Chin J Plan Ecolo ›› 2017, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (9): 995-1002.doi: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0368

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Spatial variations of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng and their impact factors

Jie GUO1,2, Qin ZHANG1, Cheng-Zhong SUN3, Jian WEN4, Cai-Xiang XIE1,*()   

  1. 1Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100193, China

    2School of Chemistry Engineering and Life Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China

    3Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping, Beijing 100830, China

    4College of Ethnic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China
  • Received:2016-12-02 Revised:2017-07-09 Online:2017-10-23 Published:2017-09-10
  • Contact: Cai-Xiang XIE


Aims This study aimed to reveal how ginsenosides content in Panax ginseng varied spatially and the regulating roles of environmental factors.Methods Twenty eight P. ginseng samples were collected from Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces, and nine kinds of ginsenosides content in P. ginseng were measured. The one-way ANOVA was used to evaluate their spatial variations. The method of UPLC was employed to determine the content of nine kinds of ginsenosides in P. ginseng. The principal component analysis (PCA), correlation analysis (CA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used to analyze the relationship between ginsenosides content and ecological factors (including climate and soil factors).Important findings The results showed that the content of ginsenosides in P. ginseng from Jilin and Liaoning was similar, and higher than that in Heilongjiang. Precipitation was the most important climate factor affecting the contents of ginsenosides. High temperature and strong sunshine limited the content of ginsenosides. The analysis on ginsenosides and soil factors indicated that soil nitrogen content, Fe, K, organic matter, pH value, Mn, P, Zn all had significant influences on the content of ginsenosides.

Key words: Panax ginseng, ginsenosides content, spatial variation, ecological factor

Table 1

Origins of Panax ginseng samples"

Sample code
来源 Origin 样品编号
Sample code
来源 Origin
H-NA 黑龙江卧龙乡 Wolong, Heilongjiang J-YH1 吉林珲春市1 Huichun 1, Jilin
H-HZ 黑龙江庄河村 Zhuanghe, Heilongjiang J-YH2 吉林珲春市2 Huichun 2, Jilin
H-H 黑龙江省海伦市 Hailun, Heilongjiang J-YH3 吉林珲春市3 Huichun 3, Jilin
H-HB1 黑龙江北安县1 Bei’an 1, Heilongjiang J-BC1 吉林白山市1 Baishan 1, Jilin
H-HB2 黑龙江北安县2 Bei’an 2, Heilongjiang J-BC2 吉林白山市2 Baishan 2, Jilin
H-HX1 黑龙江逊克县1 Xunke 1, Heilongjiang J-BX 吉林省新房子镇 Xinfangzi, Jilin
H-HX2 黑龙江逊克县2 Xunke 2, Heilongjiang J-JS 吉林松江镇 Songjiang, Jilin
H-HX3 黑龙江逊克县3 Xunke 3, Heilongjiang J-SL 吉林松原市 Songyuan, Jilin
J-BFW 吉林抚松县万良村 Wanliang, Fusong, Jilin J-BJ 吉林靖宇县 Jingyu, Jilin
J-BFX 吉林抚松县新屯子镇 Xintunzi, Fusong, Jilin L-BH 辽宁桓仁县 Huanren, Liaoning
J-BFF 吉林抚松县枫林村 Fenglin, Fusong, Jilin L-BHJ 辽宁桓仁县巨户村 Juhu, Huanren, Liaoning
J-BFD 吉林抚松县东岗镇 Donggang, Fusong, Jilin L-DKX 辽宁宽甸县下露河乡 Xialuhe, Kuandian, Liaoning
J-TJ 吉林集安市 Ji’an, Jilin L-DK 辽宁宽甸县 Kuandian, Liaoning
J-TJQ 吉林集安市清河镇 Qinghe, Ji’an, Jilin L-FQ 辽宁抚顺市 Fushun, Liaoning

Table 2

Soil samples from collection sites of Panax ginseng"

Sample code
来源 Origin 样品编号
Sample code
来源 Origin
H-NA 黑龙江卧龙乡Wolong, Heilongjiang J-JS 吉林松江镇 Songjiang, Jilin
H-HZ 黑龙江庄河村 Zhuanghe, Heilongjiang J-BC1 吉林白山市1 Baishan 1, Jilin
H-H 黑龙江省海伦市 Hailun, Heilongjiang J-BC2 吉林白山市2 Baishan 2, Jilin
H-HB1 黑龙江北安县1 Bei’an 1, Heilongjiang J-YH3 吉林珲春市3 Huichun 3, Jilin
H-HB2 黑龙江北安县2 Bei’an 2, Heilongjiang J-BX 吉林省新房子镇 Xinfangzi, Jilin
J-BFX 吉林抚松县新屯子镇 Xintunzi, Fusong, Jilin J-BJ 吉林靖宇县 Jingyu, Jilin
J-BFD 吉林抚松县东岗镇 Donggang, Fusong, Jilin L-DKX 辽宁宽甸县下露河乡 Xialuhe Kuandian Liaoning
J-TJ 吉林集安市 Ji’an, Jilin L-DK 辽宁宽甸县 Kuandian Liaoning

Table 3

One-way ANOVA of ginsenosides content in Panax ginseng"

P. ginseng origin
Significance level
P. ginseng origin
Significance level
P. ginseng origin
Significance level
Rg1 H J 0.034 Rf H J 0.002 Rb2 H J 0.490
L 0.279 L 0.072 L 0.621
J L 0.506 J L 0.403 J L 0.967
Re H J 0.300 Rg2 H J 0.248 Rb3 H J 0.439
L 0.737 L 0.194 L 0.770
J L 0.606 J L 0.641 J L 0.736
Rb1 H J 0.086 Rc H J 0.267 Rd H J 0.053
L 0.053 L 0.272 L 0.134
J L 0.475 J L 0.783 J L 0.988

Fig. 1

Principal component analysis loading plot of ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rf, Rg2, Rb2, Rb3, Rc and Rd) in Panax ginseng."

Fig. 2

Principal component analysis scatter plot of climate factors in Panax ginseng regions."

Table 4

Correlation analysis of climate factors and ginsenosides content in Panax ginseng"

气候因子 Climate factor 人参皂苷 Ginsenoside
Rg1 Re Rb1 Rf Rc Rb2
年平均湿度 Annual average humidity 0.156 0.249 0.104 0.224 0.118 0.044
年活动积温 Annual active accumulated temperature -0.337 -0.212 -0.171 -0.210 -0.037 -0.122
年日照时间 Annual sunshine -0.190 -0.102 -0.149 -0.322 -0.026 0.063
年降水量 Annual precipitation 0.296 0.181 0.306 0.502 0.108 0.010
年平均气温 Average Annual temperature 0.043 0.027 0.142 0.210 0.030 0.121
7月平均气温 Average temperature in July -0.358 -0.167 -0.217 -0.303 -0.095 -0.167
1月平均气温 Average temperature in January 0.260 0.008 0.211 0.297 -0.010 -0.127
6月降水量 Precipitation in June 0.189 0.251 0.246 0.504 0.218 0.081
7月降水量 Precipitation in July -0.059 0.045 0.103 0.205 0.065 -0.042
8月降水量 Precipitation in August -0.029 -0.011 0.101 0.177 0.009 -0.125

Fig. 3

Redundancy analysis of average monthly precipitation (A), average monthly temperature (B) and ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Re, Rf, Rg1) content in Panax ginseng. AP1-AP12, average monthly precipitation of Jan. to Nov.; TM1-TM12, average monthly temperature of Jan. to Nov."

Fig. 4

Redundancy analysis of soil factors and ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Re, Rf, Rg1) content in Panax ginseng. OM, organic matter; TN, total nitrogen."

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