Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 1986, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (1): 26-34.

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

The Main Vegetation Types and Their Distribution in the Gongga Mountainous Region

Liu Zhao-guang, Qiu Fa-ying   

  • Online:1986-01-10 Published:1986-01-10
  • Contact: Hu Yi-hui

Abstract: The Gongga Mountain is located on the southeast fringe of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, i. e. the middle part of the Great Snow Mountain Range of the Hengduan Mountain Ranges. The Gongga Mountainous region is situated in 29˚20′—30˚00′N. and 101˚30′—102˚10′E., with its main peak being 7556m above sea level. There are 2500 species of vascular plants belonging to 869 genera and 185 families in Gongga Mountainous region. The main floral characteristics of the Gongga Mountainous region are shown as the antiquity of the origin of the floristic composition; marked differentiation of species; abundant endemic species; complex composition and obvious geographical replacement phenomenon. The main vegetation types of the Gongga Mountains are: Subalpine conophorium of Abies, Picea; mid-mountain eonophorium of Pinus and Tsuga; low-mountain conophorium of Pinus, Cunninghamia, Cupressus, and Keteleeria; mixed wood of conophorium and broad-leaf forest of Tsuga, Acer and Betula; evergreen forest of Cinnamomum, Phoebe, Machilus, Lithocarpus and Cyclobalanopsis; deciduous broad-leaf forest of Quercus, Betula, Acer, Populus and Alnus; hard-leaf evergreen forest of Alpine-Quercus; alpine bush-wood of Rhododendron, Salix and Sabina; river-valley busy-wood of Acacia, Opuntia and Bunhinia; alpine meadow and “rock stream” sparse vegetation of Kobresia, Festuca, Allium, Saussurea, Soroseris, etc.The horizontal zones of vegetation in the Gongga Mountainous region is the aiphyllium with the characteristics of the east and west parts of subtropics in China.The vertical belts on the eastern slope are: 1. Evergreen broad-leaf forest belt at alt. 1100—2200m. 2. Coniferous and broad-leaf mixed forest belt at alt. 2200–2500m. 3. Subalpine coniferous forest belt at alt. 2500—3600m. 4. Alpine bush and coryphilum belt at alt. 3600–4600m. 5. Open vegetation belt of alpine “rock stream” belt at alt. 4600–4900m.6. Alpine nival belt at alt. 4900m.The vertical belts on the western slope are: 1. Subalpine coniferous forest belt at alt. 2800—4000m 2. Alpine bush and meadow belt at alt. 4000–4800m. 3. Open vegetation belt of alpine "rock stream" belt at alt. 4800—5100m. 4. Alpine nival belt at alt. 5100m.