutritional traits related to N and P uptake potentially affect plant growth and vegetation productivity. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of simulated N deposition on fine root morphological characteristics and effiency of N and P absorption in Pinus massoniana under under low P stress.
    Methods Two clones of P. massoniana seedling with different P efficiency (high P efficiency 19-5 vs. low P efficiency 21-3) were used. A two-year pot experiment was applyed with treatments of two P conditions, (i.e. homogeneous low P availability vs. heterogeneous low P availability) and three N deposition levels (0, 30 and 120 kg N·hm-2·a-1; i.e., N0, N30, or N120, respectively) .
    Important findings 1) The growth of P. massoniana seedling was interactively affected the three factors: simulated N deposition, P condition and genotypes. Simulated N deposition increased the seedling height and dry mass under heterogeneous P deficiency, but did not significantly affect those traits under homogeneous P deficiency. Under heterogeneous P deficiency and N120 treatment, the seedling height and dry mass of clone 19-5 were 1.1 times and 1.6 times higher than that of clone 21-3, respectively. 2) Fine root length and surface area decreased as root diameter increased. N deposition significantly stimulated proliferation of fine root with diameter ≤1.5 mm, while roots with diameters ranged from 1.5 to 2.0 mm and over 2.0 mm were not influenced. The length of fine root ≤1.5 mm in diameter accounted for 90.4%-92.8% of the total root length and was not affected by N deposition. 3) Under the heterogeneous low P condition, clone 19-5 was found to respond to the simulated N deposition with increased root length and surface area in fine-root diameter class of ≤1.5 mm. Additionally, in compared with control, its N and P absorption efficiency were significantly enhanced 93.3% and 148.4%, respectively under N120 treatment. However, the N and P absorption efficiency of clone 21-3 was less affected by the simulated N deposition. The N and P use efficiency had no notable variation. Finally, we found that the proliferation of fine-root ≤1.5 mm in diameter and high N (P) absorption efficiency maybe the adaptive mechanisms of P. massoniana responding to atmospheric N deposition under P deficiency.

    Foliar nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of alien invasive plants and co-occurring natives in Xishuangbanna
    Chao-Chen HU, Xue-Yan LIU, Yan-Bao LEI, Yun-Hong TAN, Peng ZHANG, Yu-Ping DONG, Cong-Qiang LIU
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2016, 40 (11):  1145-1153.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2016.0052
    Abstract ( 395 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (986KB) ( 957 )   Save
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    Aims How alien invasive plants and co-occurring native plants utilize nutrients is one of major issues in invasion ecology. Foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents and stoichiometry can elucidate the uptake ability and limitation status of nutrients in plants, which provides basic knowledge for understanding the invading ability and co-occurrence or disappearance of plants.
    Methods Based on typical alien invasive plants (Chromolaena odorata, Ageratina adenophora) and native plants in southwestern China, this study focused on strategies of N and P utilization among invasive plants and native plants under different invasion conditions. The species compositions, aboveground biomass, leaf N and P contents and leaf N:P were investigated for plants in plots with no invasion and with different invasion extents (estimated by the plot-based percentage of invaders’ biomass in total community) at Mt. Kongming in Xishuangbanna region, Yunnan Province, China.
    Important findings The species number decreased significantly with the invasion extent of both C. odorata and A. adenophora, although the aboveground biomass was greatly enhanced. Leaf N and P contents did not differ between the two studied invaders, but they showed significantly higher N and P levels than both co-occurring and only native species (p < 0.05). Besides, leaf N and P contents of invaders increased with the invasion extent, and leaf N of native plants also showed an increasing trend with the invasion extent. When the influence of invasion was checked for the same species, leaf P contents decreased, whereas leaf N and N:P increased for most native plants under invasion. Based on the absolute foliar N and P contents, N:P values, we inferred that native plants were still limited by N, although N availability might be enhanced by invasion. Both invasive plants had leaf N:P values lower than 10, suggesting a higher P uptake relative to N uptake. All above results highlighted a higher N and P uptake of typical alien invasive plants in southwestern China.

    Associations between litterfall dynamics and micro-climate in forests of Putuoshan Island, Zhejiang, China
    Yan-Jun SONG, Wen-Bin TIAN, Xiang-Yu LIU, Fang YIN, Jun-Yang CHENG, Dan-Ni ZHU, ARSHAD Ali, En-Rong YAN
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2016, 40 (11):  1154-1163.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2016.0157
    Abstract ( 399 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (732KB) ( 671 )   Save
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    Aims Seasonal litterfall production plays an important role in the carbon and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. This study examines the effects of micro-environmental factors on seasonal litterfall dynamics in the forests of Putuoshan Island, Zhejiang Province of eastern China.
    Methods The study covers five forest types, including Liquidambar formosana forest, Cinnamomum japonicum and Machilus thunbergii forest, Pinus massoniana forest, Cyclobalanopsis glauca forest, and Distylium gracile forest, in Putuoshan Island. We collected micro-meteorological data, and measured monthly litterfall in stands of the five forest types over one year. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was performed to determine the effects of micro-climatic factors on litterfall production.
    Important findings The average annual litterfall production ranged from 3.45 to 5.36 t·hm-2·a-1 across five types of forests, albeit no effect of forest types on the litterfall production. The partitioning of litterfall components differed among the five forest types. The seasonal litterfall production exhibited two contrasting patterns, i.e. double climax curve and triple peaks, and varied significantly among the five forest types. Moreover, the peak in the litterfall production mostly occurred in the windy months of the year, such as in April, July and December, which was consistent with the dynamics of wind speed. RDA results showed that components of litterfall production in different months were controlled by different micro-climatic factors. The total, leaves, fruits, and miscellaneous litterfall productions were directly and positively affected by air temperature. Twig litterfall production was positively affected by the overstory wind velocity. Flower litterfall production was negatively affected by air humidity. In summary, forest types had no effects on litterfall production. However, variations in litterfall productions were explained by air temperature, air humidity, and overstory wind velocity in the forests studied.

    Responses of the distribution pattern of Quercus chenii to climate change following the Last Glacial Maximum
    Yao LI, Xing-Wang ZHANG, Yan-Ming FANG
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2016, 40 (11):  1164-1178.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2016.0032
    Abstract ( 470 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1834KB) ( 986 )   Save
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    Aims Quercus chenii is a representative species of the flora in East China, with high ecological and economic values. Here, we aim to simulate the changes in the distribution pattern of this tree species following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and to explore how climatic factors constrain the potential distribution, so as to provide scientific basis for protection and management of the germplasm resources in Q. chenii.
    Methods Based on 55 presence point records and data on eight environmental variables, we simulated the potential distribution of Q. chenii during the Last Glacial Maximum, mid-Holocene, present and the year 2070 (the scenario of greenhouse gas emission is Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) with MaxEnt model. The novel climate area and main factors influencing the changes in distribution pattern were evaluated by multivariate environmental similarity surface analysis and the most dissimilar variable analysis. The importance of environmental variables was evaluated by percent contribution, permutation importance and Jackknife test. Response curves were used to estimate the suitable value range of each variable.
    Important findings The accuracy of MaxEnt model is very high, as indicated by the value of the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.9869 ± 0.0045. The highly suitable region for the present distribution covers southern Anhui, western Zhejiang, northeastern Jiangxi and eastern Hubei. The main factors affecting the potential distribution of Q. chenii are temperature and precipitation, with the former being more important. Mean temperature of the driest quarter is likely the main factor restricting Q. chenii growing in the north. During the LGM, the East China Sea Shelf occurs as the highly suitable region for the distribution of Q. chenii. In the mid-Holocene, the outline of the suitable area for the distribution of Q. chenii is similar to the present. The potential distribution region will likely move northward and experience an area expansion under the climate condition in 2070. At that time, climate anomaly will also be most severe compared to the LGM, mid-Holocene and present. Temperature seasonality and precipitation seasonality may be the main climatic factors promoting changes in the distribution pattern of Q. chenii.

    Community characteristics and spatial distribution of dominant tree species in a deciduous broad-leaved forest of Muzhaling, Henan, China
    Yun CHEN, Ting WANG, Pei-Kun LI, Cheng-Liang YAO, Zhi-Liang YUAN, Yong-Zhong YE
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2016, 40 (11):  1179-1188.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2016.0192
    Abstract ( 482 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1373KB) ( 902 )   Save
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    Aims The objective of this paper is to quantify the species composition and spatial distribution pattern in a deciduous broad-leaved forest in temperate to subtropical ecological transition zone.
    Methods In this study, a 3-hm2 forest was selected in the temperate to subtropical ecological transition zone to analyze the community species composition, structure of diameter at breast height, community classification and spatial distribution pattern of dominant tree species.
    Important findings Our results showed that in the plot there were 85 species, 52 genera and 31 families, mainly composed of Betulaceae, Celastraceae, Caprifoliaceae, Salicaceae and Aceraceae. Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata and Pinus armandii are dominant species of the community tree layer. The rare species and occasional species accounted for 20.0% and 28.24% of total species respectively. Size distribution of all species showed an invert J-shape, which indicates that the community is in a stable and normal growth status. Using multiple regression trees, the community in this plot can be divided into four categories: 1) Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata + Pinus armandii + Litsea tsinlingensis + Cerasus clarofolia + Lindera obtusiloba; 2) Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata + Salix chaenomeloides + Sorbus hupehensis; 3) Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata + Ailanthus altissima + Cerasus clarofolia + Litsea tsinlingensis; 4) Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata + Fraxinus chinensis + Litsea tsinlingensis + Philadelphus incanus. Under the completely random distribution model, the main species in the plot display clustered distributions, with the different species occurring in different habitat types, showing obvious terrain habitat preferences. However, under the heterogeneous Poisson distribution model, these species at different scales are distributed randomly or regularly. This study helps to understand the plant community species composition of the Muzhaling World Geopark, community structure and community distribution. The results show that the terrain habitat heterogeneity is an important factor influencing the spatial distribution of the species. The present work improves the understanding of plant community in Muzhaling World Geopark, and provides technical reference for biodiversity conservation and forest management of this area.

    Leaf (or assimilation branch) epidermal micromorphology of desert plant in arid and semi- arid areas of China
    Yu-Bing LIU, Xin-Rong LI, Meng-Meng LI, Dan LIU, Wen-Li ZHANG
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2016, 40 (11):  1189-1207.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2016.0129
    Abstract ( 560 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (5577KB) ( 1007 )   Save
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    Aims Leaf epidermal micromorphology is an important adaptation of desert plants to arid environment. A micromorphological analysis of leaf epidermal tissue of desert plants was carried out in order to obtain qualitative and quantitative data on epidermal characteristics and to evaluate the long-term adaptive strategy of desert plants to aridity in desert conditions.
    Methods The leaf (or assimilation branches) materials were sampled for more than 200 natural populations of 117 desert plant species from 74 genera and 28 families, in arid and semi-arid areas of China. The characteristics of leaf epidermal micromorphology of desert plants were then measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Characteristics of epidermal cell, trichome, stomatal, cuticular wax on adaxial and abaxial surface are presented.
    Important findings Leaf epidermal micromorphology of desert plants showed abundant diversity in different classification levels. The desert plants adapted to environmental stress can be divided into 11 basic morphological types according to the structure of the epidermis, and their characteristics of leaf epidermal morphology were classfied into 6 main types according to the relationships between stress resistance and structural characteristics of epidermal micromorphology and their appendages. The main epidermal appendages of desert plants (such as trichome, cuticular wax) and epidermal structures (concave-convex and papillary structure, stomata) could cooperate with each other to improve the resistance of desert plants to drought and other adverse environmental stress by resisting the strong light and reducing leaf transpiration.

    Comparison on light-response models of actual photochemical efficiency in photosystem II
    Zi-Piao YE, Wen-Hai HU, Xiao-Hong YAN
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2016, 40 (11):  1208-1217.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2015.0470
    Abstract ( 836 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (584KB) ( 647 )   Save
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    Aims The objective of this study was to compare the merits and demerits of three models (i.e., a mechanistic model, a negative exponential model and an exponential model) to simulate the light-response curves of actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII-I). Moreover, it was to reveal the mechanism that ΦPSII decreased with light intensity increasing.
    Methods The electron transport rate (ETR) and the ΦPSII of Coreopsis lanceolata, Vitex negundo and Bidens frondosa were measured by LI-6400-40B under controlled CO2 concentrations and temperatures, then light-response curves of ETR-I and ΦPSII-I were simulated by a mechanistic model, a negative exponential model and an exponential model, respectively.
    Important findings The fitted results showed that ETR-I and ΦPSII-I data of the three plants fit well to the three models. However, the saturation light intensity (PARsat) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) estimated by exponential model for ETR-I and ΦPSII-I were greatly different from the measured data. Moreover, the mechanistic model revealed that the ΦPSII for the three species decreased with increasing I as the effective light energy absorption cross-section of light-harvesting pigments decreased. At the same time, it showed that ΦPSII depended not only on I, but also on eigen-absorption cross-section of light-harvesting pigment, efficiency of exciton, photochemical constant, heat dissipation constant and average lifetime of light-harvesting pigment-protein complex in the lowest state.

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