Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 430-438.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0297

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of tree mortality on the spatial patterns and interspecific associations of plant species in a Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forest in Baotianman, Henan, China

Bo-Liang WEI1,*, Zhi-Liang YUAN1,*, Shuai NIU1, Xia LIU2, Hong-Ru JIA3, Yong-Zhong YE1,**()   

  1. 1College of Life Sciences, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China

    2Huaxian Environmental Protection Agency, Huaxian, Henan 456400, China
    and
    3Henan College of Finance and Taxation, Zhengzhou 451464, China
  • Received:2016-09-26 Accepted:2017-01-03 Online:2017-05-19 Published:2017-04-10
  • Contact: Bo-Liang WEI,Zhi-Liang YUAN,Yong-Zhong YE E-mail:yeyzh@163.com

Abstract:

Aims Tree mortality is an important ecological process in forest ecosystems. The aims of this study were to determine how tree mortality influences the spatial patterns and interspecific associations of plant species, and what are the causes of tree mortality in a 1 hm2 permanent plot in Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Nanyang City, Henan Province.
Methods We conducted field investigations in the plot and used spatial point pattern analysis to examine the spatial patterns and interspecific associations of 17 species prior to and following mortality.
Important findings (1) Most of the species in the study plot showed an aggregated distribution both pre- and post-mortality. However, the number of species showing aggregated distribution decreased and the number of species showing random distribution increased following the mortality event. (2) Most species were positively associated with Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata both pre- and post-mortality, while some had no apparent association. Following tree mortality, on fine scales, the number of species with positive associations increased, and the number of species with negative associations decreased. (3) Tree mortality was in consistency with the random death hypothesis. The interspecific associations of four species with Q. aliena var. acuteserrata completely changed following death. For most species, the spatial patterns and the interspecific association with Q. aliena var. acuteserrata either changed at minor scales or did not change. The variations in spatial patterns or interspecific associations were inconsistent among species. (4) The dead trees of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were significantly associated with the living trees in 13 species, but the associations between dead and living trees were not in agreement with the changes in interspecific association following mortality. Only five living tree species competed with the dead trees of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, and the competition between each of these species and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata intensified after individual death. Tree mortality is the result of a variety of factors. Although the tree mortality in the study plot was in accordance with the random death hypothesis, there were also a few individuals which were dead from competition.

Key words: mortality, random death hypothesis, spatial patterns, interspecific associations, Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata

Fig. 1

Topographic map in the plot and the frequency distribution of diameter at breast height of 17 species."

Table 1

Basic characteristics of living and dead trees of species in the study plot"

物种 Species 个体数
Number of individuals
活树
Living
tree
死树
Dead
tree
锐齿槲栎 Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata 572 114
连翘 Forsythia suspensa 258 46
白檀 Symplocos paniculata 218 6
四照花 Dendrobenthamia japonica var. chinensis 195 5
三桠乌药 Lindera obtusiloba 167 10
华东椴 Tilia japonica 130 4
灯台树 Bothrocaryum controversum 122 0
山梅花 Philadelphus incanus 119 8
鹅耳枥 Carpinus turczaninowii 118 1
水榆花楸 Sorbus alnifolia 105 1
海州常山 Clerodendrum trichotomum 83 4
崖樱桃 Cerasus scopulorum 69 2
秦岭木姜子 Litsea tsinlingensis 63 6
桦叶荚蒾 Viburnum betulifolium 54 2
卫矛 Euonymus alatus 48 8
华榛 Corylus chinensis 47 2
大椴 Tilia nobilis 40 3
青榨槭 Acer davidii 40 0
金银忍冬 Lonicera maackii 34 7
石枣子 Euonymus sanguineus 30 0

Fig. 2

The percentage of spatial distribution patterns of species before individual death (A), after individual death (B), and random individual death (C)."

Table 2

Variations in interspecific associations between Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata and other species both pre- and post-mortality, and associations between the dead trees of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata and the living trees of other species"

物种
Species
死亡前种间相关性
Interspecific
associations
pre-mortality
死亡后种间相关性
Interspecific
associations
post-mortality
种间相关性变化
Variation in
interspecific
associations
死树和活树的关系
Associations between
dead trees and living
trees
海州常山 Clerodendrum trichotomum / - -
连翘 Forsythia suspensa - - -
三桠乌药 Lindera obtusiloba - - -
四照花Dendrobenthamia japonica var. chinensis - - -
卫矛 Euonymus alatus -+ - -
金银忍冬 Lonicera maackii / - /
白檀 Symplocos paniculata - - / +
桦叶荚蒾 Viburnum betulifolium - - / +
华东椴 Tilia japonica + + / -
华榛 Corylus chinensis / / / /
大椴 Tilia nobilis - - -+
山梅花 Philadelphus incanus / + -+
秦岭木姜子 Litsea tsinlingensis + + -
水榆花楸 Sorbus alnifolia + + -
崖樱桃 Cerasus scopulorum + + /
鹅耳枥 Carpinus turczaninowii -+ -+ ↓↑ +

Fig. 3

The percentage of interspecific spatial associations between Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata and other species before individual death (A) and after individual death (B)."

[1] Aakala T, Fraver S, Palik BJ, D Amato AW (2012). Spatially random mortality in old-growth red pine forests of northern Minnesota.Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 42, 899-907.
[2] Baddeley A, Turner R (2005). Spatstat: An R package for analyzing spatial point patterns.Journal of Statistical Software, 12(i06), 1-42.
[3] Bin Y, Lian J, Wang Z, Ye W, Cao H (2011). Tree mortality and recruitment in a subtropical broadleaved monsoon forest in South China.Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 23(1), 57-66.
[4] Chen Y, Yuan ZL, Ren SY, Wei BL, Jia HR, Ye YZ (2014). Correlation analysis of soil and species of different life forms in Baotianman Nature Reserve.Chinese Science Bulletin, 59, 2367-2376. (in Chinese)[陈云, 袁志良, 任思远, 韦博良, 贾宏汝, 叶永忠 (2014). 宝天曼自然保护区不同生活型物种与土壤相关性分析. 科学通报, 59, 2367-2376.]
[5] Diggle P (2013). Statistical Analysis of Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Point Patterns. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.
[6] Domke GM, Woodall CW, Smith JE (2011). Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States.Carbon Balance & Management, 6(1), 57-62.
[7] Fan J, Zhao XH, Wang JS, Zhang CY, He J, Xia FC (2012). Spatial patterns of dominant species in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Jiulian Mountain Jiangxi Province, China.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 32, 2729-2737. (in Chinese with English abstract)[范娟, 赵秀海, 汪金松, 张春雨, 何俊, 夏富才 (2012). 江西九连山亚热带常绿阔叶林优势种空间分布格局. 生态学报, 32, 2729-2737.]
[8] Getzin S, Dean C, He F, Trofymow JA, Wiegand K, Wiegand T (2006). Spatial patterns and competition of tree species in a Douglas-fir chronosequence on Vancouver Island.Ecography, 29, 671-682.
[9] Gray L, He F (2009). Spatial point-pattern analysis for detecting density-dependent competition in a boreal chronosequence of Alberta.Forest Ecology & Management, 259, 98-106.
[10] Guo YL, Wang B, Xiang WS, Ding T, Lu SH, Huang FZ, Wen SJ, Li DX, Li XK (2016). Spatial distribution and habitat-association of snags in the tropical karst seasonal rainforest of Southwest Guangxi, China.Guihaia, 36, 154-161. (in Chinese with English abstract)[郭屹立, 王斌, 向悟生, 丁涛, 陆树华, 黄甫昭, 文淑均, 李冬兴, 李先琨 (2016). 桂西南喀斯特季节性雨林枯立木的空间格局及生境关联性分析. 广西植物, 36, 154-161.]
[11] He F, Duncan RP (2000). Density-dependent effects on tree survival in an old-growth Douglas fir forest.Journal of Ecology, 88, 676-688.
[12] He JS, Liu F, Chen WL, Chen LZ (1999). History of disturbance and regeneration strategies of Fagus engleriana and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests in Shennongjia, Hubei Province. Acta Botanica Sinica, 41, 887-892. (in Chinese with English abstract)[贺金生, 刘峰, 陈伟烈, 陈灵芝 (1999). 神农架地区米心水青冈林和锐齿槲栎林群落干扰历史及更新策略. 植物学报, 41, 887-892.]
[13] Hou HY, Wang LH (2013). Species composition and main populations spatial distribution pattern in Korean pine broadleaved forest in Xiaoxing’an Mountains of Northeast China.Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 24, 3043-3049. (in Chinese with English abstract)[侯红亚, 王立海 (2013). 小兴安岭阔叶红松林物种组成及主要种群的空间分布格局. 应用生态学报, 24, 3043-3049.]
[14] Li L, Wu CC, Mo DQ, Wei SG, Huang ZL (2014). Dynamics death of constructive species in monsoon evergreen broad leaved forest.Journal of Southwest Forestry University, 34(6), 29-34. (in Chinese with English abstract)[李林, 伍婵翠, 莫德清, 魏识广, 黄忠良 (2014). 季风常绿阔叶林建群种的死亡动态格局. 西南林业大学学报, 34(6), 29-34.]
[15] Lin Y, Ren JY, Yue M (2008). Population structure and spatial analysis of Betula albo-sinensis at Taibai Mountain, Northwestern China. Journal of Plant Ecology (Chinese Version), 32, 1335-1345. (in Chinese with English abstract)[林玥, 任坚毅, 岳明 (2008). 太白山红桦种群结构与空间分析. 植物生态学报, 32, 1335-1345.]
[16] Liu F, Chen WL, He JS (2000). Population structure and regeneration of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata in Shennongjia. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 24, 396-401.(in Chinese with English abstract) [刘峰, 陈伟烈, 贺金生 (2000). 神农架地区锐齿槲栎种群结构与更新的研究. 植物生态学报, 24, 396-401.]
[17] Liu YC, Wu MZ, Guo ZM, Jiang YX, Liu SR, Wang ZY, Liu BD, Zhu XL (2001). Studies on biomass and net production of Quercus acutidentata forest in Baotianman Nature Reserve. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 21, 1450-1456. (in Chinese with English abstract)[刘玉萃, 吴明作, 郭宗民, 蒋有绪, 刘世荣, 王正用, 刘保东, 朱学凌 (2001). 内乡宝天曼自然保护区锐齿栎林生物量和净生产力研究. 生态学报, 21, 1450-1456.]
[18] Liu YY, Jin GZ (2010). Spatial point pattern analysis for coarse woody debris in a mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Xiaoxing’an Mountains, China.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 30, 6072-6081. (in Chinese with English abstract)[刘妍妍, 金光泽 (2010). 小兴安岭阔叶红松林粗木质残体空间分布的点格局分析. 生态学报, 30, 6072-6081.]
[19] Lu ZJ, Liu FL, Wu H, Jiang MX (2015). Species composition, size class, and spatial patterns of snags in the Badagongshan (BDGS) mixed evergreen and deciduous broad- leaved forest in central China.Biodiversity Science, 23, 167-173. (in Chinese with English abstract)[卢志军, 刘福玲, 吴浩, 江明喜 (2015). 八大公山常绿落叶阔叶混交林枯立木物种组成、大小级与分布格局. 生物多样性, 23, 167-173.]
[20] Metcalf CJE, Horvitz CC, Tuljapurkar S, Clark DA (2009). A time to grow and a time to die: A new way to analyze the dynamics of size, light, age, and death of tropical trees.Ecology, 90, 2766-2778.
[21] Miao N, Liu S, Shi Z, Xue Z, Yu H, He F (2011). Spatial pattern analysis of a Rhododendron-Abies virginal forest near timberline on the eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 31, 1-9. (in Chinese with English abstract)[缪宁, 刘世荣, 史作民, 薛泽冰, 喻泓, 何飞 (2011). 青藏高原东缘林线杜鹃-岷江冷杉原始林的空间格局. 生态学报, 31, 1-9.]
[22] Miao N, Liu SR, Shi ZM, Yu H, Liu XL (2009). Spatial patterns of dominant tree species in sub-alpine Betula-Abies forest in West Sichuan of China. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 20, 1263-1270. (in Chinese with English abstract)[缪宁, 刘世荣, 史作民, 喻泓, 刘兴良 (2009). 川西亚高山红桦-岷江冷杉林优势种群的空间格局分析. 应用生态学报, 20, 1263-1270.]
[23] Nong Y, Zheng L, Jia HY, Lu LH, Huang DW, Huang BH, Lei LQ (2015). Community characteristics and spatial distribution of dominant tree species in a secondary forest of Daqing Mountains, southwestern Guangxi, China.Biodiversity Science, 23, 321-331. (in Chinese with English abstract)[农友, 郑路, 贾宏炎, 卢立华, 黄德卫, 黄柏华, 雷丽群 (2015). 广西大青山次生林的群落特征及主要乔木种群的空间分布格局. 生物多样性, 23, 321-331.]
[24] Rouvinen S, Kuuluvainen T, Siitonen J (2002). Tree mortality in a Pinus sylvestris dominated boreal forest landscape in Vienansalo wilderness, eastern Fennoscandia. Silva Fennica, 36, 127-145.
[25] Svátek M, Matula R (2015). Fine-scale spatial patterns in oak sprouting and mortality in a newly restored coppice.Forest Ecology & Management, 348, 117-123.
[26] Wang B, Xiang WS, Ding T, Huang FZ, Wen SJ, Li DX, Guo YL, Li XK (2014). Spatial distribution of standing dead trees abundance and its impact factors in the karst seasonal rain forest, Nonggang, southern China.Chinese Science Bulletin, 59, 3479-3490. (in Chinese)[王斌, 向悟生, 丁涛, 黄甫昭, 文淑均, 李冬兴, 郭屹立, 李先琨 (2014). 弄岗喀斯特季节性雨林枯立木多度的空间分布及影响因子. 科学通报, 59, 3479-3490.]
[27] Wang LW, Li BH, Ye J, Bai XJ, Yuan ZQ, Xing DL, Lin F, Shi S, Wang XG, Hao ZQ (2011). Dynamics of short-term tree mortality in broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains.Biodiversity Science, 19, 260-270. (in Chinese with English abstract)[王利伟, 李步杭, 叶吉, 白雪娇, 原作强, 邢丁亮, 蔺菲, 师帅, 王绪高, 郝占庆 (2011). 长白山阔叶红松林树木短期死亡动态. 生物多样性, 19, 260-270.]
[28] Wiegand T, Gunatilleke S, Gunatilleke N (2007). Species associations in a heterogeneous Sri Lankan dipterocarp forest.The American Naturalist, 170, E77-E95.
[29] Wiegand T, Moloney AK (2004). Rings, circles, and null- models for point pattern analysis in ecology.Oikos, 104, 209-229.
[30] Xu J, Fei SM, He YP, Jiang JM, Chen XM, Tu DL (2007). The competition intensity between withered and living standing trees in the upper layer of overmature Pinus yunnanensis forest in the mountainous area of Southwest Sichuan. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science & Technology, 28(6), 1-8. (in Chinese with English abstract)[徐嘉, 费世民, 何亚平, 蒋俊明, 陈秀明, 涂代伦 (2007). 川西南山地云南松过熟林上层枯立木和活立木竞争强度研究. 四川林业科技, 28(6), 1-8.]
[31] Yuan ZL, Wang T, Zhu XL, Sha YY, Ye YZ (2011). Patterns of spatial distribution of Quercus variabilis in deciduous broadleaf forests in Baotianman Nature Reserve. Biodiversity Science, 19, 224-231. (in Chinese with English abstract)[袁志良, 王婷, 朱学灵, 沙迎迎, 叶永忠 (2011). 宝天曼落叶阔叶林样地栓皮栎种群空间格局. 生物多样性, 19, 224-231.]
[32] Zhang J, Hao Z, Sun IF, Song B, Ye J, Li B, Wang X (2009). Density dependence on tree survival in an old-growth temperate forest in northeastern China.Annals of Forest Science, 66, 204.
[33] Zhang ZH, Hu G, Ni J (2010). Interspecific segregation of old-growth karst forests in Maolan, Southwest China.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 30, 2235-2245. (in Chinese with English abstract)[张忠华, 胡刚, 倪健 (2010). 茂兰喀斯特森林群落的种间分离特征. 生态学报, 30, 2235-2245.]
[1] Jianchao Liang,Zhifeng Ding,Chunlan Zhang,Huijian Hu,Hairui Duo,Hong Tang. Bird diversity spatial distribution patterns and hotspots in Maixiu Area of Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve, Qinghai Province [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(3): 294-303.
[2] Zhi-Cheng CHEN, Xian-Chong WAN. The relationship between the reduction of nonstructural carbohydrate induced by defoliator and the growth and mortality of trees [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2016, 40(9): 958-968.
[3] Yue Xu,Peng Li,Ye Liu,Wanjun Zhang,Siyu Qin,Zehao Shen. Spatial patterns and determinants of species richness of alien and native plants in the Nujiang River valley [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(4): 389-398.
[4] Fei Xiong,Hongyan Liu,Xinbin Duan,Shaoping Liu,Daqing Chen. Estimating population abundance and utilization of Rhinogobio ventralis, an endemic fish species in the upper Yangtze River [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(3): 304-312.
[5] Xue Zhao,Lina Xu,Guangze Jin. Effect of topography on shrub regeneration in a mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in the Xiaoxing’an Mountains [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(6): 767-774.
[6] Zhijun Lu,Fuling Liu,Hao Wu,Mingxi Jiang. Species composition, size class, and spatial patterns of snags in the Badagongshan (BDGS) mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest in central China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(2): 167-173.
[7] Yucheng Song, Pengfei Li, Daode Yang, Huajun Wen, Yuming Zhang, Zhigang Jiang. Regulation of free-ranging Milu population in Shishou, Hubei, China: a density-dependent decrease in birth rate [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(1): 33-40.
[8] Junyan Zhang,Kewu Cheng,Runguo Zang. The spatial distribution patterns and associations of the principal trees and shrubs in a natural tropical coniferous forest on Hainan Island, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2014, 22(2): 129-140.
[9] Jielin Ge, Gaoming Xiong, Longqiang Deng, Changming Zhao, Guozhen Shen, Zongqiang Xie. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana–Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2012, 20(6): 643-653.
[10] Liwei Wang, Buhang Li, Ji Ye, Xuejiao Bai, Zuoqiang Yuan, Dingliang Xing, Fei Lin, Shuai Shi, Xugao Wang, Zhanqing Hao. Dynamics of short-term tree mortality in broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2011, 19(2): 260-270.
[11] Yinhua Wang, Xiangcheng Mi, Shengwen Chen, Minghong Li, Mingjian Yu. Regeneration dynamics of major tree species during 2002–2007 in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in East China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2011, 19(2): 178-189.
[12] CHEN Ying. DETECTING EFFECT OF PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY ON SEEDLING MORTALITY IN AN EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FOREST IN CHINA [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2009, 33(6): 1084-1089.
[13] Anjiu Zhao, Tingxing Hu, Xiaohong Chen. Multiple-scale spatial analysis of community structure in a mountainous mixed evergreen–deciduous broad-leaved forest, southwest China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2009, 17(1): 43-50.
[14] ZHAO Na, LI Yuan-Heng, WANG Zheng-Wen, LIU Rong-Tang. SEEDLING DYNAMICS IN RESPONSE TO MOWING AND GRAZING IN A TYPICAL STEPPE COMMUNITY IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2008, 32(3): 591-600.
[15] SHI Jian-Wei, WANG Zheng-Quan, YU Shui-Qiang, QUAN Xian-Kui, SUN Yue, JIA Shu-Xia, MEI Li. ESTIMATING FINE ROOT PRODUCTION, MORTALITY AND TURNOVER WITH MINIRHIZOTRONS IN LARIX GMELINIIAND FRAXINUS MANDSHURICA PLANTATIONS [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2007, 31(2): 333-342.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Qin Wei-cheng Li Jian-zhong. The Application Effects of the Cold-resister CR-4 in Our Area's Rice Seedling Culture[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(特辑): 102 -104 .
[2] Ningguang Dong, Ying Gao, Wei Wang, Weilun Yin, Dong Pei. Immunogold Silver Localization of Indole-3-acetic Acid (IAA) During the Rhizogenesis of In Vitro Poplar[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2011, 46(3): 324 -330 .
[3] HONG Wei CAO Jia-Shu. The Function of FLC in Vernalization Process[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2002, 19(04): 406 -411 .
[4] . Development and Utilization of Plant Resources II[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(02): 53 -57 .
[5] FAN Qing-Shu ZHAO Jian-Cheng YU Shu-Hong LI Xiu-Qin. Progress in Study on Spore Germination and Protonema Development of the Bryophytes[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(03): 280 -286 .
[6] LIU Jian-Wu LIU Ning. The Progress in Study on Development of Fern Gametophytes and Differentiation of Sex Organ[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2001, 18(02): 149 -157 .
[7] An Cheng-xi. Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Essential of Aiania-Tanuifolia[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1997, 14(增刊): 74 -76 .
[8] Nie Wei. Observation on some Biological Characteristics of Juncellus serotinus in Transplanted Rice[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1988, 5(01): 34 -36 .
[9] . Mechanism of Plant Photosynthetic Acclimation to Elevated Atmospheric CO2[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2005, 22(04): 486 -493 .
[10] WEI Ze-Xiu, LIANG Yin-Li, YAMADA Satoshi, ZENG Xing-Quan, ZHOU Mao-Juan, HUANG Mao-Lin, WU Yan. RELATION OF SOIL MICROBIAL DIVERSITY TO TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL WATER CONDITIONS AND FERTILIZATIONS[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2009, 33(3): 580 -586 .