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Table of Content
    Volume 24 Issue 3
    10 March 2000
      
    Research Articles
    Plant Diversity in the Process of Succession of Artificial Vegetation types and Environment in an Arid Desert Region of China
    LI Xin-Rong, ZHANG Jing-Guang, LIU Li-Chao, CHEN Huai-Shun, SHI Qing-Hui
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  257-261. 
    Abstract ( 2084 )   PDF (431KB) ( 1413 )   Save
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    The artificial vegetation protection system of the Shapotou section of the Baotou-Lanzhou railway is a successful model for desert control in arid desert region in China. This paper addresses biodiversity in the process of the establishment and succession of artificial vegetation in this system. The species composition of artificial vegetation was observed to reach homeostasis after 40 years of succession ,and plant diversity increased with community succession. The diversity index of the artificial vegetation reached D = 0.706~0.822 or H′= 1.393~1.893 after 40 years of establishment, while the diversity index was only D=0.501~0.702 or H′=0.819~1.074 at 10 years from establishment, β-diversity patterns indicate that artificial vegetation of Shapotou region has come through two periods of relatively high species turnover rates ,which were closely correlated with natural patterns of vegetation succession. These processes play an important role in the recovery of ecological condition in this arid desert region as well as in the establishment of artificial oasis vegetation. Data on the influence of improved soil condition on plant diversity is also presented.
    Interdune Succession in the Kerqin Sandy Region
    CAO Cheng-You, KOU Zhen-Wu, JIANG De-Ming, LUO Yong-Ming, DING Xiao-Ping
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  262-267. 
    Abstract ( 1951 )   PDF (494KB) ( 1032 )   Save
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    From a study on the occurrence and successional characteristics of vegetation on bare land in interdunal areas in the Kerqin sandy region we note that: 1) The succession rate of interdune vegetation is very fast. 2) The annual herb, perennial herb and shrub stages are completed in 30 years. 3) Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness increased with time through succession, though the community dominance index decreased. The influence of pasturing on the vegetation was also analyzed and is discussed.
    Analysis of the Plant Individual Behaviour During the Degradation and Restoring Succession in Steppe Community
    WANG Wei, LIANG Cun-Zhu, LIU Zhong-Ling, HAO Dun-Yuan
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  268-274. 
    Abstract ( 1941 )   PDF (681KB) ( 1173 )   Save
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    Plant individual miniaturization resulting from over-grazing can be characterized by a suite of morphlogical traits: stunted height, shortened and narrowed leaf blades, shortened internodes, hardness in stems and leaves and roots shallower in the soil profile. In terms of ecological attributes, plant miniaturization belongs to a specific type that lays between an ecotype and a form of environmental modification, and is defined here as a type of disturbance response. Individual miniaturization is the basic cause of decreasing community productivity resulting from over-grazing. It is a negative feed back mechanism and an important link in degradation succession mechanisms in grassland communities.
    Characteristics of Soil Moisture Content on Sand Dunes in Mu Us Sandy Grassland: Why Declines on Old Fixed Sand Dunes
    GUO Ke, DONG Xue-Jun, LIU Zhi-Mao
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  275-279. 
    Abstract ( 1851 )   PDF (438KB) ( 1300 )   Save
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    Response of Leaf Water Potential, Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance to VaryingSoil Moisture in Four Crops : Winter Wheat, Corn, Sorghum and Millet
    ZHANG Xi-Ying, PEI Dong, YOU Mao-Zheng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  280-283. 
    Abstract ( 2240 )   PDF (386KB) ( 1106 )   Save
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    Results from measurements conducted between 1995 and 1998 at Luancheng Research Station showed that leaf water potential, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of winter wheat, sorghum, millet were maintained in a relatively steady state with soil moisture above a threshold value. Below this critical level, the physiological factors decreased with decreasing of soil water content. Level of this threshold differed in three of the crop varieties studied: in sorghum the critical value was about 42%~45% soil water capacity, millet was at 50 % and in winter wheat the threshold occurred at 60%. Summer corn was slightly different from the other three crops. While stomatal conductance and leaf water potential in this crop varied little across the range of 0.2 to 0.3 volumetric soil water content, photosynthesis increased with increasing soil water content in the same range. The results indicate that corn requires a relatively high water supply for growth and development, while sorghum had the highest drought-resistant ability because of its adaptability to a wider range of soil water contents.
    Seasonal Changes in Pepc Oligomeric Forms of Nitraria sphaerocarpa Maxim
    LI Wei-Hua, ZHANG Cheng-Lie
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  283-288. 
    Abstract ( 1747 )   PDF (449KB) ( 806 )   Save
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    The Effects of Soil Moisture and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Addition on Carbon Isotope Discriminati on and Water Use Efficiency in Wheat
    LIANG Yin-Li, KANG Shao-Zhong, SHAN Lun
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  289-292. 
    Abstract ( 1964 )   PDF (321KB) ( 1193 )   Save
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    Data obtained from pot experiments was analyzed using a theoretical model of carbon isotope discrimination (△) for the effects of soil moisture and nitrogen phosphorus nutrient on carbon isotope discrimination. The results showed that △ increased with increasing soil relative water content (SRWC),with the highest △ values found between 60% and 70% SRWC. △ also increased with increasing phosphorus levels under conditions of water deficit. Correlation between water use efficiency (WUE) and △ could be dependent on the status of soil moisture and nutrient availability. Stable △ was negatively associated with WUE under water stress, and positively associated with WUE under optimum soil moisture. However, there was no correlation between △ and WUE under nitrogen deficit and correlations were significant when nitrogen was applied at 150 kg·hm-2.

    Effect of Flooding on Morphology, Structure and ATPase Activity in Adventitious Root Apical Cells of Maize Seedlings
    WEI He-Ping, LI Rong-Qian
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  293-297. 
    Abstract ( 1682 )   PDF (962KB) ( 1255 )   Save
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    A Comparative Study on Root Redundancy in Spring Wheat Varieties Releasd in Different Years in Semi-arid Areas
    ZHANG Rong, ZHANG Da-Yong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  298-303. 
    Abstract ( 1633 )   PDF (489KB) ( 1149 )   Save
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    The relationships among grain yield, root size and root: shoot ratio were studied for spring wheat in semi-arid area. Our results demonstrate that the old landrace has higher root biomass and root: shoot ratios than modern varieties at the flowering stage. In the severe drought year of 1995, there was no significant difference in grain yield between the landrace and modern varieties(p>0.05). In 1996, with more normal rainfall, the landrace was the lowest productive variety, irrespective of whether it was irrigated or not. Negative correlations between root weight and yield, and between root weight and above-ground biomass were observed. Root redundancy is suggested since the landrace produced lower yield under conditions of favorable rainfall. Reduction of root system to a reasonable size may be an effective way to improve the yield of spring wheat in semi-arid areas.
    Ultrastructure of Polygonum viviparum L. Grown at Different Elevations on Qinghai Plateau
    WEI Jie, YU Hui, KUANG Ting-Yun, BEN Gui-Ying
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  304-307. 
    Abstract ( 1875 )   PDF (816KB) ( 1212 )   Save
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    Variation in the ultrastructure of leaves of Polygonum viviparum L. grown at three different elevations (2500 m, 3200 m and 3980 m) was observed with the aid of an electron microscope. These observations revealed strong differences in chloroplasts ultrastructure between plants growing at different altitudes. A tendency was observed for chloroplasts to increasingly concentrate at the center of cells as elevation increases, presumably a form of protection from intensifying irradiation. The number of thylakoids per chloroplast and the degree of thylakoid stacking were both also observed to decrease with increasing elevation. This probably represents a strategy to reduce excess light absorption. Thylakoid swellings, a result of environmental stress, were observed in the chloroplasts of leaves from all three elevation levels. A positive association was Observed between increasing elevation and observed levels of chloroplast deterioration. Appressed membranes in grana were observed in the residual thylakoid pieces in these damaged chloroplasts. It is suggested that chloroplasts with greater membrane stacking were more susceptible to damage from high irradiation.
    Effects of CO2 Doubling on Some Photosynthetic Functions of Spring Wheat Under Salt Stress
    ZHANG Qi-De, WEN Xiao-Gang, LU Cong-Ming, FENG Li-Jie, KUANG Ting-Yun, ZHANG Jian-Hua
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  308-311. 
    Abstract ( 2048 )   PDF (357KB) ( 938 )   Save
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    Effects of doubled CO2 on the content of photosynthetic pigments and some photosynthetic functions of spring wheat under salt stress were studied. Chlorophyll and carotenoid content per unit fresh weight of leaves and the capacity of light energy absorption of chloroplasts containing equal chlorophyll were reduced by salt stress, as were the fluorescence quenching rate (△Fv/T) and the capacity of excitation energy distribution between PS Ⅱ and PS Ⅰ regulated Mg2+. However, these parameters all increased in the presence of doubled CO2. The results indicated that the unfavourable effects of salt stress on photosynthetic functions could be alleviated by high CO2 concentration.

    Simulating the Effect of Climate Change on Xiaoxing’an Mountain Forests
    YAN Xiao-Dong, FU Cong-Bin, H. H. Shugart
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  312-319. 
    Abstract ( 1551 )   PDF (561KB) ( 895 )   Save
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    Landscape Pattern and Fragmentation in Donglingshan Montane Region
    MA Ke-Ming, FU Bo-Jie
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  320-326. 
    Abstract ( 2018 )   PDF (638KB) ( 1541 )   Save
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    As a result of the disturbance associated with human activities, the zonal vegetation in Donglingshan montane region, Beijing ,— warm temperate zone deciduous broad-leaf forest—has been completely destroyed. Present vegetation consists of secondary vegetation and plantations. By examining vegetation maps, on a GIS platform, and utilizing a number of landscape pattern indices, the landscape pattern of the Donglingshan montane region was analyzed and the degree of fragmentation evaluated. Fragmentation was assessed through measures of patch area, perimeter, number of patches, fractal dimension and landscape diversity. Results showed that, forest and shrub types are the main components of the present vegetation in the montane region. The area of different landscape elements was very uneven, with most landscape types are dispersed among many small areas. The area, perimeter and number of patches of forest areas are smaller than those of shrublands, grasslands and farmlands, however the perimeter and patch densities are higher, indicating a higher degree of fragmentation of forest areas. A power law relationship was found among the mean patch areas and perimeters of all the landscape elements, with a fractal dimension of 1.30, indicating a low degree of patch perimeter complexity in the landscape. The Shannon index of landscape diversity were ranked as follows: element type area (2.262) element type perimeter (2.435) < element type patch number (2.675), while all were smaller than that of equal probability (2.940). All of these results emphasize the highly fragmented condition of the forest landscape in this montane region.
    Simulation of the Potential Responses of Mixed Coniferous and Broad -Leaved Korean Pine Communities by Bkpf Model
    CHEN Xiong-Wei, WANG Feng-You
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  327-331. 
    Abstract ( 2138 )   PDF (401KB) ( 969 )   Save
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    An Analysis of Interspecific Associations in Secondary Succession Forest Communities in Heishiding Natural Reserve, Guangdong Province
    ZHOU Xian-Ye, WANG Bo-Sun, LI Ming-Guang, ZAN Qi-Jie
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  332-339. 
    Abstract ( 2174 )   PDF (666KB) ( 1567 )   Save
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    A series of techniques including the analysis of variance, X2 and Ochiai were used together with a 2 × 2 contingency table in order to analyze the interspecific associations of dominant species in several different communities in a secondary succession series in Heishiding Natural Reserve, Guangdong Province. The results indicated that the association of species showed no correlation in early successional stages, a positive correlation in mixed forest stages, negative correlation in evergreen broad-leaved forest stages dominated by heliophytes and a significant positive correlation in evergreen broad-leaved forest stages dominated by mesophytes. The interspecific associations between the main species pairs were not formed by the early successional stage but came into being in the mixed forest stage and evergreen broad-leaved forest stage dominated by heliophytes. Most associations indicated competition between species pairs and showed direct competition. Complicated interspecific associations were formed in evergreen broad-leaved forests dominated by mesophytes. In this forest there were positive interspecific associations between species pairs in the same tree layer and negative interspecific associations between species pairs in across layers.
    Study on the Root Interactions Between Fraxinus mandshurica and Larix gmelini
    WANG Zheng-Quan, ZHANG Yan-Dong, WANG Qing-Cheng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  346-350. 
    Abstract ( 1967 )   PDF (348KB) ( 1188 )   Save
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    Root-root interactions were studied in green-house potted Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica) and Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) seedlings. Above and below ground growth of ash mixed was influenced significantly by the interaction with larch in mixture. The root system of ash was more sensitive to soil conditions than that of the larch, and its competitive effectiveness was enhanced by impoved nutrition. Relative to their mass in unmixed pots the fine and coarse root mass was increased by 47% and 46% respectively, and leaf and stem mass was increased about 30% and 48% respectively in mixed pots. Root-root interactions affected the root/shoot ratio, especially the fine root mass/leaf mass ratio, in ash. In contrast, biomass components and root/shoot ratio of larch showed no significant response in mixture. Through morphological adaptations ash altered its root distribution and morphology in mixture: fine root density and specific root length increased by 47 and 34% over pure planted pots. With relatively larger root mass and thinner root diameter, ash is a superior competitor for soil nutrients and moisture. Larch, on the other hand, is capable of improving soil conditions through its growth.
    Numerical Analysis of Interspecific Relationships in an Elaeagnus mollis Community in Shanxi
    ZHANG Feng, SHANGGUAN Tie-Liang
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  351-355. 
    Abstract ( 1681 )   PDF (410KB) ( 1283 )   Save
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    Microclimatic Characteristics of Canopy Gaps in Shorea chinensis Forest in Xishuangbanna
    LIU Wen-Jie, LI Qing-Jun, ZHANG Guang-Ming, SHI Ji-Pu, BAI Kun-Jia
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  356-361. 
    Abstract ( 2043 )   PDF (496KB) ( 880 )   Save
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    Seasonal and horizontal variation in microclimatic elements in closed forest and canopy gaps of two different sizes (200m2 and 140m2) were studied within a Shorea chinensis dominated tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna. The following variables were measured: gross radiation, net radiation, light intensity, components of thermal balance, air relative humidity, vertical air temperature gradient, maximum and minimum air temperature, ground surface and leaf surface temperature. Variation of air, ground surface and leaf surface temperatures, air relative humidity and light intensity was greater in the large gap than in closed forest. Under dry season clear sky conditions both gross and net radiation in the center of the large gap were at least five times higher than in the closed forest ,and light intensity was at least ten times higher. Variation in air temperature and relative humidity in the large gap was also higher in the dry than in the rainy season. In the large gap center and in the closed forest about 70%~80% of the net radiation was used for evaporation. In the large gap there were two heating layers the seedling canopy and ground surface, while in the small gap only one heating layer was apparent the canopy of young trees. Heating intensity was also greater in the large gap. Diurnal variation in relative humidity was greater in the large gap than in the small gap.

    Allelopathic Potential of Eupatorium adeno phorum
    SONG Qi-Shi, FU Yun, TANG Jian-Wei, FENG Zhi-Li, YANG Chong-Ren
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  362-365. 
    Abstract ( 3628 )   PDF (297KB) ( 1030 )   Save
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    A Preliminary Study on the Soil Seed Bank Dynamics of the Distylium chinense Community in the Maolan Karst Fores
    LIU Ji-Ming
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  366-374. 
    Abstract ( 1936 )   PDF (650KB) ( 1402 )   Save
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    59 species of spermatophyte were found in a 900m2 sample plot of Distylium chinensis community in Maolan karst forest. Among the species, 19 critical species have being reproduced. Reproducing species input an average of 351.1 seeds·m-2 to the soil seed bank every year in seed rain. The number of viable seeds capable of contributing to community regeneration was 150.8 seeds·m-2. Viable seeds of 41 species seeds were found, numbering 2510.5~2646.8 grains·m-2 in the soil seed bank. The kind and number of viable seeds in the seed bank changes with time, in a pattern that largely reflects the recent input of seed from (successionally changing) extant species. The loss of viable seeds from the soil seed bank was 17l.9 grains·m-2 every year: these losses included 21.9 grains·m-2 to germination, 133.5 to predation, 3.2 to rot and 13.3 grains·m-2 to decrepitude. This loss of seeds is 21.1 grains·m-2 in excess o{ the annual seed rain input. At the successional stage sampledthe early seral species no longer contribute to the seed rain but do add to the losses from the seed bank, though none of this loss is via germination.
    Morphological and Growth Responses of the Climbing Plant, Gynostemma pentaphyllum Seedlings to Varying Light Intensity
    HE Wei-Ming, ZHONG Zhang-Cheng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  375-378. 
    Abstract ( 2061 )   PDF (285KB) ( 1350 )   Save
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    Variation in morphology and growth of seedlings of the climbing plant, Gynostemma pentaphyllum was examined in response to a light intensity gradient artificially created using plastic shade web. This revealed that G. pentaphyllum seedlings show a high level of plasticity in both morphology and growth in response to varying light environments: 1} relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, and total biomass decreased with decreasing light resource, while total leaf area, specific stem length, shoot height, branching angle, leaf area ratio, and specific leaf area increased with decreasing light; 2) relative growth rate declined with increasing plant size; 3) variation in light had no significant effects on biomass allocation. The increased specific stem length and shoot height observed across decreasing light intensities may enhance the likelihood that G. pentaphyllum seedlings will encounter external supports.

    Sensitivity Analysis of Variation in NDVI, Temperature and Precipitation in Typical Vegetation Types a Across China
    LI Xiao-Bing, SHI Pei-Jun
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  379-382. 
    Abstract ( 2411 )   PDF (358KB) ( 1667 )   Save
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    Multi-temporal NOAA/AVHRR NDVI digital images and monthly temperature and precipitation data were obtained for 160 standard observatories across China covering the period 1983 to 1992. The relationships among these were analyzed for trends in temporal and geographic variation with the results that: correlation coefficients declined in a north to south direction across the data and increased from the southeast to the northwest of China. The NDVI changes of the temperate desert, steppe and meadow vegetation regions were strongly influenced by the changes of temperature and precipitation, but the influence of climate was relatively small for some agriculture and forest vegetation types in the southeast of China.
    An Ecological Perspective on Crop Prduction
    ZHANG Da-Yong, JIANG Xin-Hua
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2000, 24 (3):  383-384. 
    Abstract ( 1573 )   PDF (193KB) ( 626 )   Save
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