植物生态学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (1): 112-118.DOI: 10.3773/j.issn.1005-264x.2010.01.014

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关于生态重建和生态恢复的思辨及其科学涵义与发展途径

张新时1,2*   

  1. 1中国科学院植物研究所, 北京 100093; 2北京师范大学资源学院, 北京 100875
  • 出版日期:2010-01-01 发布日期:2010-01-01
  • 通讯作者: 张新时

An intellectual enquiring about ecological restoration and recovery, their scientific implica-tion and approach

ZHANG Xin-Shi1,2 *   

  1. 1Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China; and 2College of Resources Science & Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Online:2010-01-01 Published:2010-01-01
  • Contact: ZHANG Xin-Shi

摘要: Ecological restoration是现代生态学最活跃的关键行动之一, 在我国被译为“生态恢复”。经查验其英语涵义和演变过程, 建议正名为“生态重建”, 指在人为辅助下的生态活动。而“生态恢复”(recovery)在国际文献中指没有人直接干预的自然发生过程, 二者不容混淆。作者强调自然恢复和生态重建的三类时间尺度, 即地质年代尺度(千、万、亿年)自然生态系统世代交替和演替尺度(十、百、千年)和生态建设时间尺度(一、十、百年)。前二者为自然恢复尺度。三者相差2–3个数量级或更多。人类不能超尺度地依赖自然恢复能力, 自然与人为时间尺度的不匹配是自然恢复难以满足人类社会生态需求的根本原因。作者质疑“以自然恢复为主”和“从人工建设转向自然恢复为主的转变”提法。认为把生态重建的责任推诿给自然去旷日持久地恢复, 是不负责任和不作为的逻辑和有悖于“谁破坏, 谁补偿; 谁污染, 谁治理; 谁享用, 谁埋单”的全球环保公理和生态伦理观念。除恢复重建自然的生态系统外, 还要发展人工设计生态方案等未来生态重建途径。

Abstract: Aims Ecological restoration is one of the most active and key activities in contemporary ecology. But, it has been translated in Chinese as “ecological recovery”. By means of checking its English meaning and evolved processes, it is suggested that, instead of “recovery”, change it in Chinese as “ecological reestablishment”. Be-cause ecological restoration must involve human intention or agency, it is fundamentally about assisted recovery that works to accelerate natural processes. But, in case where ecological processes have worked unassisted or something that can happen by nature itself without human agency, the term, “recovery” should be used. Important findings There are at least three time scales for natural recovery and ecological restoration. They are the geologic period scale (103, 106, 109 a), ecosystem regeneration and succession scale (10, 102, 103 a), and ecological restoration scale (1, 10, 102 a). The 1st and 2nd scale are time scales for natural recovery, they are 10-102-103 times longer than ecological restoration periods. Humans could not over-scaled depending on the ca-pacity of natural recovery. The incompatibility of natural recovery and restoration in time scales is the basic cause of why natural recovery cannot meet the ecological demands of human society. The author raises doubt to the statement of “put the natural recovery as the major objective”, and “transfer the major objective from the ecological restoration to natural recovery”. The author beliefs that to shift responsibility of restoration onto nature itself and recovery at long-last recovery is the logic of lazybones and unwilling to be responsible. That is violation of the acknowledged global environmental truth that “who destroys who should compensate; who pollutes who should eliminate; who enjoys, who should pay”. Besides recovery and restoration natural ecosystems, designed ecological solutions will go beyond restoring a past ecosystem, but creat a kind of coupled natural-artificial ecosystems that will be part of a future sustainable world.