植物生态学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 208-216.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2018.0295

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

长白山温带森林不同演替阶段群落功能性状的空间变化

郝姝珺,李晓宇,侯嫚嫚,赵秀海()   

  1. 北京林业大学国家林业和草原局森林经营工程技术研究中心, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-28 修回日期:2019-03-05 出版日期:2019-03-20 发布日期:2019-05-30
  • 通讯作者: 赵秀海 E-mail:zhaoxh@bjfu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0504005);国家自然科学基金(31670643)

Spatial variations of community functional traits at different successional stages in temperate forests of Changbai Mountains, Northeast China

HAO Shu-Jun,LI Xiao-Yu,HOU Man-Man,ZHAO Xiu-Hai()   

  1. Research Center of Forest Management Engineering of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 10083, China
  • Received:2018-11-28 Revised:2019-03-05 Online:2019-03-20 Published:2019-05-30
  • Contact: ZHAO Xiu-Hai E-mail:zhaoxh@bjfu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Key R&D Program of China(2017YFC0504005);The National Natural Science Foundation of China(31670643)

摘要:

群落构建机制研究是生态学研究的热点。长白山自然保护区拥有完整的原始阔叶红松林生态系统, 近年来随着物种多样性丧失愈发严重, 对该地区开展群落构建机制研究显得尤为重要。该研究以长白山不同演替阶段的3块5.2 hm 2固定监测样地(次生杨桦林、次生针阔混交林、原始椴树红松林)为研究对象, 通过采集样地内主要树种的6个关键功能性状(叶面积、比叶面积、叶片厚度、叶氮含量、叶磷含量、最大树高), 分析不同空间尺度下(5 m × 5 m, 10 m × 10 m, 20 m × 20 m, 30 m × 30 m, 40 m × 40 m, 50 m × 50 m和60 m × 60 m)及不同演替阶段群落性状空间值的变化, 结合零模型的模拟结果对长白山温带森林演替过程中的群落构建机制进行讨论。结果表明: 种库大小对于研究结果具有重要影响。在较大的种库下, 环境过滤作用影响显著。而在样地水平进行研究时, 演替早期和中期, 群落性状空间值与零模型模拟值无显著差异, 在演替的晚期, 群落性状空间值显著高于零模型模拟值。结合多个群落功能多样性指数分析发现, 环境过滤和竞争作用共同决定该地区顶级群落的物种组成。在演替早期大量物种迁入, 群落内物种间存在强烈的资源竞争, 而随着演替进行, 部分物种逐渐被竞争排除出群落, 群落中的物种呈现明显的生态位分化, 竞争作用是维持物种共存的主要机制。

关键词: 群落构建, 功能性状, 性状空间, 空间尺度

Abstract:
Aims The community assembly mechanisms are among the focal topics in ecological studies. In Changbai Mountains Nature Reserve, there is an intact primary broadleaved-Korean pine forest ecosystem. With increasing loss of species diversity in recent years, study that explores the community assembly mechanisms in this region is particularly important.
Methods This study was conducted in three large permanent plots, each of the size 5.2 hm 2, along suessional stages (secondary poplar and birch mixed forest, PBF; secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest, CBF; and primary Tilia amurensis-Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, TKF) in Changbai Mountains. Six functional traits of major tree species were measured, including leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf nitrogen content, leaf phosphorus content, and maximum tree height. Changes in the spatial values of community traints were analyzed at different spatial scales (5 m × 5 m, 10 m × 10 m, 20 m × 20 m, 30 m × 30 m, 40 m × 40 m, 50 m × 50 m and 60 m × 60 m). By comparing the observed values with expected values of null models, the community assembly mechanisms in temperate forests of Changbai Mountains were explored.
Important findings Results show that the size of species pool has an important impact on the outcome; in a larger species pool, the environmental filtration has a significant impact. At the plot level and for early and intermediate stages of succession, the observed spatial values of community traits do not significantly differ from the expected values. At the late successional stage, the observed spatial values of community traits were greater than the expected values. The analysis of multiple community functional diversity indices shows that the combined processes of habitat filtring and competitive exclusion are the main determinants of the species composition of the climax community in this region. In the early successional stage, large numbers of species are immigrated, and there are strong resource competitions among the species within a community. With progressing succession, some species are excluded, species maintained in the community show significant niche differentiations, and competition is the main mechanism species coexistence.

Key words: community assembly, functional trait, trait space, spatial scale