植物生态学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (4): 409-417.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2019.0165

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野生动物监测技术和方法应用进展与展望

肖文宏1,周青松1,朱朝东1,吴东辉3,肖治术1,2,*()   

  1. 1中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101
    2中国科学院大学生命科学学院, 北京 100049
    3中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所, 长春 130102
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-27 接受日期:2019-10-14 出版日期:2020-04-20 发布日期:2020-03-26
  • 通讯作者: 肖治术
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发项目(2016YFC0500105);国家自然科学基金(31700469);中国科学院生物多样性监测与研究网络兽类多样性监测网运行经费;河南南太行山水林田湖草生态保护修复试点工程(济源项目);2019年中央林业改革发展资金

Advances in techniques and methods of wildlife monitoring

XIAO Wen-Hong1,ZHOU Qing-Song1,ZHU Chao-Dong1,WU Dong-Hui3,XIAO Zhi-Shu1,2,*()   

  1. 1Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China
  • Received:2019-06-27 Accepted:2019-10-14 Online:2020-04-20 Published:2020-03-26
  • Contact: XIAO Zhi-Shu
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China(2016YFC0500105);National Natural Science Foundation of China(31700469);Operating Fund for the Biodiversity Monitoring and Research Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences;Project for the Conservation and Restoration of the Henan Nantaihang Mountain Ecosystem, Composed of Mountains, Rivers, Forest, Farmland, Lakes, and Grassland (Jiyuan project);Central Forestry Reform and Development Fund for the Year of 2019

摘要:

野生动物是生态系统研究和保护管理的重要生物类群, 对调控生态系统结构和功能, 维持生态系统健康平衡具有显著作用。科学监测数据是野生动物研究、保护、管理决策的前提基础, 但由于传统监测技术的限制, 野生动物的多样性特征及其与环境、生态系统的平衡机制未得到充分关注和研究。随着自动化、智能化、信息化技术的发展及应用, 野生动物监测技术和方法出现较大突破和变革。该文论述了近年来野生动物监测研究领域的重要新技术, 包括红外相机技术、全球定位系统(GPS)追踪技术、DNA条形码技术和高通量测序技术等。通过综合介绍相关的基础概念、基本原理, 该文总结了新技术的应用优势和重大应用进展, 同时探讨了新技术应用中存在的问题, 并对未来野生动物监测技术的发展趋势进行了展望。

关键词: 野生动物监测, 红外相机, GPS追踪, DNA条形码, 高通量测序技术

Abstract:

Wildlife as one major group in ecosystem research and conservation management, play a critical role in regulating the structure and function of ecosystems and maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems. Scientific monitoring data are the basis for wildlife research, protection and management decisions. However, the wildlife diversity, their relationship and related mechanisms with the environment and ecosystem balance have been paid insufficient attention due to the limitations of traditional monitoring technologies. With the development and application of automatical and information technologies, wildlife monitoring technology has achieved great breakthroughs and changes. In this paper, we described four new technologies widely used for wildlife monitoring recently, including camera-trapping technology, Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking technology, DNA-barcode technology and next-generation sequencing technology. We introduced the basic concepts and principles, then summarized the advantages and major application progress of these four key technologies as well as the problems existing in the application. Finally, we discussed the trend of the wildlife monitoring technologies.

Key words: wildlife monitoring, camera trap, GPS tracking, DNA barcodes, next-generation sequencing