Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (9): 995-1002.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0368

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Spatial variations of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng and their impact factors

Jie GUO1,2, Qin ZHANG1, Cheng-Zhong SUN3, Jian WEN4, Cai-Xiang XIE1,*()   

  1. 1Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100193, China

    2School of Chemistry Engineering and Life Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China

    3Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping, Beijing 100830, China

    4College of Ethnic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China
  • Received:2016-12-02 Revised:2017-07-09 Online:2017-10-23 Published:2017-09-10
  • Contact: Cai-Xiang XIE E-mail:caixiangxie@163.com

Abstract:

Aims This study aimed to reveal how ginsenosides content in Panax ginseng varied spatially and the regulating roles of environmental factors.Methods Twenty eight P. ginseng samples were collected from Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces, and nine kinds of ginsenosides content in P. ginseng were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to evaluate their spatial variations. The method of UPLC was employed to determine the content of nine kinds of ginsenosides in P. ginseng. The principal component analysis (PCA), correlation analysis (CA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used to analyze the relationship between ginsenosides content and ecological factors (including climate and soil factors).Important findings The results showed that the content of ginsenosides in P. ginseng from Jilin and Liaoning was similar, and higher than that in Heilongjiang. Precipitation was the most important climate factor affecting the contents of ginsenosides. High temperature and strong sunshine limited the content of ginsenosides. The analysis on ginsenosides and soil factors indicated that soil nitrogen content, Fe, K, organic matter, pH value, Mn, P, Zn all had significant influences on the content of ginsenosides.

Key words: Panax ginseng, ginsenosides content, spatial variation, ecological factor

Table 1

Origins of Panax ginseng samples"

样品编号
Sample code
来源 Origin 样品编号
Sample code
来源 Origin
H-NA 黑龙江卧龙乡 Wolong, Heilongjiang J-YH1 吉林珲春市1 Huichun 1, Jilin
H-HZ 黑龙江庄河村 Zhuanghe, Heilongjiang J-YH2 吉林珲春市2 Huichun 2, Jilin
H-H 黑龙江省海伦市 Hailun, Heilongjiang J-YH3 吉林珲春市3 Huichun 3, Jilin
H-HB1 黑龙江北安县1 Bei’an 1, Heilongjiang J-BC1 吉林白山市1 Baishan 1, Jilin
H-HB2 黑龙江北安县2 Bei’an 2, Heilongjiang J-BC2 吉林白山市2 Baishan 2, Jilin
H-HX1 黑龙江逊克县1 Xunke 1, Heilongjiang J-BX 吉林省新房子镇 Xinfangzi, Jilin
H-HX2 黑龙江逊克县2 Xunke 2, Heilongjiang J-JS 吉林松江镇 Songjiang, Jilin
H-HX3 黑龙江逊克县3 Xunke 3, Heilongjiang J-SL 吉林松原市 Songyuan, Jilin
J-BFW 吉林抚松县万良村 Wanliang, Fusong, Jilin J-BJ 吉林靖宇县 Jingyu, Jilin
J-BFX 吉林抚松县新屯子镇 Xintunzi, Fusong, Jilin L-BH 辽宁桓仁县 Huanren, Liaoning
J-BFF 吉林抚松县枫林村 Fenglin, Fusong, Jilin L-BHJ 辽宁桓仁县巨户村 Juhu, Huanren, Liaoning
J-BFD 吉林抚松县东岗镇 Donggang, Fusong, Jilin L-DKX 辽宁宽甸县下露河乡 Xialuhe, Kuandian, Liaoning
J-TJ 吉林集安市 Ji’an, Jilin L-DK 辽宁宽甸县 Kuandian, Liaoning
J-TJQ 吉林集安市清河镇 Qinghe, Ji’an, Jilin L-FQ 辽宁抚顺市 Fushun, Liaoning

Table 2

Soil samples from collection sites of Panax ginseng"

样品编号
Sample code
来源 Origin 样品编号
Sample code
来源 Origin
H-NA 黑龙江卧龙乡Wolong, Heilongjiang J-JS 吉林松江镇 Songjiang, Jilin
H-HZ 黑龙江庄河村 Zhuanghe, Heilongjiang J-BC1 吉林白山市1 Baishan 1, Jilin
H-H 黑龙江省海伦市 Hailun, Heilongjiang J-BC2 吉林白山市2 Baishan 2, Jilin
H-HB1 黑龙江北安县1 Bei’an 1, Heilongjiang J-YH3 吉林珲春市3 Huichun 3, Jilin
H-HB2 黑龙江北安县2 Bei’an 2, Heilongjiang J-BX 吉林省新房子镇 Xinfangzi, Jilin
J-BFX 吉林抚松县新屯子镇 Xintunzi, Fusong, Jilin J-BJ 吉林靖宇县 Jingyu, Jilin
J-BFD 吉林抚松县东岗镇 Donggang, Fusong, Jilin L-DKX 辽宁宽甸县下露河乡 Xialuhe Kuandian Liaoning
J-TJ 吉林集安市 Ji’an, Jilin L-DK 辽宁宽甸县 Kuandian Liaoning

Table 3

One-way ANOVA of ginsenosides content in Panax ginseng"

皂苷
Ginsenoside
人参产地
P. ginseng origin
显著性水平
Significance level
皂苷
Ginsenoside
人参产地
P. ginseng origin
显著性水平
Significance level
皂苷
Ginsenoside
人参产地
P. ginseng origin
显著性水平
Significance level
Rg1 H J 0.034 Rf H J 0.002 Rb2 H J 0.490
L 0.279 L 0.072 L 0.621
J L 0.506 J L 0.403 J L 0.967
Re H J 0.300 Rg2 H J 0.248 Rb3 H J 0.439
L 0.737 L 0.194 L 0.770
J L 0.606 J L 0.641 J L 0.736
Rb1 H J 0.086 Rc H J 0.267 Rd H J 0.053
L 0.053 L 0.272 L 0.134
J L 0.475 J L 0.783 J L 0.988

Fig. 1

Principal component analysis loading plot of ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rf, Rg2, Rb2, Rb3, Rc and Rd) in Panax ginseng."

Fig. 2

Principal component analysis scatter plot of climate factors in Panax ginseng regions."

Table 4

Correlation analysis of climate factors and ginsenosides content in Panax ginseng"

气候因子 Climate factor 人参皂苷 Ginsenoside
Rg1 Re Rb1 Rf Rc Rb2
年平均湿度 Annual average humidity 0.156 0.249 0.104 0.224 0.118 0.044
年活动积温 Annual active accumulated temperature -0.337 -0.212 -0.171 -0.210 -0.037 -0.122
年日照时间 Annual sunshine -0.190 -0.102 -0.149 -0.322 -0.026 0.063
年降水量 Annual precipitation 0.296 0.181 0.306 0.502 0.108 0.010
年平均气温 Average Annual temperature 0.043 0.027 0.142 0.210 0.030 0.121
7月平均气温 Average temperature in July -0.358 -0.167 -0.217 -0.303 -0.095 -0.167
1月平均气温 Average temperature in January 0.260 0.008 0.211 0.297 -0.010 -0.127
6月降水量 Precipitation in June 0.189 0.251 0.246 0.504 0.218 0.081
7月降水量 Precipitation in July -0.059 0.045 0.103 0.205 0.065 -0.042
8月降水量 Precipitation in August -0.029 -0.011 0.101 0.177 0.009 -0.125

Fig. 3

Redundancy analysis of average monthly precipitation (A), average monthly temperature (B) and ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Re, Rf, Rg1) content in Panax ginseng. AP1-AP12, average monthly precipitation of Jan. to Nov.; TM1-TM12, average monthly temperature of Jan. to Nov."

Fig. 4

Redundancy analysis of soil factors and ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Re, Rf, Rg1) content in Panax ginseng. OM, organic matter; TN, total nitrogen."

[1] Chen SL, Suo FM, Han JP, Xie CX, Yao H, Li XW, Li Y, Wei JH (2007). Analysis on ecological suitability and regionalization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, 38, 481-487. (in Chinese with English abstract)[陈士林, 索风梅, 韩建平, 谢彩香, 姚辉, 李西文, 李滢, 魏建和 (2007). 中国药材生态适宜性分析及生产区划. 中草药, 38, 481-487.]
[2] Cheng HT, Zhang YY, Zhang LX, Xu YH (2011). The progress of research on the relation of soil environment andPanax ginseng. Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, 34, 313-318. (in Chinese)[程海涛, 张亚玉, 张连学, 许永华 (2011). 土壤环境与人参生长关系的研究进展. 中药材, 34, 313-318.]
[3] Dong JZ, Wang SH, Zhu LY, Wang Y (2012). Analysis on the main active components ofLycium barbarum fruits and related environmental factors. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6, 2276-2283.
[4] Duan JA, Zhou RH, Su SL, Ding AW, Wu QN (2009). Present situation and prospects of development of resources science of Chinese medicinal materials in China.Journal of Natural Resources, 24, 378-387. (in Chinese with English abstract)[段金廒, 周荣汉, 宿树兰, 丁安伟, 吴启楠 (2009). 我国中药资源科学发展现状及展望. 自然资源学报, 24, 378-387.]
[5] Huang LF, Xie CX, Duan BZ, Chen SL (2010). Mapping the potential distribution of high artemisinin-yieldingArtemisia annua L.(Qinghao) in China with a geographic information system. Chinese Medicine, 5, 18. doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-5-18.
[6] Jia GL, Huang LF, Suo FM, Song JY, Xie CX, Sun J (2012). Correlation between ginsenoside contents inPanax ginseng roots and ecological factors, and ecological division of ginseng plantation in China. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 36, 302-312. (in Chinese with English abstract)[贾光林, 黄林芳, 索凤梅, 宋经元, 谢彩香, 孙娟 (2012). 人参药材中人参皂苷与生态因子的相关性及人参生态区划. 植物生态学报, 36, 302-312.]
[7] Li H, Xu L, Wen MJ, Zeng FL, Xie CX, Kang TG (2015). Study on the content measurement and quality evaluation of ginsenoside constituent from different habitats with UPLC analysis method.China Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, 30, 1963-1968. (in Chinese with English abstract)[李慧, 许亮, 温美佳, 曾凡琳, 谢彩香, 康廷国 (2015). 不同产地人参皂苷成分含量UPLC法测定及质量评价. 中国中医药杂志, 30, 1963-1968.]
[8] Lin MY, Liu HY, Liu JP, Lu D, Li PY (2011). Progress of chemical research of ginsenosides.Ginseng Research, 23(4), 43-46. (in Chinese with English abstract)[林美妤, 刘海宇, 刘金平, 卢丹, 李平亚 (2011). 人参皂苷的化学研究进展. 人参研究, 23(4), 43-46.]
[9] Meng XC, Yu DM, Sun H, Yang GH, Wang XJ (2010). Study on relationship between active ingredients in stem ofAcanthopanax senticosus and ecological factors by partial least-squares regression. Research and Practice on Chinese Medicines, 24, 17-21. (in Chinese with English abstract)[孟祥才, 于冬梅, 孙晖, 杨国辉, 王喜军 (2010). 偏最小二乘回归分析刺五加茎活性成分与生态因子相关性. 现代中药研究与实践, 24, 17-21.]
[10] Shen L, Xu J, Dong LL, Li XW, Chen SL (2015). Cropping system and research strategies inPanax ginseng. China Journal of Chinese Meteria Medica, 40, 3367-3374. (in Chinese with English abstract)[沈亮, 徐江, 董林林, 李西文, 陈士林 (2015). 人参栽培种植体系及其研究策略. 中国中药杂志, 40, 3367-3374.]
[11] Tang SH, Yang HJ, Huang LQ (2010). Discuss on effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese meteria medica.China Journal of Chinese Meteria Medica, 35, 126-128. (in Chinese with English abstract)[唐仕欢, 杨洪军, 黄璐琪 (2010). 论自然环境因子变化对中药药性形成的影响. 中国中药杂志, 35, 126-128.]
[12] Tao SH, Wu FY (2003). Effect of ecological environment on active constituents of medicinal plants.Natural Product Research and Development, 15, 174-178. (in Chinese with English abstract)[陶曙红, 吴凤锷 (2003). 生态环境对药用植物有效成分的影响. 天然产物研究与开发, 15, 174-178.]
[13] Xie CX, Suo FM, Jia GL, Song JY, Huang LF, Chen SL (2011). Correlation between ecological factors and ginsenosides.Acta Ecologica Sinica, 31, 7551-7546. (in Chinese with English abstract)[谢彩香, 索凤梅, 贾光林, 宋经元, 黄林芳, 陈士林 (2011). 人参皂苷与生态因子的相关性. 生态学报, 31, 7551-7564.]
[14] Xie CX, Suo FM, Zhou YQ, Wang LZ, Xiang L, Dong L, Jia GL, Sun CZ, Chen SL (2011). Qualitative study on ecological suitability of Chinese herbal medicine based on GIS.China Journal of Chinese Meteria Medica, 36, 379-382. (in Chinese with English abstract)[谢彩香, 索凤梅, 周应群, 王丽芝, 向丽, 董梁, 贾光林, 孙成忠, 陈士林 (2011). 基于地理信息系统的中药材生态适宜性定量化研究. 中国中药杂志, 36, 379-382.]
[15] Xu J, Jia L, Zhao YQ (2011). Constituents of ginseng and quality evaluation of ginseng products.Drug Evaluation Research, 34, 199-202. (in Chinese with English abstract)[徐静, 贾力, 赵余庆 (2011). 人参的化学成分与人参产品的质量评价. 药物评价研究, 34, 199-202.]
[16] Xu XY, Zheng YM, Fu SQ, Zhao Y, Li J, Wang LL (2011). Determination of twelve ginsenosides inPanax ginseng by HPLC. China Journal of Chinese Meteria Medica, 36, 1463-1465. (in Chinese with English abstract)[胥秀英, 郑一敏, 傅善权, 赵颖, 李杰, 王琳琳 (2011). HPLC同时测定人参药材中12种人参皂苷的含量. 中国中药杂志, 36, 1463-1465.]
[17] Yan D, Wang JB, Li JX, Ma LN, Xiao XH (2012). Strategy for research on quality identification and ecological environment-related of Dao-di herb.China Journal of Chinese Meteria Medica, 37, 2672-2676. (in Chinese with English abstract)[鄢丹, 王伽伯, 李俊贤, 马丽娜, 肖小河 (2012). 论道地药材品质辨识及其与生态环境的相关性研究策略. 中国中药杂志, 37, 2672-2676.]
[18] Yang ST, Li JH, Zhao YP, Chen BL, Fu CX (2011). Harpagoside variation is positively correlated with temperature inScrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 1612-1621.
[19] Zeng Y, Guo LP, Yang G, Chen BD, Wang JY, Huang LQ (2012). Effect of environmental ecological factors on saponins of medicinal plant.Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae, 18, 313-318. (in Chinese with English abstract)[曾燕, 郭兰萍, 杨光, 陈保东, 王继勇, 黄璐琦 (2012). 环境生态因子对药用植物皂苷成分的影响. 中药材, 18, 313-318.]
[20] Zhang CY, Dong L, Chen SL, Xie CX, Chang DL (2010). UPLC fingerprint for quality assessment of ginsenosides ofGinseng radix et Rhizoma. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, 45, 1296-1300. (in Chinese with English abstract)[张翠英, 董梁, 陈士林, 谢彩香, 常断玲 (2010). 人参药材皂苷类成分UPLC特征图谱的质量评价方法. 药学学报, 45, 1296-1300.]
[21] Zhang JZ, Zhang WJ, Mu Q, Luo JP (2011). Research advance on pharmacological activity and content accumulation of chemical component fromGinseng. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 39, 12158-12160. (in Chinese with English abstract)[张翼轸, 张文驹, 穆青, 罗建平 (2011). 人参化学成分的药理活性及其含量积累的研究进展. 安徽农业科学, 39, 12158-12160.]
[22] Zhao Y, Wang XQ, Zheng YN, Ren YY, Liu GY (2001). Effect of inorganic fertilizers on yields properties of ginseng.Journal of Jilin Agricultural University, 23(4), 56-59. (in Chinese with English abstract)[赵英, 王秀全, 郑毅男, 任跃英, 刘桂艳 (2001). 施用化肥对人参产量性状的影响. 吉林农业大学学报, 23(4), 56-59.]
[23] Zhu JJ, Wang ZM, Kuang YH, Zhang QW, Gao QP, Ma N (2008). A quantitative method using one marker for simultaneous assay of ginsenosides inPanax ginseng and P. notoginseng. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, 43, 1211-1216. (in Chinese with English abstract)[朱晶晶, 王智民, 匡艳辉, 张启伟, 高其品, 马妮 (2008). 一测多评法同步测定人参和三七药材中多种人参皂苷的含量. 药学学报, 43, 1211-1216.]
No related articles found!
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Yu Feng-lan;Wang Jing-ping;Li Jing-min and Shan Xue-qin. The Isolation and Identification of Sterols and Other Constituents from Seed Fat of Sapium sebiferum[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1989, 6(02): 121 -123 .
[2] LI Al-Fen;CHEN Min amd ZHOU Bai-Cheng. Advances and Problems in Studies of Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes of Brown Algae[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(04): 365 -371 .
[3] CHEN Xiao-Mei and GUO Shun-Xing. Research Advances in Plant Disease Resistive Material[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(06): 658 -664 .
[4] LI Ji-Quan JIN You-Ju SHEN Ying-Bai HONG Rong. The Effect of Environmental Factors on Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds from Plants[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2001, 18(06): 649 -656 .
[5] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2005, 22(增刊): 157 .
[6] Jianxia Li, Chulan Zhang, Xiaofei Xia, Liangcheng Zhao. Cryo-sectioning Conditions and Histochemistry Comparison with Paraffin Sectioning[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2013, 48(6): 643 -650 .
[7] JIANG Yang-Ming, CUI Wei-Hong, and DONG Qian-Lin. Comprehensive evaluation and analysis of tobacco planting environment based on space technology[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2012, 36(1): 47 -54 .
[8] Hu Cheng-biao, Zhu Hong-guang, Wei Yuan-lian. A Study on Microorganism and Biochemical Activity of Chinese-fir Plantation on Different Ecological Area in Guangxi[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1991, 15(4): 303 -311 .
[9] Hong-Xin SU Fan BAI Guang-Qi LI. Seasonal dynamics in leaf area index in three typical temperate montane forests of China: a comparison of multi-observation methods[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2012, 36(3): 231 -242 .
[10] AN Ran, GONG Ji-Rui, YOU Xin, GE Zhi-Wei, DUAN Qing-Wei, YAN Xin. Seasonal dynamics of soil microorganisms and soil nutrients in fast-growing Populus plantation forests of different ages in Yili, Xinjiang, China[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2011, 35(4): 389 -401 .