Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2016, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (6): 554-563.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2015.0446

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of exclosure on community inter-specific relationships in a typical temperate grassland

Rong GONG1,2, Qiong GAO1,2,*(), Ya-Lin WANG1,2   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

    2Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2015-12-07 Accepted:2016-04-23 Online:2016-06-15 Published:2016-06-30
  • Contact: Qiong GAO E-mail:gaoq@bnu.edu.cn

Abstract:

Aims This study aimed to understand the impact of exclosure on interspecific associations of species in a typical temperate grassland. We compared the species associations of dominant and companion species in grassland plots with the six-year exclosure and grazing in Taips County, Nei Mongol.Methods We selected 14 species according to important values in each plot, using variance ratio to analyze the overall association. The χ2 test with 2 × 2 contingency table, Ochiai index and spearman rank correlation test were applied to analyze the inter-specific associations of dominant and companion species. We used the niche breadth index to analyze the ability of resource utilization of species and inter-specific competition for grazed plots and ones with exclosure.Important findings The inter-specific associations among 91 species pairs inside the exclosure showed that nine species pairs were significantly positive but 4 pairs were negative based on the χ2 test with 2 × 2 contingency table. Ten species pairs had significantly positive correlations and 16 species pairs were negative through the Spearman correlation test. For the plots outside the exclosure, we found 19 species pairs were positively associated but 8 pairs were negative associated using the χ2 test, and 12 species pairs were significantly positively correlated but 30 pairs were negatively correlated using the Spearman correlation test. The results indicated that the community inside the exclosure was in a continuous development state while the outside community was degradating. The Ochiai indices of dominant species were high both inside and outside the exclosure but the differences using the χ2test were nonsignificant. It implied that there was some connection among dominant species but their patterns of distribution were relatively independent. The niche breadth for dominant species inside the exclosure was higher than ones outside, which suggested the exclosure has an important role in protecting dominant species.

Key words: exclosure, importance value, interspecific association, niche breadth, resources utilization

Table 1

The frequency, importance value and niche breadth of species inside the exclosure"

编号
Numbers
物种
Species
频度
Frequency
重要值
Importance value
生态位宽度
Niche breadth
1 猪毛蒿 Artemisia scoparia 98 9.814 1.95
2 冷蒿 Artemisia frigida 84 8.608 1.88
3 羊草 Leymus chinensis 91 7.747 1.93
4 糙隐子草 Cleistogenes squarrosa 81 6.601 1.96
5 克氏针茅 Stipa krylovii 70 5.689 1.82
6 花苜蓿 Medicago ruthenica 53 5.101 1.72
7 碱韭 Allium polyrhizum 67 4.243 1.81
8 二裂委陵菜 Potentilla bifurca 45 3.965 1.47
9 龙蒿 Artemisia dracunculus 23 3.506 1.24
10 大籽蒿 Artemisia sieversiana 8 2.581 0.86
11 寸草 Carex duriuscula 15 2.553 1.14
12 冰草 Agropyron cristatum 7 2.529 0.84
13 阿尔泰狗娃花 Aster altaicus 17 2.385 1.22
14 瓣蕊唐松草 Thalictrum petaloideum 6 2.003 0.75

Table 2

The frequency, importance value and niche breadth of species outside the exclosure"

编号
Numbers
物种
Species
频度
Frequency
重要值
Importance value
生态位宽度
Niche breadth
1 糙隐子草 Cleistogenes squarrosa 97 10.180 1.86
2 冷蒿 Artemisia frigida 79 9.674 1.84
3 猪毛蒿 Artemisia scoparia 92 8.676 1.93
4 羊草 Leymus chinensis 73 6.447 1.81
5 克氏针茅 Stipa krylovii 55 6.284 1.71
6 碱韭 Allium polyrhizum 82 5.518 1.89
7 栉叶蒿 Neopallasia pectinata 20 4.491 1.25
8 二裂委陵菜 Potentilla bifurca 33 3.874 1.61
9 大籽蒿 Artemisia sieversiana 20 3.657 1.29
10 冰草 Agropyron cristatum 26 3.397 1.41
11 寸草 Carex duriuscula 28 3.165 1.42
12 花苜蓿 Medicago ruthenica 37 2.864 1.55
13 天名精 Carpesium abrotanoides 22 2.613 1.32
14 龙蒿 Artemisia dracunculus 18 2.585 1.34

Table 3

Dynamics of overall associations inside and outside the exclosure"

方差比率
Variance ratio
检验统计量
Statistic ω
χ2临界值
χ2 threshold value
结果
Results
围栏内 Inside the exclosure 1.320 132.42 [77.93, 124.34] 显著正联结 Significantly positive association
围栏外 Outside the exclosure 0.931 93.11 [77.93, 124.34] 不显著负联结 Insignificantly negative association

Fig. 1

The semi-matrix of the χ2 test inside the exclosure. Species codes: 1, Artemisia scoparia; 2, Artemisia frigid; 3, Leymus chinensis; 4, Cleistogenes squarrosa; 5, Stipa krylovii; 6, Medicago ruthenica; 7, Allium polyrhizum; 8, Potentilla bifurca; 9, Artemisia dracunculus; 10, Artemisia sieversiana; 11, Carex duriuscula; 12, Agropyron cristatum; 13, Aster altaicus; 14, Thalictrum petaloideum."

Fig. 2

The semi-matrix of the χ2 test outside the exclosure. Species codes: 1, Artemisia scoparia; 2, Artemisia frigid; 3, Leymus chinensis; 4, Cleistogenes squarrosa; 5, Stipa krylovii; 6, Medicago ruthenica; 7, Allium polyrhizum; 8, Potentilla bifurca; 9, Artemisia dracunculus; 10, Artemisia sieversiana; 11, Carex duriuscula; 12, Agropyron cristatum; 13, Aster altaicus; 14, Thalictrum petaloideum."

Table 4

Ochiai indices (OI) of inter-specific associations inside and outside the exclosure"

0 ≤ OI < 0.2 0.2 ≤ OI < 0.4 0.4 ≤ OI < 0.6 0.6 ≤ OI < 0.8 0.8 ≤ OI < 1
种对数
Species pairs
百分比
Percentage
(%)
种对数
Species pairs
百分比
Percentage
(%)
种对数
Species pairs
百分比
Percentage
(%)
种对数
Species pairs
百分比
Percentage
(%)
种对数
Species
pairs
百分比
Percentage
(%)
围栏内 Inside the exclosure 20 22 36 39.6 15 16.5 7 7.7 13 14.3
围栏外 Outside the exclosure 8 8.8 21 23.1 46 50.5 8 8.8 9 9.9

Fig. 3

The semi-matrix of Ochiai indices (OI) for species in plots inside the exclosure. Species codes: 1, Artemisia scoparia; 2, Artemisia frigid; 3, Leymus chinensis; 4, Cleistogenes squarrosa; 5, Stipa krylovii; 6, Medicago ruthenica; 7, Allium polyrhizum; 8, Potentilla bifurca; 9, Artemisia dracunculus; 10, Artemisia sieversiana; 11, Carex duriuscula; 12, Agropyron cristatum; 13, Aster altaicus; 14, Thalictrum petaloideum."

Fig. 4

The semi-matrix of Ochiai indices (OI) for species in plots outside the exclosure. Species codes: 1, Artemisia scoparia; 2, Artemisia frigid; 3, Leymus chinensis; 4, Cleistogenes squarrosa; 5, Stipa krylovii; 6, Medicago ruthenica; 7, Allium polyrhizum; 8, Potentilla bifurca; 9, Artemisia dracunculus; 10, Artemisia sieversiana; 11, Carex duriuscula; 12, Agropyron cristatum; 13, Aster altaicus; 14, Thalictrum petaloideum."

Fig. 5

The semi-matrix of the Spearman correlation analysis for species in plots inside the exclosure. Species codes: 1, Artemisia scoparia; 2, Artemisia frigid; 3, Leymus chinensis; 4, Cleistogenes squarrosa; 5, Stipa krylovii; 6, Medicago ruthenica; 7, Allium polyrhizum; 8, Potentilla bifurca; 9, Artemisia dracunculus; 10, Artemisia sieversiana; 11, Carex duriuscula; 12, Agropyron cristatum; 13, Aster altaicus; 14, Thalictrum petaloideum."

Fig. 6

The semi-matrix of the Spearman correlation analysis for species in plots outside the exclosure. Species codes: 1, Artemisia scoparia; 2, Artemisia frigid; 3, Leymus chinensis; 4, Cleistogenes squarrosa; 5, Stipa krylovii; 6, Medicago ruthenica; 7, Allium polyrhizum; 8, Potentilla bifurca; 9, Artemisia dracunculus; 10, Artemisia sieversiana; 11, Carex duriuscula; 12, Agropyron cristatum; 13, Aster altaicus; 14, Thalictrum petaloideum."

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