Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2018, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (6): 692-702.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2017.0247

• Research Articles • Previous Articles    

Response of soil enzyme activities to litter input changes in two secondary Castanopsis carlessii forests in subtropical China

WEI Cui-Cui,LIU Xiao-Fei,LIN Cheng-Fang(),LI Xian-Feng,LI Yan,ZHENG Yu-Xiong   

  1. School of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350007, China; State Key Laboratory of Humid Subtropical Mountain Ecology, Fuzhou,350007, China; and Sanming Research Station of Forest Ecosystem and Global Change, Sanming, Fujian 365000, China
  • Received:2017-09-28 Revised:2018-03-15 Online:2018-06-20 Published:2018-06-20
  • Contact: Cheng-Fang LIN
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31770663);Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31500407);the Joint Fund for Promotion of Cross-strait Cooperation in Science and Technology(U1505233)


Aims Enzymes play an important role in the decomposition of soil organic matter. Changes in net primary productivity in response to climate change are likely to affect litter inputs to forest soil. However, the effects of altered litter input on soil enzyme activities remain poorly understood in subtropical forests. Thus, this study is designed to find out if litter manipulation has an effect on enzymes in different subtropical Castanopsis carlessii forest.

Methods Three treatments including double litter (DL), no litter (NL) and control (CT) were installed in a secondary C. carlesii forest and a human-assisted naturally regenerated C. carlesii forest, to investigate the responses of 6 soil extracellular enzyme activities.

Important findings The activities of Cellobiohydrolase (CBH), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), Polyphenol oxidase (PhOx) and Peroxidase (PerOx) in the secondary C. carlesii forest were higher than those in the human-assisted naturally regenerated C. carlesii forest, while acid phosphatase (AP) and β-1,4-glucosidase (βG) activities had no significant difference between the two forests. Compared to control, both NL and DL treatments decreased the activities of AP, βG and NAG, but had no effect on the activities of CBH and PerOx, and DL treatment decreased only the activity of PhOx in two forests. Except for NAG activity, the activities of AP, βG and PerOx decreased more in the human-assisted naturally regenerated C. carlesii forest than in the secondary C. carlesii forest after litter manipulaition. Both Pearson correlation analysis and redundancy analysis showed that soil enzyme activities were significantly correlated with soil moisture content, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) contents. Therefore, changes in litter input (both increase and decrease) could decrease some major soil enzyme activities such as AP, βG and NAG in both secondary and human-assisted naturally regenerated C. carlesii forests by decreasing soil moisture content, C and N, MBC and MBN contents. Based on the responses of soil enzyme activity, we conclude that the C and N cycling in secondary C. carlesii forest could be faster compared to that in the human-assisted forest of the same species in the subtropical forest ecosystems.

Key words: double litter, no litter, soil enzyme activities, secondary Castanopsis carlesii forest, human-assisted naturally regenerated Castanopsis carlesii forest

Table 1

Main characteristics of the experiment site and properties of the topsoil (0-10 cm)"

项目 Item 米槠次生林
carlesii forest
Human-assisted naturally
regenerated Castanopsis
Average tree height (m)
10.80 13.70
Average breast diameter (cm)
12.20 16.80
Stand density (株?hm-2)
3788 2158
Annual litter fall (g?m-2)
698 658
Fine root biomass (kg?m-3)
0.93 0.70
Total carbon content (g?kg-1)
20.98 16.68
Total nitrogen content (g?kg-1)
1.42 1.14
Soil bulk density (g?cm-3)
0.95 1.10

Table 2

The substrates, abbreviations and types of the examined soil enzymes"

酶 Enzyme 缩写 Abbreviation 编号 Code 底物 Substrate 类型 Type
酸性磷酸酶 Acid phosphatase AP 4-甲基伞形酮磷酸酯
P-targeting hydrolytic
β-葡萄糖苷酶 β-1,4-glucosidase βG 4-甲基伞形酮-β-D-葡萄糖苷
C-targeting hydrolytic
纤维素水解酶 Cellobiohydrolase CBH 4-甲基伞形酮-β-D-纤维素二糖苷
C-targeting hydrolytic
β-N-乙酰氨基葡萄糖苷酶 β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase NAG 4-甲基伞形酮-2-乙酰氨基-2-脱氧-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷
N-targeting hydrolytic
酚氧化酶 Phenol oxidase PhOx L-二羟基苯 L-DOPA C获得氧化酶
C-targeting oxidase
过氧化物酶 Peroxidase PerOx L-二羟基苯 L-DOPA C获得氧化酶
C-targeting oxidase

Table 3

Soil physical, chemical properties and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen contents in the litter removal, control, and litter addition treatments plots in the two Castanopsis carlesii forests (mean ± SD, n = 3)"

项目 Item 米槠次生林
Secondary Castanopsis carlesii forest
Human-assisted naturally regenerated Castanopsis carlesii forest
No litter
Double litter
No litter
Double litter
含水量 Moisture content (%) 0.30 ± 0.00aA 0.23 ± 0.01bA 0.29 ± 0.03abA 0.26 ± 0.06aA 0.21 ± 0.01aA 0.25 ± 0.03aA
pH值 pH value 5.11 ± 0.14aA 5.10 ± 0.04aA 4.91 ± 0.16aA 5.25 ± 0.17aA 5.11 ± 0.02aA 5.13 ± 0.10aA
全碳 Total carbon (g·kg-1) 20.98 ± 2.75aA 12.41 ± 1.75bA 16.49 ± 0.47bB 16.68 ± 0.44aB 12.77 ± 0.09bA 14.71 ± 3.00abA
全氮 Total nitrogen (g·kg-1) 1.42 ± 0.09aA 0.93 ± 0.12cA 1.14 ± 0.02bB 1.14 ± 0.09aB 0.88 ± 0.07bA 1.02 ± 0.19abA
Dissolved organic carbon (mg·kg-1)
49.15 ± 8.37aA 29.77 ± 9.46bA 55.58 ± 8.7aA 48.86 ± 6.76aA 47.11 ± 10.09aA 49.52 ± 6.46aA
Dissolved organic nitrogen (mg·kg-1)
2.08 ± 0.02aA 1.85 ± 0.09aA 0.74 ± 0.15bB 2.26 ± 0.36aA 2.18 ± 0.43aA 1.86 ± 0.44aA
NH4+ (mg·kg-1) 37.49 ± 0.69bA 26.5 ± 3.21cA 52.6 ± 0.6aA 26.99 ± 4.01bB 22.04 ± 3.12aA 29.63 ± 4.41aB
矿质氮 Mineral nitrogen (mg·kg-1) 38.08 ± 0.52bA 27.22 ± 3.31cA 53.05 ± 0.82aA 27.96 ± 3.94aB 22.37 ± 3.24bA 30.98 ± 4.41aB
Microbial biomass carbon (mg·kg-1)
315 ± 33abA 225 ± 66bA 371 ± 57aA 258 ± 17aB 171 ± 5cA 221 ± 23bB
Microbial biomass nitrogen (mg·kg-1)
29.33 ± 6.30aA 13.41 ± 2.27bA 26.38 ± 5.36aA 36.56 ± 3.49aA 14.61 ± 2.58cA 23.05 ± 5.07bA

Fig. 1

Soil enzyme activities under litter removal, control, and litter addition treatments in the two Castanopsis carlesii forests (mean ± SD, n = 3). The lowercase letters mean significant differences among treatments in the same forests (p < 0.05), the capital letters mean significant differences between the two forests under the same treatment (p < 0.05)."

Table 4

Correlation between soil enzyme activity and soil physical, chemical properties, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen"

项目 Item 酸性磷酸酶
Phenol oxidase
含水量 Moisture content (%) 0.545* 0.327 0.344 0.504* 0.221 -0.230
全碳 Total carbon 0.638** 0.312 -0.003 0.751** 0.119 -0.164
全氮 Total nitrogen 0.830** 0.499* 0.248 0.807** 0.245 -0.109
可溶性有机碳 Dissolved organic carbon 0.274 0.225 -0.175 0.195 -0.391 -0.624**
可溶性有机氮 Dissolved organic nitrogen 0.060 -0.140 -0.534* -0.139 -0.205 0.105
NH4+ 0.362 0.296 0.527* 0.411 0.035 -0.279
微生物生物量碳 Microbial biomass carbon 0.523* 0.488* 0.531* 0.524* 0.252 -0.163
微生物生物量碳 Microbial biomass nitrogen 0.648** 0.498* -0.118 0.231 -0.150 -0.608**

Fig. 2

Redundancy analysis on the relationship of soil enzyme activity and soil physical, chemical properties, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen."

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