Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 418-429.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0340

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Duration of mulching caused variable pools of labile organic carbon in a Phyllostachys edulis plantation

Rui-Yu ZHAO1, Zheng-Cai LI1,*(), Bin WANG1, Xiao-Gai GE1, Yun-Xi DAI2, Zhi-Xia ZHAO1, Yu-Jie ZHANG1   

  1. 1Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Hangzhou 311400, China
    and
    2Taizhou Huangyan District Forestry Technology Popularization Station, Huangyan, Zhejiang 318020, China
  • Received:2016-11-03 Accepted:2017-03-01 Online:2017-05-19 Published:2017-04-10
  • Contact: Zheng-Cai LI E-mail:lizccaf@126.com

Abstract:

Aims Soil total organic carbon and labile organic carbon are important indicators in evaluating soil quality. Mulching is widely applied to promote the emergence of bamboo shoot in winter time through stand management. Yet the consequences of mulching on soil quality in Phyllostachys edulis have not been well studied. We aim at the quantitative effect of mulching duration on soil quality in P. edulis stands.
Methods Several P. edulis stands located in Huangyan District of Taizhou, Zhejiang Province of China, had been applied with mulching for 1-2 years and were used in this study to assess the mulching effects. We also selected stands without mulching treatment as the reference sites (or control, CK) for comparisons.||||Important findings Total soil organic carbon (TOC), light fraction organic matter (LFOM), and easily-oxidized carbon (EOC) contents at stands with 1-year and 2-year mulching treatments were significantly increased compared with those at the CK sites. The 1-year mulching increased TOC, LFOM and EOC by 11.2%-74.2%, 31.7%-196.9% and 5.0%-79.6%, respectively, than those of CK sites, while by 22.2%-90.8%, 36.7%-238.5%, and 21.9%-97.5% with 2-year treatment. However, the contents of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) changed insignificantly. Among the indicators, we found that WSOC:TOC in CK was higher than that with the mulching treatments, while EOC:TOC with 1-year treatment was higher than that with 2-year treatment, and EOC:TOC with 2-year treatment was higher than that of CK. Additionally, WSOC, EOC, and LFOM at all three treatments showed high correlations with TOC, with a higher correlation coefficient of WSOC with TOC of 0- 30 cm soil layers in CK than those with mulching treatments. The correlation coefficient of EOC and LFOM with TOC was the highest at the 2-year mulching sites. More importantly, TOC, WSOC, EOC, and LFOM were significantly (p < 0.05), or extremely significantly (p < 0.01), correlated with soil nutrient content, including total N, hydrolysis N, available P, available K, exchangeable Ca, and exchangeable Mg in all treatments. In sum, it appeared that mulching in short term can increase the contents of TOC, soil labile organic carbons and soil nutrients in bamboo soils, yielding an improved soil quality and thus can be promoted as a plausible practice for the sustainable management of P. edulis stands.

Key words: Phyllostachys edulis, soil mulching with straw, soil organic carbon, soil labile organic carbon, soil nutrients

Table 1

Site characteristics of the experimental plots"

处理
Treatment
平均胸径
Mean DBH (cm)
立林密度
Stand density (plant·hm-2)
坡向
Aspect
坡度
Slope grade (°)
林下植被
Understory vegetation
对照 Control 9.09 2 700 东南向 Southeast direction 20 少灌草 Few shrubs and herbs
覆盖1年翻耕 1-year mulching 8.68 1 500 东南向 Southeast direction 20 无灌木 No shrub
覆盖2年翻耕 2-year mulching 7.67 1 200 东南向 Southeast direction 20 无灌木 No shrub

Table 2

Changes in soil total organic carbon contents under different mulching durations (mean ± SD)(g·kg-1)"

处理 Treatment 土层 Soil layer (cm)
0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50
对照 Control 29.60 ± 4.07b 26.70 ± 3.08b 22.40 ± 1.28a 19.20 ± 5.09a 16.07 ± 4.15a
覆盖1年翻耕 1-year mulching 38.43 ± 2.98a 46.50 ± 1.99a 24.90 ± 4.07a 21.73 ± 3.37a 19.07 ± 4.49a
覆盖2年翻耕 2-year mulching 39.33 ± 2.15a 50.93 ± 2.56a 27.73 ± 1.91a 23.47 ± 1.21a 20.67 ± 1.88a

Table 3

Changes in soil water-soluble organic carbon contents under different mulching durations (mean ± SD) (mg·kg-1)"

处理 Treatment 土层 Soil layer (cm)
0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50
对照 Control 21.51 ± 2.53 18.46 ± 1.76 18.33 ± 1.40 17.50 ± 2.50 15.13 ± 2.24
覆盖1年翻耕 1-year mulching 20.47 ± 1.46 29.30 ± 9.21 18.38 ± 0.88 17.99 ± 0.30 16.12 ± 1.42
覆盖2年翻耕 2-year mulching 23.84 ± 2.35 28.08 ± 5.37 20.98 ± 4.03 17.81 ± 2.37 16.86 ± 2.57

Table 4

Changes in soil light fraction organic matter contents under different mulching durations (mean ± SD) (g·kg-1)"

处理 Treatment 土层 Soil layer (cm)
0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50
对照 Control 0.155 ± 0.025b 0.130 ± 0.023b 0.091 ± 0.009a 0.074 ± 0.031b 0.060 ± 0.014a
覆盖1年翻耕 1-year mulching 0.300 ± 0.092a 0.386 ± 0.020a 0.123 ± 0.022a 0.116 ± 0.016a 0.079 ± 0.021a
覆盖2年翻耕 2-year mulching 0.292 ± 0.070a 0.440 ± 0.027a 0.135 ± 0.026a 0.118 ± 0.009a 0.082 ± 0.007a

Table 5

Changes in soil easily-oxidized carbon contents under different mulching durations (mean ± SD) (g·kg-1)"

处理 Treatment 土层 Soil layer (cm)
0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50
对照 Control 6.67 ± 1.01b 5.92 ± 0.49b 5.08 ± 0.76a 3.65 ± 1.17a 3.02 ± 1.04a
覆盖1年翻耕 1-year mulching 8.96 ± 0.93a 10.63 ± 0.27a 5.67 ± 1.39a 3.84 ± 1.04a 3.17 ± 1.13a
覆盖2年翻耕 2-year mulching 9.08 ± 0.48a 11.69 ± 0.58a 6.19 ± 1.32a 4.46 ± 0.34a 3.83 ± 0.34a

Table 6

Ratios of 0-50 cm soil labile organic carbons to total organic carbon under different mulching durations"

土层
Soil layer (cm)
WSOC/TOC (%) EOC/TOC (%)
对照
Control
覆盖1年翻耕
1-year mulching
覆盖2年翻耕
2-year mulching
对照
Control
覆盖1年翻耕
1-year mulching
覆盖2年翻耕
2-year mulching
0-10 0.073 0.053 0.061 22.65 23.31 23.08
10-20 0.069 0.063 0.055 22.18 22.87 22.95
20-30 0.082 0.074 0.076 21.76 22.79 22.33
30-40 0.091 0.083 0.076 19.03 17.68 19.02
40-50 0.094 0.085 0.082 18.78 16.64 18.53

Fig. 1

Relationships between soil labile organic carbons and total organic carbon under different mulching durations. **, p < 0.01. EOC, easily-oxidized carbon; LFOM, light fraction organic matter; TOC, total organic carbon; WSOC, water-soluble organic carbon."

Table 7

Correlation between soil organic carbons and soil nutrients"

处理 Treatment 土壤养分 Soil nutrient 土壤总有机碳 TOC 土壤水溶性有机碳 WSOC 土壤易氧化碳 EOC 土壤轻组有机质 LFOM
对照
Control
全氮 Total N 0.987** 0.881** 0.956** 0.989**
水解性氮 Hydrolysis N 0.984** 0.892** 0.964** 0.976**
有效磷 Available P 0.774** 0.673** 0.816** 0.738**
速效钾 Available K 0.793** 0.772** 0.808** 0.838**
交换性钙 Exchangeable Ca 0.765** 0.579* 0.810** 0.804**
交换性镁 Exchangeable Mg 0.763** 0.671** 0.712** 0.775**
覆盖1年翻耕
1-year mulching
全氮 Total N 0.895** 0.712** 0.885** 0.901**
水解性氮 Hydrolysis N 0.882** 0.570* 0.904** 0.876**
有效磷 Available P 0.843** 0.544* 0.878** 0.869**
速效钾 Available K 0.801** 0.545* 0.747** 0.770**
交换性钙 Exchangeable Ca 0.780** 0.631* 0.842** 0.827**
交换性镁 Exchangeable Mg 0.868** 0.570* 0.857** 0.885**
覆盖2年翻耕
2-year mulching
全氮 Total N 0.960** 0.899** 0.935** 0.939**
水解性氮 Hydrolysis N 0.920** 0.902** 0.882** 0.908**
有效磷 Available P 0.749** 0.685** 0.745** 0.751**
速效钾 Available K 0.861** 0.804** 0.864** 0.841**
交换性钙 Exchangeable Ca 0.806** 0.875** 0.805** 0.796**
交换性镁 Exchangeable Mg 0.887** 0.847** 0.889** 0.862**
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