Volume 46 Issue 2
20 February 2022
Landscape of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Borigou, Jiajin Moutain, China(Photographed by HAO Jian-Feng). The main tree species are Acer caudatum, Betula utilis and Abies fabri. Hao et al. selected four sites with different grazing intensities along the river bank. The effects of second-generation wild boar grazing on species diversity and soil physic-chemical properties of the mixed forest were studied (Pages 197-207 of this issue).
    • Research Articles
      Temperature sensitivity of vegetation phenology in spring in mid- to high-latitude regions of Northern Hemisphere during the recent three decades
      CONG Nan, ZHANG Yang-Jian, ZHU Jun-Tao
      Chin J Plant Ecol. 2022, 46 (2):  125-135.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2021.0188
      Abstract ( 271 )   Full Text ( 2 )   PDF (7441KB) ( 52 )   Save
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      Aims Under the current global warming, there are abundant evidence that the phenological events of vegetation in spring have advanced. Advancement of the phenological events in Northern Hemisphere under a gradual warming is considered a process of acclimation rather than an instantaneous feedback. Moreover, the occurrence of spring phenological advancement also varies across ecoregions. Following up on our previous studies, here we aim to determine the temproal scale that temperature has the most influential effect on changes in spring phenology. We further explore how the local spring temperature affects the temperature sensitivity of the spring phenology and the underlying mechanism.

      Methods We extracted the dates for spring phenological events by five different methods derived from the GIMMS3g normalized difference vegetation index dataset during 1982-2009. We also employed gridded climatic datasets to calculate the temperature sensitivity of the spring phenology of vegetation, and analyzed the relationship between the temperature sensitivity of phenological events of natural vegetation and environmental variables.

      Important findings The spring phenological events of vegetation were mainly regulated by the early spring temperature over the mid- to high-latitude regions in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, we found that the maximum temperature in the month of the green-up onset or in the preceding month played the dominant role in affecting the shifts in spring phenology over 54% of the pixels for the study regions; over 91.3% of the pixels displayed phenological shifts by early spring temperature. Interestingly, across the study regions, the standard deviation in interannual temperature, accumulative precipitation and short-wave radiation contrasted in their effects, and differentially or synergistically regulated the temperature sensitivity of spring vegetation phenology.

      Relationships between lamina size, vein density and vein cell wall dry mass per unit vein length of broad-leaved woody species in Tiantong Mountain, southeastern China
      XIONG Ying-Jie, YU Guo, WEI Kai-Lu, PENG Juan, GENG Hong-Ru, YANG Dong-Mei, PENG Guo-Quan
      Chin J Plant Ecol. 2022, 46 (2):  136-147.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2021.0060
      Abstract ( 150 )   Full Text ( 15 )   PDF (1430KB) ( 27 )   Save
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      Aims Leaf size is a key determinant of plant ecological strategy, and leaf vein is the main support and transport structure in leaf, which has an important role in the growth and development of leaf. The purpose of this study was to explore the evolutionary mechanism of leaf size by analyzing the relationships among lamina size, vein density as well as vein cell wall construction cost.

      Methods In this study, 38 broad-leaved woody species were selected from Tiantong Mountain, southeastern China. The leaf size was characterized by lamina area, lamina dry mass and lamina perimeter. The standardized major axis estimation (SMA) and phylogenetically independent contrasts (PIC) methods were used to analyze the relationships between lamina size and major vein density, minor vein density, total vein density, as well as the cell wall construction cost per unit length of each order vein.

      Important findings Our results demonstrated that: (1) Lamina size was significantly and negatively correlated with major vein density, but not with minor vein density and total vein density, indicating that the small leaves are generally with higher major vein density than those of large leaves, by contrast, the density of minor veins were independent of the final leaf size as was the total vein density; (2) There was a significantly positive correlation between lamina size and the cell wall mass per unit length of major vein, while there were no significant correlations between lamina size and the cell wall mass per unit length of minor vein and total vein, indicating that the biomass investment in cell wall per unit length of major veins would increase significantly with the increase of lamina size, while the biomass investment in cell wall per unit length of minor vein was independent of lamina size; (3) There was an allometric relationship with the slope significantly greater than -1 between the major vein density and their cell wall mass per unit length, and there was no significant correlation between the minor vein density and their cell wall mass per unit length, indicating that the major vein density would decrease significantly with the increase of the construction cost of the major vein. This is a trade-off allometric relationship, while the minor vein density was not affected by their construction cost. These results indicated that the high density of major veins in small leaves is not only the result of leaf shape regulation during leaf development, but also the result of a cost-benefit trade-off of vein cell wall construction. The results of this study have unique and key implications for understanding the global plant biogeographical trends of leaf size and the adaptation strategies of plants to the environment.

      Influence of inundation frequency change on enhanced vegetation index of wetland vegetation in Poyang Lake, China
      WEN Ke, YAO Huan-Mei, GONG Zhu-Qing, NA Ze-Lin, WEI Yi-Ming, HUANG Yi, CHEN Hua-Quan, LIAO Peng-Ren, TANG Li-Ping
      Chin J Plant Ecol. 2022, 46 (2):  148-161.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2021.0033
      Abstract ( 125 )   Full Text ( 0 )   PDF (11081KB) ( 43 )   Save
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      Aims Inundation frequency (IF) is an important influencing factor on dynamics of wetland vegetation. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of IF and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) of wetland vegetation and their correlation in Poyang Lake, so as to maintain the stability of wetland ecosystem.

      Methods In view of the significant seasonal changes of Poyang Lake, its impact on wetland vegetation needs to be analyzed with a high temporal resolution method. Based on MODIS image data from 2000-03-01 to 2020-02-29, this study mapped the annual water inundation frequency of Poyang Lake, analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of EVI under different flooding conditions, and explored the response of EVI of wetland vegetation to changes in flooding conditions.

      Important findings The following conclusions are drawn: (1) The hydrological rhythm of Poyang Lake has changed significantly in the past 20 years. The water area with high inundation frequency (IF >75%) decreased from 1 435.3 km2 in 2000 to 510.25 km2 in 2019, with a decrement of 64.45%. (2) The regional average EVI showed a significant upward trend. Vegetation expansion was mainly concentrated in the middle region of Poyang Lake which was also the main region of IF declining. (3) By analyzing the changes of average EVI value under different total IF regions, it was found that the variation trend of IF was similar to that of EVI. After 2009, the shrinking trend of the Poyang Lake water area was alleviated, and the growth rate of EVI decreased. (4) In the past 20 years, the changing trend of IF and EVI in Poyang Lake was highly consistent in spatial distribution. Wetland vegetation was mainly expanded along the decreasing direction of water area. This spatial heterogeneity further confirms that hydrological variation plays a role in regulating vegetation dynamics.

      Effects of land cover and phenology changes on the gross primary productivity in an Artemisia ordosica shrubland
      YUAN Yuan, MU Yan-Mei, DENG Yu-Jie, LI Xin-Hao, JIANG Xiao-Yan, GAO Sheng-Jie, ZHA Tian- Shan, JIA Xin
      Chin J Plant Ecol. 2022, 46 (2):  162-175.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0387
      Abstract ( 254 )   Full Text ( 0 )   PDF (2113KB) ( 42 )   Save
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      Aims We aimed to examine how changes in vegetation cover and phenology affect the trend of gross primary productivity (GPP) in an Artemisia ordosica shrubland in the Mau Us Desert during the first two decades of the 21th century.

      Methods We used the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM) in combination with remote sensing data (MODIS) to simulate GPP dynamics during 2005-2018. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements of GPP (GPPFlux) were used to parameterize and validate the VPM model. The “derivation and threshold” approach was used to determine the start (SOS) and the end of the growing season (EOS), as well as the length of the growing season (LOS) for each year. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to examine the variations in temperature, normalized differences vegetation index (NDVI), and GPP over time. OLS, multiple, and partial correlation analyses were used to test the relationships among temperature, NDVI, phenology, and GPP.

      Important findings (1) Modeled GPP well captured the dynamics of GPPFlux, whereas the MODIS product (MOD17A2H) significantly underestimated GPPFlux. (2) NDVI, annual maximum NDVI(NDVImax), and annual GPP all showed an increasing trend during 2005-2018, indicating the role of vegetation recovery in promoting GPP. (3) SOS showed an advancing trend (2.1 d·a-1) and EOS showed a delaying trend (1.5 d·a-1), and therefore both SOS and EOS contributed to the increasing trend of LOS (3.6 d·a-1). (4) Annual GPP was higher with greater LOS (6.44 g C·m-2·a-1 for 1 day increase in LOS). (5) Increases in vegetation cover and growing season length explained 79% and 57% of the variations in GPP, respectively. (6) Increases in vegetation cover played a more important role than growing season extension in promoting GPP.

      Diversity-productivity relationship of plant communities in typical grassland during the long- term grazing exclusion succession
      ZHANG Yi, CHENG Jie, SU Ji-Shuai, CHENG Ji-Min
      Chin J Plant Ecol. 2022, 46 (2):  176-187.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2021.0397
      Abstract ( 158 )   Full Text ( 16 )   PDF (1408KB) ( 71 )   Save
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      Aims Grazing exclusion is an important intervention for restoring degraded grasslands. Understanding the changes of grassland productivity and plant diversity during the long-term grazing exclusion succession, as well as the relationship between diversity and productivity, are helpful for grassland restoration management and utilization.

      Methods This study was conducted in a typical grassland system with a long-term grazing exclusion gradient, located at Yunwu Mountain National Nature Reserve in Ningxia Huizu Autonomous Region. The grassland communities under continuous grazing, 9 years of grazing exclusion, 26 years of grazing exclusion, and 34 years of grazing exclusion were chosen as the study objects. We tracked changes in aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), species diversity and functional diversity, and quantified the relationships between diversity and productivity.

      Important findings The results showed that grazing exclusion significantly increased ANPP, litter biomass, functional richness, and functional dispersion of typical grassland, but did not alter species richness, Shannon- Wiener index and functional evenness. In contrast, Simpson dominance index and Pielou evenness index significantly decreased after long-term grazing exclusion (34 years). In addition, grazing exclusion showed diverse effects on community-weighted means of different functional traits. The results of random forest model and variance partition analysis indicated that community-weighted mean functional traits accounted for 70.70% of ANPP variation, and plant height was identified as the most important trait. Functional diversity explained 36.86% of ANPP variation, mainly contributed by functional richness. In contrast, species diversity only explained 14.72% of ANPP variation. Therefore, the contribution of mean trait values and functional diversity to ANPP was much higher than that of species diversity in grassland after grazing exclusion. We suggest that community mean trait values and functional diversity should be incorporated into the studies of plant community dynamics during restoration succession, which will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem function, and provide basis for better realization of ecological restoration goals.

      Effects of horizontal structure on canopy vertical structure, microenvironment and yield of Triticum aestivum
      XIONG Shu-Ping, CAO Wen-Bo, CAO Rui, ZHANG Zhi-Yong, FU Xin-Lu, XU Sai-Jun, PAN Hu-Qiang, WANG Xiao-Chun, MA Xin-Ming
      Chin J Plant Ecol. 2022, 46 (2):  188-196.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2021.0165
      Abstract ( 97 )   Full Text ( 7 )   PDF (1137KB) ( 25 )   Save
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      Aims Canopy structure of crops is an important factor affecting crop yield. The microenvironment of a community reflects the change of microclimate in the canopy, which is closely related to the canopy structure and crop yield formation. The aim of this study was to optimize the cultivation measures and improve the production potential and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

      Methods A field experiment was set up to be composed of two row spacing modes, R1 (equal spacing, 20 cm + 20 cm) and R2 (wide and narrow row spacing, 12 cm + 12 cm + 12 cm + 24 cm), and three sowing rates, D1 (low, 120.0 kg·hm-2), D2 (medium, 157.5 kg·hm-2), D3 (high, 195.0 kg·hm-2), then the canopy structure, community microenvironment and yield performance of winter wheat under each treatment combination were analyzed.

      Important findings For the diffusenon-interceptance (DIFN), mean leaf angle (MLA) and leaf area index (LAI) of each layer of the winter wheat canopy, R2 was greater than R1, especially in the middle and upper layers of the canopy. For the MLA and LAI of each layer, R2 was mostly significantly greater than R1; Under the same row spacing, the LAI of the high seeding population dropped rapidly, and LAI of the D2 seeding rate and the middle and lower MLA were significantly higher than the other seeding rates at D2. Winter wheat canopy temperature and community CO2 concentration decreased with the increased sowing rate, while the relative humidity increased with the increased sowing rate; Under the same sowing rate, the row spacing of R2 had more cooling and moisturizing ability than that of R1. The average temperature and relative humidity of the overall canopy decreased by 0.06-0.5 °C and increased by 1.85%-3.15% compared with R1, respectively. Under the same sowing rate, the 1 000 grain weight and grain number per spike of R2 were significantly higher than that of R1, so the grain yield of R2 was also significantly higher than that of R1. In conclusion, the horizontal distribution of crops can change the vertical structure of canopy and community microenvironment, which is conducive to grain filling in the late growth stage, and increase the number of grains per year and 1 000 grain mass without reducing the number of spikes, so as to achieve the purpose of increasing yield. In this experiment, R2D2was the best configuration for canopy structure, community microenvironment and yield.

      Effects of the second generation wild boar grazing on species diversity and soil physicochemical properties of coniferous-broad-leaved mixed forest in Jiajin Mountain, China
      HAO Jian-Feng, ZHOU Run-Hui, YAO Xiao-Lan, YU Jing, CHEN Cong-Lin, XIANG Lin, WANG Yao-Yao, SU Tian-Cheng, QI Jin-Qiu
      Chin J Plant Ecol. 2022, 46 (2):  197-207.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2021.0107
      Abstract ( 97 )   Full Text ( 0 )   PDF (1399KB) ( 16 )   Save
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      Aims The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of the second generation wild boar grazing on species diversity and soil physicochemical properties of coniferous-broad-leaved mixed forest in the Jiajin Mountain, and to provide reference for the maintenance of ecological stability and scientific grazing of the mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest in this area.

      Methods On the basis of comprehensive investigation, according to the number, area, behavior characteristics and activity range of wild boar, four grazing disturbance intensity (from strong to weak was followed by I, II, III, IV) were divided, and no disturbance state was set as control (CK) to explore species diversity and soil physicochemical properties under different grazing disturbance intensity.

      Important findings (1) 172 species of vascular plants, belonging to 55 families and 117 genera, were recorded, with the families, genera and species of trees, shrubs and herbs reaching the highest under slight disturbance intensity (IV). (2) The responses of tree, shrub and herb diversity index to the disturbance gradient were basically the same, but the richness index (S), Shannon diversity index (H') and Simpson dominance index (D) reached the maximum under the IV level disturbance intensity, which were higher than those in CK. The diversity level tended to decline with the increase of disturbance intensity (IV-I). In addition, for Pielou evenness index (E), there was no significant difference among different disturbance intensity levels. (3) Compared with CK, soil water content, maximum water content and total nitrogen content decreased under wild boar grazing. The greater the grazing pressure, the greater the proportion of decline. The content of soil total porosity, total phosphorus, available phosphorus and organic matter content increased in the IV level of interference, and decreased significantly under the I-III level interference; the soil density increased with the increase of disturbance intensity. (4) Redundancy analysis showed that soil organic matter content, available phosphorus content, soil density, soil water content, soil porosity, total phosphorus content, total nitrogen content and diversity index were significantly correlated. The light disturbance intensity is beneficial to the richness of community species diversity, the improvement of soil fertility and soil structure, which is a positive factor for the maintenance of ecological stability of the mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest in the Jiajin Mountain. The study provides a reference for the forest ecological environment protection and sustainable development in this area under the background of increasingly expanding grazing and animal husbandry and increasingly frequent disturbance of human activities.

      Effects of altitudes on non-structural carbohydrate allocation in different dominate trees in Qilian Mountains, China
      QIN Hui-Jun, JIAO Liang, ZHOU Yi, XUE Ru-Hong, QI Chang-Liang, DU Da-Shi
      Chin J Plant Ecol. 2022, 46 (2):  208-219.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2021.0262
      Abstract ( 116 )   Full Text ( 3 )   PDF (1263KB) ( 8 )   Save
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      Aims The objective of this study was to determine the altitude effects on non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) allocation in Picea crassifoliaand Juniperus przewalskii,the dominate trees in the Qilian Mountains.

      Methods Two dominant coniferous species, P. crassifoliaand J. przewalskii, in the Qilian Mountains were selected to compare the NSC contents and its components (soluble sugar and starch) at different altitudes by sampling the tree organs at high (3 300 m) and low altitudes (2 850 m). The NSC allocation trade-off characteristics and its component contents among leaf, trunk, thick root and fine root were analyzed by ttest and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

      Important findings (1) The content of NSC and its components in the whole plant and the measured organs of P. crassifolia at low altitude were significantly higher than those at high altitude, while the measures in the whole plant and the organs of J. przewalskii at low altitude were significantly lower than those at high altitude. (2) The soluble sugars of the two species were found mainly in the leaves, while the starch was mainly in the thick roots and trunk. (3) The ratio of soluble sugars:starch was significantly higher in P. crassifolia at high altitude than at low altitude, indicating that P. crassifolia at high altitude invested more carbon in growth, while at low altitude, more carbon for storage. (4) Altitude, tree species, organ, and their interactions significantly affected the contents of NSC and its component, and soluble sugar:starch as well. The tree species explains 38% and 37% of the total variation in NSC and starch, respectively; and organ explains 68% and 42% of the total variation in soluble sugar and soluble sugar:starch, respectively. The results provide a theoretical basis for understanding the ecological adaptation mechanism of the tree species at different altitudes in the Qilian Mountains.

      Effects of nitrogen addition on phosphorus transformation and decomposition fungi in seedling stage of Cunninghamia lanceolata
      XIE Huan, ZHANG Qiu-Fang, ZENG Quan-Xin, ZHOU Jia-Cong, MA Ya-Pei, WU Yue, LIU Yuan-Yuan, LIN Hui-Ying, YIN Yun-Feng, CHEN Yue-Min
      Chin J Plant Ecol. 2022, 46 (2):  220-231.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2021.0098
      Abstract ( 87 )   Full Text ( 0 )   PDF (1455KB) ( 22 )   Save
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      Aims The increasing deposition of nitrogen (N) has led to an imbalance of N and phosphorus (P) in forest soils, and has become the focus of ecological studies. Fungi, as one of the main microorganisms in soils, plays an important role in maintaining nutrient balance and promoting plant growth. Enhancing the understanding of the growth status of Cunninghamia lanceolata seedlings and the changes of soil fungal community structure and functional groups under the treatments of N addition, are helpful to study the process of soil nutrient cycling, and provide references for scientific management and sustainable development of C. lanceolata plantation.

      Methods In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing and FUNGuild functional prediction to determine changes in soil fungal structural composition and functional groups of C. lanceolatain response to the application of control (0 kg N·hm-2·a-1), low N (40 kg N·hm-2·a-1), and high N (80 kg·N hm-2·a-1) treatments.

      Important findings The results showed that N addition reduced biomass and leaf P content of C. lanceolata seedlings. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Mortierellomycota were the three dominant phyla in the experimental soils, and accounted for 76.71%-86.72% of the relative abundance among the entire fungal community. The effect of short-term N addition on fungal composition was not significant at the phylum level. However, the relative abundance of Glomeromycota increased significantly with the low N treatment. At the order level, compared with the control, low N treatment significantly increased the relative abundance of Mortierellales. High N treatment significantly increased the relative abundance of Tremellales, but significantly reduced that of Sordariales. In addition, low N treatment significantly increased soil available P content, and there were significant positive correlations with the relative abundances of Glomeromycota and Mortierellales. These results indicate that N addition may maintain P availability of C. lanceolatagrowth by altering the fungi associated with P transformation. In addition, the relative abundance of saprotroph group was significantly reduced under low N treatment, but the relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was significantly increased. In conclusion, soil fungal functional groups can participate in soil nutrient cycling by changing the relative abundance of different functional groups.

      Soil extracellular enzyme activities and their stoichiometric ratio in the alpine treeline ecotones in Gongga Mountain, China
      LI Dong, TIAN Qiu-Xiang, ZHAO Xiao-Xiang, LIN Qiao-Ling, YUE Peng-Yun, JIANG Qing-Hu, LIU Feng
      Chin J Plant Ecol. 2022, 46 (2):  232-242.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2021.0215
      Abstract ( 175 )   Full Text ( 31 )   PDF (2143KB) ( 47 )   Save
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      Aims Soil extracellular enzymes and enzyme stoichiometry are indicators of soil nutrient availability and microbial substrate limitation. Subalpine treeline ecotones are special areas which are sensitive to global change. However, the patterns in soil enzyme activities and stoichiometry, and their key drivers remain unclear in the subalpine treeline ecotones.

      Methods In this study, soils from a subalpine treeline ecotone in Gongga Mountain in Southeast of Qingzang Plateau were collected. The activities of five hydrolases (β-1,4-glucosidase (BG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylosidase (XYL), β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP)) and two oxidases (polyphenol oxidase (POX), catalase (CAT)) were detected. The stoichiometric ratios of soil extracellular enzyme activities (carbon and nitrogen enzyme activity ratio and carbon quality index) were calculated.

      Important findings Our results showed that LAP, POX and CAT activities of the shrub soils were significantly lower than those of the treeline and forest soils, XYL activity was the lowest at the treeline, and the activities of other extracellular enzymes did not differ significantly among locations in the treeline ecotone. The lnBG/lnLAP of the shrub soil was significantly higher than those of the forest and treeline soils, lnBG/ln(NAG + LAP) did not vary significantly at the treeline ecotone, and the carbon quality index was highest at the treeline. Soil extracellular enzyme activity stoichiometric ratios were not significantly related to microbial nutrient status. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that total carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen content and lignin to nitrogen ratio of plant leaves were the main factors influencing soil extracellular enzyme activities in the treeline ecotone. The main drivers of the stoichiometric ratios of extracellular enzyme activities were soil dissolved nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio, and lignin to nitrogen ratio of plant leaves. In summary, some soil enzyme activities and their stoichiometric ratios varied significantly along the treeline ecotone, which was mainly influenced by the changes in vegetation type, possibly via its influences on plant-associated microbial communities. Treeline migration induced by future climate change may change extracellular enzyme activities and thus affect soil nutrient cycling.

      Data Paper
      Community characteristics and classification of Amygdalus mongolian in Ningxia, China
      ZHOU Liang, YANG Jun-Long, YANG Hu, DOU Jian-De, HUANG Wei, LI Xiao-Wei
      Chin J Plant Ecol. 2022, 46 (2):  243-248.  doi:10.17521/cjpe.2020.0400
      Abstract ( 121 )   Full Text ( 0 )   PDF (1048KB) ( 13 )   Save
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      Amygdalus mongolica is a kind of rare and endangered plant in China, which has high academic value and diagnostic significance for the evolution of the flora and the biodiversity and stability of the ecosystem. The 14 Amygdalus mongolica sites were set up to investigate its community composition in Ningxia. The results showed that the 74 plant species in Amygdalus mongolica sites in Ningxia belong to 53 genera from 28 families were recorded, including 2 trees, 21 shrubs, 11 subshrubs, 36 perennial herbs and 4 annual herbs. TWINSPAN divides 14 Amygdalus mongolica sites into Amygdalus mongolica - Herbs Desert, Amygdalus mongolica - Subshrubs Desert Associations Group and Amygdalus mongolica - Stipa tianschanica var. gobica, Amygdalus mongolica - Oxytropis aciphylla, Amygdalus mongolica - Stipa breviflora, Amygdalus mongolica - Ajania achilleoides, Amygdalus mongolica - Elymus alashanicus, Amygdalus mongolica - Ajania achilleoides + Stipa breviflora 6 Associations. Our study will provide basic data for the protection, utilization and compilation of vegetation of Amygdalus mongolica.

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