植物生态学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (4): 302-312.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2012.00302

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

人参药材中人参皂苷与生态因子的相关性及人参生态区划

贾光林1,2, 黄林芳2, 索风梅2, 宋经元2, 谢彩香2*, 孙娟1*   

  1. 1青岛农业大学经济草本植物应用研究所, 青岛 266109;
    2中国医学科学院北京协和医学院药用植物研究所中草药物质基础与资源利用教育部重点实验室, 北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2011-10-08 修回日期:2012-01-13 出版日期:2012-04-01 发布日期:2012-03-28
  • 通讯作者: 孙娟 E-mail:sunjuan7603@sohu.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学资金;贵州中药材产地适宜性地理信息系统及中草药资源的信息化建设

Correlation between ginsenoside contents in Panax ginseng roots and ecological factors, and ecological division of ginseng plantation in China

JIA Guang-Lin1,2, HUANG Lin-Fang2, SUO Feng-Mei2, SONG Jing-Yuan2, XIE Cai-Xiang2*, and SUN Juan1*   

  1. 1Institute of Applied Research of Economic Herb Plants, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China;

    2Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine of Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2011-10-08 Revised:2012-01-13 Online:2012-04-01 Published:2012-03-28
  • Contact: SUN Juan E-mail:sunjuan7603@sohu.com

摘要:

为了扩大人参(Panax ginseng)栽培面积, 解决人参资源日益短缺的问题, 研究了人参皂苷与生态因子之间的相关性。利用超高效液相(UPLC)色谱法, 测定了辽宁、吉林和黑龙江三省不同产区人参样品中3种人参皂苷(Rg1、Re和Rb1)的含量, 并基于“中药材产地适宜性分析地理信息系统”(TCMGIS)平台, 获得采样区域10个生态因子(包括活动积温、年平均气温、海拔、相对湿度、年日照时数、年降水量、7月最高气温、7月平均气温、1月最低气温和1月平均气温等)数据; 利用因子分析法对16个人参基地进行因子得分评价, 得分最高的是吉林和辽宁的人参基地, 故将吉林和辽宁的人参基地作为人参生态适宜性分析的最佳区域; 通过偏最小二乘回归法建立3种人参皂苷成分与上述10个生态因子间的回归方程并获取其相应的权重, 结果发现多个温度因子与人参皂苷含量呈强负相关关系, 说明热量因子对人参皂苷活性成分的累积起主要作用, 而水分因子、地理因子和光照因子与人参皂苷含量呈弱相关关系; 以因子得分最高的吉林和辽宁人参基地为基点区域, 分别对3种人参皂苷进行单成分生态适宜性区划以及综合区划, 得知3种人参皂苷成分积累的最佳区域主要集中在长白山脉, 而燕山山脉和太行山脉只有少量分布区域。

Abstract:
Aims Roots of Panax ginseng are a rare and famous Chinese medicine, in which the total ginsenosides are responsible for biological activities. Due to reduction of the wild resource, it is necessary to artificially cultivate P. ginseng in appropriate agricultural lands. Our objective is to explore suitable planting regions by analyzing the correlation between ginsenoside contents and ecological factors in various agricultural lands.
Methods Three ginsenoside (Rg1, Re and Rb1) contents in roots of five-years-old cultivated P. ginseng from Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Ten ecological factors including temperature, moisture and light at 16 planting sites in China were obtained from the ecological suitability database of the Geographic Information System for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM-GIS). They were evaluated by factor analysis to determine the suitable growing regions for P. ginseng. The assessment showed that planting bases in Jilin and Liaoning provinces were the best option for P. ginseng development. Ecological division of the three ginsenosides was assessed according to the results of factor analysis. The regression equation of ten ecological factors and ginsenoside contents was established by partial least-squares regression. Ecological divisions of P. ginseng agricultural lands in China were then classified.
Important findings There was a significant negative correlation between total ginsenoside contents and various temperature parameters, such as active accumulated temperature, mean annual temperature, average temperature in July and average temperature in January, indicating that low temperature is a key factor for accumulation of ginsenosides. Also, ginsenoside contents had weak correlations with moisture factors (e.g., relative humidity and average annual precipitation), geographical factor (e.g., altitude) and light (e.g., annual average sunshine hours). The results of ecological division showed that the best agricultural lands for P. ginseng were large areas of Changbai Mountains, part of Taihang Mountains and Yanshan Mountains.