植物生态学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (4): 491-498.DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2004.0067

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国草地植被生物量及其空间分布格局

朴世龙1, 方精云1, 贺金生1, 肖玉2   

  1. (1 北京大学环境学院生态学系,北京100871)(2 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101)摘要
  • 收稿日期:2003-03-10 出版日期:2004-03-10 发布日期:2004-04-12
  • 通讯作者: 朴世龙

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF GRASSLAND BIOMASS IN CHINA

PIAO Shi-Long1, FANG Jing-Yun1, HE Jin-Sheng1,  and XIAO Yu2   

  1. (1 Department of Ecology, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China) (2 Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China)
  • Received:2003-03-10 Online:2004-03-10 Published:2004-04-12
  • Contact: PIAO Shi-Long

摘要:

草地生态系统是陆地生态系统分布最广的生态系统类型之一,它在全球变化中的作用越来越受到重视。利用中国草地资源清查资料,并结合同期的遥感影像,建立了基于最新修正的归一化植被指数(NDVI)的我国草地植被生物量估测模型,并利用该模型研究了我国草地植被生物量及其空间分布特征。结果表明:草地植被地上生物量与当年最大NDVI值具有很好的相关关系,两者可以用幂函数很好地拟合(R2=0.71, p<0.001)。我国草地植被总地上生物量为146.16 TgC(1 Tg=1012 g),主要集中在北方干旱、半干旱地区和青藏高原;总地下生物量为898.60 TgC,是地上生物量的6.15倍;而总生物量是1 044.76 TgC,占世界草地植被的2.1%~3.7%,其平均密度约等于315.24 gC·m-2,低于世界平均水平。我国草地植被单位面积地上生物量水平分布趋势为:东南地区高,西北地区低,与水热条件的分布趋势一致;从垂直分布看,在海拔1 350 m和3 750 m处分别出现了波谷和波峰,与我国特有的三级阶梯地势有着密切的关系。此外,我国草地植被生物量为森林的1/4左右,显著大于世界平均水平,说明我国草地在碳平衡中的贡献相对较大。

Abstract:

Estimating carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems has been a central focus of research over the past two decades because of its importance to terrestrial carbon cycles and ecosystem processes. As one of the most widespread ecosystem types, China’s grasslands play an important role in global change research. The grasslands in China, which are distributed primarily throughout the temperate regions and on the Tibetan Plateau, were classified into 17 community types. In the present study, a statistical model was established to estimate grassland biomass and its geographical distribution in China based on a grassland inventory data set and remote sensing data (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) using GIS and RS techniques. We found that there was a significant correlation between aboveground biomass density and the maximum annual NDVI when expressed as a power function (R2=0.71, p<0.001). The aboveground biomass was estimated to be 146.16 TgC (1Tg=1012 g) and belowground biomass was estimated as 898.60 TgC (6.15 times of the above biomass) for a total biomass of 1 044.76 TgC. This value accounts for about 2.1%-3.7% of the world’s grassland biomass. The grassland biomass is distributed primarily in the arid and semiarid regions of Northern China and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The average biomass density of China’s grasslands was 315.24 gC·m-2, smaller than the world average. The aboveground biomass density decreases from southeastern China toward the northwest corresponding with changes in precipitation and temperature. Furthermore, aboveground biomass density reached the lowest levels at 1 350 m elevation and peak levels at 3 750 m above sea level which most likely is related to China’s three-step topographical background. The ratio of total biomass of grassland to forest biomass in China is 1/4, much higher than that of the world, suggesting a greater contribution of grasslands to China’s carbon pool.