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Table of Content
    Volume 14 Issue 4
    10 April 1990
      
    Research Articles
    A Study of Hierarchical Classification for the Steppe Vegetation on the Song-Nen Plain
    Zheng Hui-ying, Li Jian-dong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  297-304. 
    Abstract ( 1814 )   PDF (519KB) ( 740 )   Save
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    The Song-Nen Plain is located in the northeast of China. The plain has a temperate semihumid continental climate. The summer is hot and rainy, but the winter is very cold and dry with little snow. The meadow steppe is developed as a result and has become a zonal vegetation type of the region. The combination of plants and distribution of plant communities appear to be controlled mainly by the edaphic condition.From a combination of component species and biotope, using qualitative and quantitative analysis, namely, a polythetic hierarchical agglomerative classification(MULVA-4 PROGRAM) ,the steppe vegetation on the Song-Nen Plain can be divided into different units. These units are classified as 4 orders, 12 alliances and 40 associations, depending on species composition, especially ecological groups of species, similarity coefficient and dynamic feature of communities, so that a hierarchical system for the steppe vegetation of the Song-Nen Plain is tentatively established. The system reveals the relationship between combination of plant and biotope. The similarity and difference in component species of various units demonstrate not only the whole property but also the continuity and discontinuity of the steppe vegetation. It has been found that there is correspondence between high syntaxa and site type. Based on this correlation the classification of vegetation leads to practical considerations for the management of the steppe in Song-Nen Plain.
    Dynamic Modelling of Plant-Environment Interactions in a Vegetation System
    Gao Qiong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  305-311. 
    Abstract ( 1852 )   PDF (411KB) ( 700 )   Save
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    A general model for the dynamic development of plant communities is proposed with the well-known classical models such as Logistic competition model and Markov model as its special cases. The model is intended to explain and predict the development of a vegetation system based on the interactions among the plants, the environmental quantities and external disturbances to the system. The vegetation system is considered to be a system of feedback control with coupled differential equations for plant measurements and environmental quantities. Finally, the model is linearized locally to give year-by-year prediction based on past and present observations of the system using the least square fit of the time derivatives of the system variables against the variables themselves. This local dynamic model of vegetation system is applicable to any dynamic systems regardless of the linear or nonlinear behavior of the systems.
    Accumulation and Biological Cycle of K and Na Elements in Bruguiera sexangula Community
    Lin Peng, He Shu-zhen
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  312-318. 
    Abstract ( 1763 )   PDF (391KB) ( 941 )   Save
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    This paper is a part of studies of the mangrove forests in Dongzhai harbour of Hainan island, China. It deals mainly with the accumulation and biological cycle of K and Na elements of 55-year-old Bruguiera sexangula community.

    The main results of the measurements are as follows:

    1. The amounts of K and Na elements in standing crop of this community were 669.9kg/ha and 2591.3kg/ha in which the amounts of two elements in aerial part of biomass were 425.6 for K and 908.9 for Na (kg/ha), and that of below ground biomass were 244.3 for K and 2042.4 for Na(kg/ha) respectively.

    2. In biological cycle of K and Na of this stand, the annual value of vegetation mineral uptake were 89.6 for K and 204.4 for Na(kg/ha), of its return were 49.0 for K and 99.8 for Na(kg/ha) and of its retention were 40.6 for K and 104.6 for Na(kg/ha), respectively.

    3. The turnover period of K (14 yrs.) is faster than that of Na (30 yrs .)

    The Allocation of the Biomass and Energy in Tapiscia sinensis
    Tao Jin-chuan, Zang Shi-xian, Yang Zhi-bin
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  319-327. 
    Abstract ( 1926 )   PDF (498KB) ( 797 )   Save
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    This paper deals with the biomass and production of roots,stems,foliages and branches of Tapiscia sinensis in the seedling and its forest. We have investigated the allocation of the biomass and energy in T. sinensis forest. The biomass dynamics of grass is determined by periodical harvest method, the model tree method to the biomass of forest and the CA-3 type calorimeter to the plants caloric values.

    (1)The biomass of one-year old seedling sheltered from the sun with traditional is 1777.5g/ha. The biomass of seedlings sheltered by one layer of plastic sheeting from the sun is heaviest, that in full time illumination is second and that sheltered by three layers of plastic sheeting is lightest.

    (2)The biomass of the above-ground part of naturally regenerated T. sinensis individual of 16 years old is 107.77kg.

    (3)The total biomass of artificial T. sinensis forests of 8 years old and their mean net production of arborous layer are 80.63t/ha and 9.563 t/ha·a respectively. These data show that the biological productivity of T. sinensis is higher than that of Cunninghamia lanceolata in Huitong county, Hunan Province and in southern Jisngsu Province.

    (4)The net primary production in T.sinensis forest is 1219.18g/m2·a; among them the arborous layer is 956.25g/m2·a; the grass layer and naturally seedlings are 161.10g/m2·a; the litter layer is 101.83g/m2·a. The utilization rate of solar energy in T. sinensis is 0.527 per cent and that of arborous layer is 0.417 during the growing season.

    The Age Structure and Spatial Pattern of Population of Pinus taiwanensis in Sougyang County,Zhejiang Province
    Zhang Li-quan
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  328-335. 
    Abstract ( 1937 )   PDF (467KB) ( 1110 )   Save
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    Pinus taiwanensis is a widely distributed tree species in southeastern China at an elevetion of 700--2000m, one of the important components of the forest communities in this region. Pinus taiwanensis population often plays a pioneer role in succession series, and in some special habitats such as rocky steep slopes or ridges, Pinus taiwanensis population can also form rather stable and persistent open pine forest communities.This study was carried out in Guanshanyuan district of Songyang County, Zhejiang Province. On the basis of a census of all individuals of Pinus taiwanensis at various successional phases and different habitats, age structure, spatial pattern, their dynamics and relationships to environment are described. The Study on Pinus taiwanensis population can not only throws some light on some theoretical themes in plant ecology studies, but is also of practical significance for forest management, utilization and preservation.
    A Phenology Study on the Common Tree Species of Natural Secondary Forests in Northeast China
    Zhu Ning, Jiang Hong, Jin Yong-yan
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  336-349. 
    Abstract ( 2241 )   PDF (825KB) ( 758 )   Save
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    This paper is a study on the phenology of the main tree species: Pinus koraiensis, Larix olgensis, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Populus ussuriensis, Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Tilia amurensis, Acer mono, Ulmus propinqua of natural secondary forest in Northeast China. The main phenological character of these tree species are studied,the phenological spectrum of these trees is drawn and the relationship between the phenological period of the tree species and the environmental factors of light, temperature etc. is studied. It has been discovered that the meteorological factors which are most closely related to the germinating, growing and flowering etc. the main phenological periods, are total number of days of sunlight and the mean temperature of each period,showing that solar irradiation and temperature and their combined. effect are the important enviromental conditions of phenology,by the principal component analysis (PCA).Thirteen tree species are classified by clustering system according to the environmental factors of germination, growth period, flower period, the phenology date and the phenological type. The result are that there are 5 types of tree germination, 4 types of growth period, 4 types of flower period and 4 types of phenology date. Tree bionomic strategies, and a new concept of tree bionomic phenology strategies is also put forward through the analysis of the tree phenological types and the corresponding bionomic strategies of tree species.
    Studies on the Diurnal Variation of the Photosynthesis and Transpiration of Soybean Leaf and its Correlation With Ecological Factors in Field Conditions
    Zou Dong-sheng, Zheng Pi-yao, Wang Rui-fang
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  350-357. 
    Abstract ( 1893 )   PDF (416KB) ( 1055 )   Save
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    Diurnal variation of the photosynthesis, transpiration,water potential and conductance to water vapour in the soybean leaf have been examined simultaneously with photosynthetically active radiation, leaf temperature, leaf to air water vapour concentration difference and CO2 concentration of air surrounding the sample leaf by Minicuvette System under field conditions and controlled conditions for two years.The results indicate that the diurna 1 changes of measured physiological parameters showed a one-or two-peak-changing pattern. It was further clarified that such changing patterns took place not because of genetic physiological rhythm, but resulted from the effects of diurnal changes of ecological factors on the physiological characters. In the present experiments, the main ecological factors were photosynthetically active radiation leaf temperature and leaf to air water vapour concentration difference.
    A Quantitative Study on Characteristics and Succession Pattern of Alpine Shrub lands Under Different Grazing Intensities
    Zhang Yan-qing
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  358-365. 
    Abstract ( 1985 )   PDF (432KB) ( 865 )   Save
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    The characteristics and sucession pattern of alpine shrub lands under different grazing intensities are studied with methods of diversity analysis, clustering and principal component analysis in this paper.The results of diversity analysis show that plant diversity reaches the maximum in the C-group of pasture. The clustering analysis results show that when the correlation coefficient R≥0.90, the plant species taking importance value as characteristic are grouped into 10 types, belonging to constructive plants, dominant plants, and associated plants of different successive phases of plant communities respectively. Principal component analysis has shown that 5 communities of alpine shrub lands under different grazing intensities are grouped into 3 types. The A and B groups of pastures belong to plant communities of 2-layer structures taking shrub and forbes as dominant plants and, the C group of pastures belongs to plant communities taking shrubs as constructive plants and taking forbes and grazing-resistant sedges as polydominant plants and, D and E groups of pastures belong to plant communities of 3-layer structures taking shrubs as polydominant plants.
    A Study on the Biomass of Tamarix Communities and Their Management and Utilization in Xinjiang
    Li Hu-qun, Long Bu-yun, Zhou Rong-nian, Dai Jun, Lu Tian-ping, Hu Zhu-lan
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  366-372. 
    Abstract ( 1709 )   PDF (414KB) ( 707 )   Save
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    There are more than ten species of Tamarix in Xinjiang.The main ecological types are. 1. The type adaptable to loam; it spreads over the depression along the river bank, and the lower part or the fringe of alluvial-diluvial fans. 2. The type adaptable to saline soil; it spreads over the fringe of the alluvial-diluvial fans or the delta, and the river terraces of the plain. 3. The types adaptable to sand; it spreads over the ancient alluvial plain or the upper part of the alluvial fans.The data of this study obtained from sampling points indicate that the correlation between the total biomass (WL) both above-and underground and the crown area(K) is significant. Forecasting models of the total biomass for the three types are. WL=-20.0672+25.4643K, WL=-77.4967+58.9092K, and WL=-19.176+29.9457K respectively; and their total biomasses, are 14.239, 15.558 and 3.6090t/ha-1 respectively; the ratios of the biomasses between above-ground and underground are 1:0.71, 1:0.81 and 1:2.09 respectively; the dendities of the bushes are 715.5, 120.0and 40.5 clumps/ha-1 respectively. In respect of the management and utilization of the Tamarix of the loam type, it can be used as a source of fire wood and for grazing. Rotational cutting may be carried out over divided regions, once every 3--5 years; for the saline soil type, it must be protected and utilized suitably by first cutting half of the clumps, and after 5 years cutting the other half, so as to prevent the soil from being desertified and salinized; for the sand type,it must be protected absolutely and digging of its roots for fuel must be strictly forbidden. For regeneration, the clumps can be cut only one-third of the total height, and after 5 to 10 years cut another two-thirds of it. The way to develop the Tamarix is to irrigate the low flat lands on which it grows and to combine natural with manual spreading of seeds.
    A Classification of the Wild Grass Communities on Mount Tai
    Liu De-yu
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  373-378. 
    Abstract ( 1916 )   PDF (387KB) ( 692 )   Save
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    The wild grass communities extensively distributed in North China is a secondary coenotype into which the primeval vegetation was turned by artificial destroy. Now, papers studying wild grass communities by the quantitative method are rare. This paper made a cluster analysis of the wild grass communities on Mount Tai by a group-average method. At the level d=2100, we can distingush 12 coenotypes. The results also show that;

    1. It is practical to completely classify the wild grass communities by the numerical method.

    2. The major coenotypes are coincident with the traditional classification, in which there are eight communities defined as association types.

    Researches on the Effect of the Experimental Closing of Hilisides to Facilitate Afforestation in the Beijing Area
    Beijing Research Group on Secondary Forest
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  379-387. 
    Abstract ( 1617 )   PDF (474KB) ( 757 )   Save
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    Researches on the experimental closing of hillsides to promote afforestation were made by the Beijing Research Group on Secondary Forest in Gushiyu of Miyun County, Beijing in 1984. The concrete research method has been described in the issue N.2, 1987 of this journal.In the five-year sresearches, reexamination was taken three times. These reexaminations proved that the vegetation coverage, the biomass of shrubs and herbs and the diversity index had increased. Four kinds of plots regenerated well. Two kinds of plots on the drougt sunny slopes regenerated badly, but the baks introduced there have been growing well result. Besides, an experiment on transplanting the roots of aspen was made by the Research Group.
    A Study on Numerical Classification and Ordination of Tropical Grassland in Hainan Island
    Wu Shi-ping
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1990, 14 (4):  388-392. 
    Abstract ( 1883 )   PDF (254KB) ( 931 )   Save
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    In this paper, the tropical grassland of the Yinggeling Mountain in Hainan Island was studied using a number of numerical classification and ordination methods, which include two polythetic-hierarchical agglomerative classification (SPSS/PC program)-the nearest neighbour(NN) and the furthest neighbour (FN) methods, the polar ordination (PO) and principal component analysis (PCA) ordination (MINITAB program). The results show that the 19 plots of grassland studied may be classified into 3 types, and 9 plant communities, which are correlative with slope gradient, grazing pressure and soil fertility. It is proved that all the 4 methods are applicable to the study of the tropical grassland. PO is simple and may help clarify those of other methods, PCA and cluster analysis are more objective. PCA and FN are more efficient than FO and NN, and the combination of PCA and cluster analysis can generally produce the most satisfactory result.

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