Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2015, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (12): 1198-1208.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0116

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Interactive effects of phenolic acid and nitrogen on morphological traits of poplar (Populus × euramericana ‘Neva’) fine roots

ZHU Wan-Rui1, WANG Qi-Tong1, LIU Meng-Ling1, WANG Hua-Tian1,2, WANG Yan-Ping1,2,*(), ZHANG Guang-Can1,2, LI Chuan-Rong1,2   

  1. 1Forestry College of Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong 271018, China
    and 2Taishan Forest Ecosystem Research Station of State Forestry Administration, Tai’an, Shandong 271018, China
  • Online:2015-12-31 Published:2015-12-01
  • Contact: Yan-Ping WANG E-mail:wangyp@sdau.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Abstract:

Aims The relationship between rhizosphere process and fine root growth is very close but still obscure. In poplar plantation, phenolic acid rhizodeposition and soil nutrient availability were considered as two dominant factors of forest productivity decline. It is very hard to separate them in the field and they might show an interactive effect on fine root growth. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of phenolic acids and nitrogen on branch orders of poplar fine roots and to give a deeper insight into how the ecological process on root-soil interface affected fine root growth as well as plantation productivity. Methods The cuttings of health annual poplar seedlings (I-107, Populus × euramericana ‘Neva’) serve as experiment materials, and were cultivated under nine conditions, including three concentration of phenolic acids at 0X, 0.5X, 1.0X (here, X represented the contents of phenolic acids in the soil of poplar plantation) and three concentration of nitrogen at 0 mmol·L-1, 10 mmol·L-1, 20 mmol·L-1, based on Hoagland solution. The roots were all separated from poplar seedlings after 35 days, and 30 percent of total fine roots of every treatment were taken as fine root samples. These fine roots were grouped according to 1 to 5 branch orders, and then the morphological traits of each group of fine roots were scanned via root analyzer system (WinRHIZO, Regent Instruments Company, Quebec, Canada) including total length, surface area, volume and average diameter. Meanwhile, the dry mass of fine root samples of every order was measured to calculate specific root length (SRL), root tissue density (RTD). All data were analyzed via SPSS 17.0 software, and interactive effect of phenolic acids and nitrogen on roots was analyzed through univariate process module. Principal component analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) were conducted via Canoco 4.5 software. Important findings Under the conditions without phenolic acids application, the fine roots growth was significantly inhibited in deficiency and higher nitrogen treatments, especially for 1-3 order roots. Only specific root length appeared decreased with nitrogen level, and other traits of fine roots did not demonstrate linear relationship with nitrogen concentrations. Compared to 0.5X phenolic acids treatment, 1.0X phenolic acids significantly promoted the diameter and volume of 1-2 order roots (p < 0.05). Both phenolic acids and nitrogen demonstrated influence on poplar fine root traits. However, the diameter and volume of 1-2 order roots were significantly affected by phenolic acids, while the total length and surface area of 4-5 order roots was affected by nitrogen. Two way ANOVA showed that phenolic acids and nitrogen made a synergistic or antagonistic effect on morphological building of fine roots. Furthermore, PCA and RDA indicated that the interactive effects of phenolic acids and nitrogen led to significant differences among 1-3 order, 4th order and 5th order of poplar fine roots. The PC1 explained about 60.9 percent of root morphological variance, which was related to foraging traits of roots. The PC2 explained 25.3 percent of variance, which was related to root building properties. The response of poplar roots to phenolic acids and nitrogen was closely related to root order, and nitrogen played more influence on poplar roots than phenolic acids. Thus, phenolic acids and nitrogen level would affect many properties of root morphology and foraging in rhizosphere soil of poplar plantation. But nitrogen availability would serve as a dominant factor influencing root growth, and soil nutrient management should be critical to productivity maintenance of poplar plantation.

Key words: fine root morphological traits, nitrogen availability, phenolic acids rhizodeposition, poplar root order, root-soil interaction

Table 1

Phenolic acid concentration setting in the treatment solutions"

对羟基苯甲酸
p-hydroxybenzoic acid
香草醛
Vanillin
阿魏酸
Ferulic acid
苯甲酸
Benzoic acid
肉桂酸
Cinnamic acid
林地土壤内酚酸含量
Content of phenolic acid in field soil (μg·g-1)
152.00 10.40 6.50 20.60 1.95
土壤酚酸吸附率
Absorption rate of phenolic acid in soil (%)
61.66 93.78 89.30 37.85 94.41
酚酸含量梯度
Gradient of phenolic acid content (μg·mL-1)
0.5X 123 6 4 27 1
1.0X 247 11 7 54 2

Table 2

The response of morphological traits of different order fine roots to the nitrogen treatments"

根序 Root order 氮素水平
Nitrogen level
(mmol·L-1)
根长度
Total root
length
(cm)
根表面积
Total root
surface area
(cm2)
根体积
Total root
volume
(cm3)
平均直径
Average
diameter
(mm)
根干质量
Root dry
mass
(g)
比根长
Specific root
length
(m·g-1)
根组织密度
Root tissue
density
(g·cm-3)
1 0 534.51 ± 58.78a 28.93 ± 2.11a 0.13 ± 0.005a 0.17 ± 0.064a 0.013 ± 0.000a 323.00 ± 12.66a 0.114 ± 0.010ab
10 822.03 ± 65.15b 55.41 ± 9.47b 0.41 ± 0.007b 0.23 ± 0.013b 0.028 ± 0.002b 287.53 ± 4.28b 0.091 ± 0.015a
20 389.77 ± 48.70a 23.55 ± 2.28a 0.12 ± 0.011a 0.18 ± 0.025a 0.014 ± 0.002a 246.51 ± 37.71b 0.146 ± 0.001b
2 0 716.81 ± 49.22a 42.01 ± 2.90a 0.19 ± 0.013a 0.19 ± 0.001a 0.023 ± 0.003a 269.07 ± 36.03a 0.113 ± 0.003a
10 871.82 ± 15.89a 72.59 ± 3.10b 0.26 ± 0.017b 0.25 ± 0.011b 0.042 ± 0.002b 228.89 ± 18.80ab 0.085 ± 0.001b
20 428.53 ± 61.70b 39.30 ± 1.34a 0.23 ± 0.008ab 0.21 ± 0.006a 0.023 ± 0.001a 185.39 ± 10.71b 0.108 ± 0.001a
3 0 249.26 ± 19.75a 16.37 ± 0.22a 0.10 ± 0.007a 0.24 ± 0.016a 0.013 ± 0.001a 184.68 ± 22.25a 0.104 ± 0.004a
10 462.39 ± 52.25b 28.30 ± 3.85b 0.22 ± 0.014b 0.30 ± 0.037a 0.026 ± 0.000b 146.59 ± 11.16ab 0.118 ± 0.006ab
20 179.04 ± 16.34a 16.42 ± 1.27a 0.14 ± 0.026a 0.29 ± 0.003a 0.017 ± 0.002a 111.33 ± 2.83b 0.129 ± 0.005b
4 0 38.28 ± 4.84a 4.39 ± 0.30a 0.06 ± 0.002a 0.32 ± 0.016a 0.006 ± 0.000a 75.49 ± 7.93a 0.108 ± 0.002a
10 43.26 ± 4.42b 5.62 ± 0.47ab 0.07 ± 0.009b 0.42 ± 0.037a 0.008 ± 0.003a 63.54 ± 5.19b 0.122 ± 0.005a
20 39.29 ± 4.19b 4.52 ± 0.91b 0.04 ± 0.011a 0.39 ± 0.016a 0.005 ± 0.002a 60.92 ± 1.38b 0.130 ± 0.003a
5 0 32.85 ± 1.14a 7.41 ± 0.44a 0.17 ± 0.024a 0.74 ± 0.018a 0.032 ± 0.001a 12.58 ± 1.83a 0.155 ± 0.004a
10 48.15 ± 4.71a 13.85 ± 1.63a 0.47 ± 0.046a 1.03 ± 0.056a 0.043 ± 0.003a 9.85 ± 1.06b 0.114 ± 0.284a
20 28.24 ± 11.61a 7.74 ± 4.25a 0.17 ± 0.118a 0.74 ± 0.136a 0.024 ± 0.016a 8.69 ± 0.49b 0.140 ± 0.003a

Fig. 1

The fine root morphological characteristics in the interaction of phenolic acid and nitrogen treatments (mean ± SE). Different lowercase letters and capital letters represent significant difference among three nitrogen treatments under 0.5X and 1.0X phenolic acids respectively (p < 0.05), here X represents the contents of phenolic acids in the soil of poplar plantation. Three symbols, +, * and #, represent significant difference between two treatments of phenolic acids under nitrogen deficiency (0 mmol·L-1), normal nitrogen (10 mmol·L-1) and high nitrogen (20 mmol·L-1), respectively."

Fig. 2

The dry mass, specific root length and root tissue density of different fine root orders under the interaction of phenolic acid and nitrogen conditions (mean ± SE). Different lowercase letters and capital letters represent significant difference among three nitrogen treatments under 0.5X and 1.0X phenolic acids respectively (p < 0.05), here X represents the contents of phenolic acids in the soil of poplar plantation. Three symbols, +, * and #, represent significant difference between two treatments of phenolic acids under nitrogen deficiency (0 mmol·L-1), normal nitrogen (10 mmol·L-1) and high nitrogen (20 mmol·L-1), respectively."

Table 3

The interaction effect of phenolic acid and nitrogen on morphological traits of poplar fine roots"

根序 Root order 处理
Treatment
根长度
Total root
Length (cm)
根表面积
Total root surface area (cm2)
根体积
Total root
volume (cm3)
根平均直径
Average diameter
of root (mm)
根干质量
Root dry
mass (g)
比根长
Specific root length (m·g-1)
根组织密度
Root tissue density (g·cm-3)
1级
First order
pN 0.002* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.009* 0.018* 0.001*
pT 0.116ns 0.559ns 0.295ns 0.201ns 0.023* 0.048* 0.667ns
p(N×T) 0.300ns 0.394ns 0.003* 0.867ns 0.067ns 0.852ns 0.008*
2级
Second order
pN 0.005* 0.015* 0.071ns 0.001* 0.001* 0.000* 0.009*
pT 0.041* 0.054ns 0.569ns 0.083ns 0.002* 0.715ns 0.164ns
p(N×T) 0.015* 0.028* 0.557ns 0.424ns 0.001* 0.853ns 0.011*
3级
Third order
pN 0.039* 0.014* 0.080ns 0.003* 0.017* 0.000* 0.000*
pT 0.481ns 0.011* 0.046* 0.164ns 0.035* 0.366ns 0.931ns
p(N×T) 0.004* 0.012* 0.086ns 0.923ns 0.118ns 0.494ns 0.023*
4级
Forth order
pN 0.001* 0.021* 0.503ns 0.001* 0.097ns 0.000* 0.052ns
pT 0.066ns 0.764ns 0.406ns 0.066ns 0.379ns 0.409ns 0.521ns
p(N×T) 0.220ns 0.926ns 0.070ns 0.220ns 0.121ns 0.634ns 0.819ns
5级
Fifth order
pN 0.005* 0.048* 0.012* 0.067ns 0.108ns 0.002* 0.222ns
pT 0.631ns 0.238ns 0.111ns 0.453ns 0.163ns 0.092ns 0.876ns
p(N×T) 0.760ns 0.824ns 0.552ns 0.129ns 0.884ns 0.124ns 0.569ns

Table 4

Component matrix of fine root growth indices"

细根形态指标
Morphological traits of fine root
主成分 Principal component
1 2
根长 Total root length 0.872 0.421
根表面积 Total root surface area 0.912 0.542
根体积 Total root volume 0.239 0.916
根直径 Average diameter of root -0.805 0.246
根干质量 Root dry mass 0.000 0.952
比根长 Specific root length 0.956 0.069
根组织密度 Root tissue density -0.655 -0.330

"

Fig. 4

Redundancy analysis (RDA) on the effects of phenolic acids and nitrogen on morphological traits of poplar fine roots. Real vectors represent environmental factors (phenolic acids and nitrogen), and dotted vectors represent morphological traits of poplar fine roots (the same indices with Table 2). The longer vector is the more important the environmental effects. The correlation between the variables is illustrated by the angle between two vectors. Vectors pointing in nearly the same direction indicate a high positive correlation, vectors pointing in opposite directions have a high negative correlation, and vectors crossing at right angles are related to a near zero correlation."

[1] Baziramakenga R, Leroux GD, Simard RR (1995). Effects of benzoic and cinnamic acids on membrane permeability of soybean roots.Journal of Chemical Ecology, 21, 1271-1285.
[2] Block RMA, van Rees KCJ, Knight JD (2006). A review of fine root dynamics in Populus plantations.Agroforestry Systems, 67, 73-84.
[3] Bloomfield J, Vogt KA, Wargo PM (1996). Tree root turnover and senescence. In: Waisel Y, Eshel A, Kafkafi U eds. Plant Roots, The Hidden Half. 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker Press, New York. 363-381.
[4] Chapin III FS (1995). New cog in the nitrogen cycle.Nature, 377, 199-200.
[5] Chen HB, Wei X, Wang J, Wang ZQ (2010). Morphological and anatomical responses of Fraxinus mandshurica seedling roots to different nitrogen concentrations.Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 46(2), 61-66.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [陈海波, 卫星, 王婧, 王政权 (2010). 水曲柳苗木根系形态和解剖结构对不同氮浓度的反应. 林业科学, 46(2), 61-66.]
[6] Chon SU, Choi SK, Jung S, Jang HG, Pyo BS, Kim SM (2002). Effects of alfalfa leaf extracts and phenolic allelochemicals on early seedling growth and root morphology of alfalfa and barnyard grass.Crop Protection, 21, 1077-1082.
[7] Devi SR, Prasad MNV (1996). Ferulic acid mediated changes in oxidative enzymes of maize seedlings: Implications in growth.Biologia Plantarum, 38, 387-395.
[8] Ding GQ, Yu LZ, Wang ZQ, Hu WL, Zheng Y, Jin X, Ding L, Xu QX (2010). Effects of fertilization on fine root morphology of Larix kaempferi.Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 38(5), 16-19.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[丁国泉, 于立忠, 王政权, 胡万良, 郑颖, 金鑫, 丁磊, 徐庆祥 (2010). 施肥对日本落叶松细根形态的影响. 东北林业大学学报, 38(5), 16-19.]
[9] Eissenstat DM (1997). Trade-offs in root form and function. In: Jackson LE ed. Ecology in Agriculture. Academic Press, San Diego, USA. 173-199.
[10] Fitter AH, Self GK, Wolfenden J, van Vuuren MMI, Brown TK, Williamson L, Graves JD, Robinson D (1996). Root production and mortality under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.Plant and Soil, 187, 299-306.
[11] Guo DL, Fan PP (2007). Four hypotheses about the effects of soil nitrogen availability on fine root production and turnover.Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 18, 2354-2360.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [郭大立, 范萍萍 (2007). 关于氮有效性影响细根生产量和周转率的四个假说. 应用生态学报, 18, 2354-2360.]
[12] Hodge A (2004). The plastic plant: Root responses to heterogeneous supplies of nutrients.New Phytologist, 162, 9-24.
[13] Inderjit, Duke SO (2003). Ecophysiological aspects of allelopathy.Planta, 217, 529-539.
[14] Inderjit, Mallik AU (1997). Effect of phenolic compounds on selected soil properties.Forest Ecology and Management, 92, 11-18.
[15] Jones DL, Nguyen C, Finlay RD (2009). Carbon flow in the rhizosphere: Carbon trading at the soil-root interface.Plant and Soil, 321, 5-33.
[16] Kaur H, Inderjit, Kaushik S (2005). Cellular evidence of allelopathic interference of benzoic acid to mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedling growth.Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 43, 77-81.
[17] Kern CC, Friend AL, Johnson JMF, Coleman MD (2004). Fine root dynamics in a developing Populus deltoides plantation.Tree Physiology, 24, 651-660.
[18] King JS, Thomas RB, Strain BR (1997). Morphology and tissue quality of seedling root systems of Pinus taeda and Pinus ponderosa as affected by varying CO2, temperature, and nitrogen.Plant and Soil, 195, 107-119.
[19] Kong CH, Chen LC, Xu XH, Wang P, Wang SL (2008). Allelochemicals and activities in a replanted Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) tree ecosystem.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 11734-11739.
[20] Li ZH, Wang Q, Ruan X, Pan CD, Jiang DA (2010). Phenolics and plant allelopathy.Molecules, 15, 8933-8952.
[21] Liu FD, Jiang YZ, Wang HT, Kong LG, Wang Y (2005). Effect of continuous cropping on poplar plantation.Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 19(2), 102-105.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [刘福德, 姜岳忠, 王华田, 孔令刚, 王迎 (2005). 杨树人工林连作效应的研究. 水土保持学报, 19(2), 102-105.]
[22] Liu JL, Mei L, Gu JC, Quan XK, Wang ZQ (2009). Effects of nitrogen fertilization on fine root biomass and morphology of Fraxinus mandshu-rica and Larix gmelinii: A study with in-growth core approach.Chinese Journal of Ecology, 28, 1-6.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [刘金梁, 梅莉, 谷加存, 全先奎, 王政权 (2009). 内生长法研究施氮肥对水曲柳和落叶松细根生物量和形态的影响. 生态学杂志, 28, 1-6.]
[23] Lü WG, Zhang CL,Yuan F, Peng Y (2002). Mechanism of allelochemicals inhibiting continuous cropping cucumber growth.Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 35, 106-109.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [吕卫光, 张春兰, 袁飞, 彭宇 (2002). 化感物质抑制连作黄瓜生长的作用机理. 中国农业科学, 35, 106-109.]
[24] Martens DA (2002). Relationship between plant phenolic acids released during soil mineralization and aggregate stabiliza- tion.Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66, 1857-1867.
[25] Norby RJ, Jackson RB (2000). Root dynamics and global change: Seeking an ecosystem perspective.New Phytologist, 147, 3-12.
[26] Osmont KS, Sibout R, Hardtke CS (2007). Hidden branches: Developments in root system architecture.Annual Review of Plant Biology, 58, 93-113.
[27] Politycka B (1996). Peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation in roots of cucumber seedlings influenced by derivatives of cinnamic and benzoic acids.Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 18, 365-370.
[28] Pregitzer KS, DeForest JL, Burton AJ, Allen MF, Ruess RW, Hendrick RL (2002). Fine root architecture of nine North American trees.Ecological Monographs, 72, 293-309.
[29] Qu XH, Wang JG (2008). Effect of amendments with different phenolic acids on soil microbial biomass, activity, and community diversity.Applied Soil Ecology, 39, 172-179.
[30] Rice EL (1984). Allelopathy. 2nd ed. Academic Press, London. 9-10.
[31] Ruffel S, Krouk G, Ristova D, Shasha D, Birnbaum KD, Coruzzi GM (2011). Nitrogen economics of root foraging: Transitive closure of the nitrate-cytokinin relay and distinct systemic signaling for N supply vs. demand.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 18524-18529.
[32] Schweinsberg-Mickan MSZ, Jörgensen RG, Müller T (2012). Rhizodeposition: Its contribution to microbial growth and carbon and nitrogen turnover within the rhizosphere.Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 175, 750-760.
[33] Sun CL, Zhu ZX, Wang Z, Tong CR (1995). Study on the soil degradation of the poplar plantation and the technique to preserve and increase soil fertility.Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 31, 506-512.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [孙翠玲, 朱占学, 王珍, 佟超然 (1995). 杨树人工林地力退化及维护与提高土壤肥力技术的研究. 林业科学, 31, 506-512.]
[34] Sun Y, Xu XL, Kuzyakov Y (2014). Mechanisms of rhizosphere priming effects and their ecological significance.Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 38, 62-75.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [孙悦, 徐兴良, Kuzyakov Y (2014). 根际激发效应的发生机制及其生态重要性. 植物生态学报, 38, 62-75.]
[35] Tan XM, Wang HT, Kong LG, Wang YP (2008). Accumulation of phenolic acids in soil of a continuous cropping poplar plantation and their effects on soil microbes. Journal of Shandong University (Natural Science), 43, 14-19.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [谭秀梅, 王华田, 孔令刚, 王延平 (2008). 杨树人工林连作土壤中酚酸积累规律及对土壤微生物的影响. 山东大学学报(理学版), 43, 14-19.]
[36] Valenzuela-Estrada LR, Vera-Caraballo V, Ruth LE, Eissenstat DM (2008). Root anatomy, morphology, and longevity among root orders in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae).American Journal of Botany, 95, 1506-1514.
[37] Wan KY, Chen F, Yu CB, Zhong ZX (2005). Allelopathy and its application in poplar-corps system.Ecologic Science, 24, 57-60.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [万开元, 陈防, 余常兵, 钟志祥 (2005). 杨树-农作物复合系统中的化感作用. 生态科学, 24, 57-60.]
[38] Wang HT, Wang YP (2013). Hotspot discussion on decline mechanism of replanted plantation. Journal of Shandong University (Natural Science), 48(7), 1-8.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [王华田, 王延平 (2013). 关于连作人工林衰退机理几个热点问题的探讨. 山东大学学报(理学版), 48(7), 1-8.]
[39] Wang YP, Wang HT (2010a). Allelochemicals from roots exudation and its environment behavior in soil.Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 41, 501-507.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [王延平, 王华田 (2010a). 植物根分泌的化感物质及其在土壤中的环境行为. 土壤通报, 41, 501-507.]
[40] Wang YP, Wang HT, Yang Y, Jiang YZ, Wang ZQ (2010b). Study on adsorption and retention of exogenous phenolic acids in the soil of poplar (Populus deltoids Marsh) plantation.Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 24, 251-256.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [王延平, 王华田, 杨阳, 姜岳忠, 王宗芹 (2010b). 外源酚酸在杨树人工林土壤中的吸附与滞留动态研究. 水土保持学报, 24, 251-256.]
[41] Wang YP, Wang HT, Jiang YZ, Chen HY, Ni GP (2011). Se- cretion dynamics of phenolic acids from poplar (Populus × euramericana ‘Neva’) seedling roots under N, P defi- ciency conditions.Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 47(1), 73-79.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [王延平, 王华田, 姜岳忠, 陈鸿鹰, 倪桂萍 (2011). 氮磷亏缺条件下杨树幼苗根系分泌酚酸的动态. 林业科学, 47(1), 73-79.]
[42] Wang YP, Wang HT, Xu T, Ni GP, Jiang YZ (2013). Effects of exogenous phenolic acid on soil nutrient availability and enzyme activities in a poplar plantation.Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 24, 667-674.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [王延平, 王华田, 许坛, 倪桂萍, 姜岳忠 (2013). 酚酸对杨树人工林土壤养分有效性及酶活性的影响. 应用生态学报, 24, 667-674.]
[43] Xu T, Wang HT, Wang YP, Han YF, Jiang YZ, Zhu WR (2014). Correlation between soil nutrient availability and bacteria community succession in poplar plantations.Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology, 20, 491-498.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [许坛, 王华田, 王延平, 韩亚飞, 姜岳忠, 朱婉芮 (2014). 杨树人工林土壤养分有效性变化及其与土壤细菌群落演变的相关性. 应用与环境生物学报, 20, 491-498.]
[44] Xu T, Wang HT, Zhu WR, Wang YP, Li CR, Jiang YZ (2015). Morphological and anatomical traits of poplar fine roots in successive rotation plantations.Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 51, 119-126.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [许坛, 王华田, 朱婉芮, 王延平, 李传荣, 姜岳忠 (2015). 连作杨树细根根序形态及解剖结构. 林业科学, 51, 119-126.]
[45] Yang Y, Wang HT, Wang YP, Jiang YZ, Wang ZQ (2010). Effects of exogenous phenolic acids on root physiologic characteristics and morphologic development of poplar hydroponic cuttings.Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 46(11), 73-80.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [杨阳, 王华田, 王延平, 姜岳忠, 王宗芹 (2010). 外源酚酸对杨树幼苗根系生理和形态发育的影响. 林业科学, 46(11), 73-80.]
[46] Zhu XR, Wang DL (1997). Potential effect of extracts of roots of Malus pumila and Populus canadensis on wheat growth.Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 21, 226-233.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [祝心如, 王大力 (1997). 苹果、杨树等林木根系浸取物对小麦生长的潜在影响 . 植物生态学报,21, 226-233.]
[1] Hua-Jun YIN,Zi-Liang ZHANG,Qing LIU. Root exudates and their ecological consequences in forest ecosystems: Problems and perspective [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2018, 42(11): 1055-1070.
[2] XU Hao, HU Chao-Chen, XU Shi-Qi, SUN Xin-Chao, LIU Xue-Yan. Effects of exotic plant invasion on soil nitrogen availability [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2018, 42(11): 1120-1130.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] CHEN Xue-Hao YU Jie LI Ling-Li T. Advances in Study on Polyamines During Flowering and Fruit Setting and Development in Higher Plants[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(01): 36 -42 .
[2] Nair. P.K.K.. The Palynological Basis for the Triphyletic Thory of Angiosperms[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1985, 3(03): 29 -31 .
[3] Li Jing-shu. [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1988, 5(03): 187 -191 .
[4] LIU Hong-Yan WANG Guang-Ce HOU He-Sheng. Fluorescence Specificity of PSⅠ Complex from Undaria pinnatifida[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2004, 21(04): 444 -448 .
[5] Suxia Yuan;Yumei Liu*;Zhiyuan Fang;Limei Yang;Mu Zhuang;Yangyong Zhang;Peitian Sun. Plant Regeneration from Microspore-derived Embryos in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2010, 45(02): 226 -232 .
[6] Zhu Zhu;Xianghong Meng;Shiping Tian*. Effect of Preharvest Oxalic Acid Sprays on Calcium Content and Distribution in Mango Fruit Cells[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2010, 45(01): 23 -28 .
[7] Liu Shi-rong, Wang Wen-zhang, Wang Ming-qi. The Characteristics of Energy in the Formative Process of Net Primary Productivity of Larch Artificial Forest Ecosystem[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1992, 16(3): 209 -219 .
[8] Gao Zhi-hui, Jiang Guo-hong, Xing Ai-jin, Yu Ming-rong. A Study on the Biomass of Metasequoia glyptostroboides plantation in Zhebei Plain[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1992, 16(1): 64 -71 .
[9] LU Zhan-Gen, ZHOU Wen-Jie, ZHAO Chang-Qiong, CHEN Jing, TAN Feng. Studies on the Adaptation of Taxus media cv. Hicksii to Natural Temperature Reduction[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2004, 28(1): 73 -77 .
[10] YU Yang, CAO Min, ZHENG Li, SHENG Cai-Yu. EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT OF A TROPICAL RAINFOREST CANOPY TREE, POMETIA TOMENTOSA[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2007, 31(6): 1028 -1036 .