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Table of Content
    Volume 5 Issue 3
    10 March 1981
      
    Research Articles
    A Brief Description of Vegetation in the Loess Plateau of Northern Shanxi and Suggestions to the Development of Agriculture, Forestry and Graziery in Different Vegetation Regions
    Zou Houyuan
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  169-176. 
    Abstract ( 1542 )   PDF (601KB) ( 1040 )   Save
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    This region may be divided into three vegetational provinces: Deciduous broad-leaved forest province, forest-steppe province and shrubbery-steppe province. In an average, there are 2.9m3 planting stock per mu of the forest in deciduous broad-leaved forest province; the average increment of the mixed forest is 0.236–0.300m3/mu/yr. and following tending 0.425–0.450m3/mu may be obtained. The grassland is with 200-600 jin grass/mu and following recovery 800 jin grass/mu may be obtained. The biomass of overground part of shrubbery approximates to 800 jin/mu. The grassland in shrubbery-steppe province produces 100-300 jin grass/mu, and following recovery 400–500 jin/mu may be obtained. In deciduous broad-leaved forest province, forestry and agriculture should be played in a great role. In the foreststeppe province: agriculture, forestry and graziery should be considered completely. In the shrubbery-steppe province, we have to pay more attention to graziery,
    The Ecological Studies of the Subtropical Mangroves in Fujian, China
    Lin Peng, Wei Xinmin
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  177-186. 
    Abstract ( 1789 )   PDF (1668KB) ( 955 )   Save
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    The mangrove is a characteristic vegetation in tropical zone, but so far as China is concerned it may also extend to Fuding district (27˚20′ N), situated at the north-eastern part of Fujian, South China.The subtropical mangrove of Fujian consists of six species belonging to five families. They are Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel of Rhizophoraceae, Excoecaria agallocha of Euphorbiaceae, Acanthus ilicifolius of Acanthaceae, Aegiceras corniculatum of Myrsinaceae and Avicennia marina of Verbenaceae. In the southern coastal regions from Zhaoan to Xiamen all six species are present. The communities are composed of kandelia candel+Bruguiera gymnorrhiza-Aegiceras corniculatum association, Kandelia candel-Aegiceras corniculatum association, Avicennia marina association and Kandelia candel association. The most widely distributed community is Kandelia candel-Aegiceras corniculatum association. Kandelia candel is the dominant and the hightest trees reaching a height of eight metres. In the middle coastal regions from Xiamen to Putian, there are four species (Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculatum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Avicennia marina). In the northern coastal regions from Putian to Fuding, there is only one association dominated by Kandelia candel. The salinity of sea water may greatly affect the morphological and physiological characters of mangrove plants. It usually shows that as the osmotic pressure raises, the leaves become thick and coriaceous, whilst their stomata sink into the epidermis. In addition, it is also related with the growth and development of mangrove plant and coexisted condition of aquatic animals. Our observation indicates that when the salinity of sea water is low, for instance at 7.5–21.2%, Kandelia candel can grow normally and bring forth blossoms and fruits; the five-year-old trees may reach 1.6-2 metres in height and Balanus adhere to it in much less in number or may be absent. When the salinity of sea water is high, at 25.6–37.4‰ Kandelia candel grows weakly and the five-year-old trees are only about one meter in height and their leaves become small and succulent; they do not bloom normally, some may even die (about 30% in the area surveyed) and there often are large number Balanus attaching to the trunk. The growth in height of Kandelia candel may be related with the edaphic nitrogen content(%) of the second layer (20–40cm.), since the content of the first layer soil (0–20cm.) is not stable, and is readily influenced by the waves, the contents from the second layer were determined. There exist semilogarithmic linear correlation between them, its formula is as follows:

    log y = 0.9397 + 3.124x

    where y is the tree height (m.), x is the edaphic nitrogen content(%). r=0.8875, df=7, determined range: tree height in 0.5–2.2m., edaphic nitrogen content in 0.3–0.43(%).

    The correlation between the growth in the height of Kandelia candel and the soil salinity appears to be a parabolic curve.

    In the mangrove ecosystem, the ecological function of animals is also significant, but former investigators paid little attention to this. The insect could eat more than 30% of the leaves of mangrove plants, for example, in the community of Kandelia candel of Sanjiangkou of Putian, 95% of the leaves were found eaten by a species of tortrix moths. There are two kinds of animals adhering to the trunk and leaves of tidal forest, i. e. Chithamalus sp., which adhere to blade and Balanus amphitrite albicostatus which affix on the trunk and branches. Since they are so large in number that even the whole surface of the trunk can be covered with them. The amount of animals on the trunk of a Kandelia candel tree (height 53 cm., diameter 2 cm.) was calculated, which totals to 506 Balanus. This explains why the growth of the plant is seriously affected.

    There are benthic animals under the tidal forest, such as Sesarma sp., Pachygrapsus crassipes and Littorinopsis melanostoma and so on. They dig holes into the ground. For example, there are 122 holes, each of 0.5–1.2 cm. diameter in a 70× 70cm2 quadrat; this porous ground is greatly in favour of edaphic ventilation, favourable to the growth of plants. The mangrove is a natural shelterbelt, which has the effect of decreasing the tidal force, so it provides the tidal establishment and the building of the sludge beach. It is also of great economic value, such as the utilization of hypocotylar starch, corticose tannin and trunk wood etc. Therefore, care should be taken to protect such plant communities

    Studies of the Monitoring and Purifying Process on the Heavy Metals in Wastewater by the Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Some Vascular Plants
    Hu Yihui, Chen Zhanglong, Chen Lingzhi, Ren Jikai, Kong Fanzhi, Han Rongzhuang, Yao Yiqun, Miao Yougui
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  187-192. 
    Abstract ( 2071 )   PDF (816KB) ( 986 )   Save
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    In this paper, we have studied the monitoring and purifying ability of Eichhornia crassipes, Typha angustifolia, Phragmites communis, Nymphoides peltatum, Hydrilla verticillata on arsenic, mercury and cadmium in wastewater. The effect of temperature, and pH values of culture solution on the vascular aquatic plants were also investigated. The water hyacinth was considered to be a monitor and purifying plant of arsenic. It also contains mercury and cadmium Phragmites communis and Typha angustifolia are the more resistant plants to these heavy metals, and those metals can be absorbed and accumulated by these plants. The toler ance to arsenic, mercury, cadmium of the aquatic plants is related to the life forms of plants. The sequence of tolerances is as follows: Emerged plants. Free-floating hydrophytes. Floating-leaved plants>Submerged plants. The sequence of accumulation of metals in living plants is as following: Submerged paints> Floating-leaved plants>Free-floating hydrophytes. Emerged plants. The absorptance of metals by plants is affected by the temperature and pH value of culture solution.
    Sporo-pollen Analysis of Some Archaeological Sites and Preliminary Discussion on the Past Flora and Climate of Nei-Monggol Zizhiqu (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region)
    Kung Zhaochen, Du Naiqiu
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  193-202. 
    Abstract ( 1756 )   PDF (966KB) ( 717 )   Save
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    This paper records some sporo-pollen assemblages found in four archaeological sites at the temperate steppe region.

    (1) A paleolithic site (a stone implements making) of the eastern outskirt of Hohhot Shi;

    (2) A human remaining site of the outskirt of Jalainuoer (49˚20′N, 119 ˚35′E), Manzhouli;

    ( 3 ) A microlithic site of the Yiminhe valley near Hailaer;

    (4) An archaeological site of the Dadianzi village (42˚20′N, 120˚E), Ju Ud Meng.

    In the first site, a forest-steppe of warm-temperate nature is found in the present outskirts of the city Hohhot of paleolithic age. Then, the climate was warmer and wetter than that of present time and the annual precipitation was about 100mm, being more than that of today.

    In the second site, the climate was warmer and wetter than 11400±230 years ago, but to-day it is rather cold and dry. The vegetation was the forest-steppe of temperate nature. Annual mean precipitation was about 500-600mm. By that time, a mixed broadleaf deciduous and needle leaf evergreen forest composed of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Ulmus, Tilia and Juglans were widely distributed. Probably, lakes and bogs were also better developed in that region.

    The vegetation of the third site was forest-steppe, and the climate was warmer and wetter during the microlithic age, but at present the vegetation belongs to a typical steppe zone of temperate nature.

    Based on the absolute chronogical 3420±85 years ago, and sporo-pollen assemblages, the climate of the last site was warm and wet, the vegetation was needleleaf-broadleaf mixed forest, mainly composed by Pinus tabulaeformis and Fraxinus. In those days the millet (Setalia italica) was planted.

    According to palynological investigation on the four archaeological sites, development of steppe in Neimonggol is rapid since Late Pleistocene.

    Ecological Characteristics of Angelica sinensis Seeds
    Wang Wenjie
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  203-206. 
    Abstract ( 1783 )   PDF (225KB) ( 634 )   Save
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    When Angelica sinensis seeds are stored over one year in the natural condition, it will lose its sprouting capacity. This problem is a serious obstacle to spread a new technology, "direct seeding in the beginning of autumn". In order to find out an effective measure keeping its sprouting capacity, the another has investigated the influence of moisture content in seeds (4—20%), and temperature in storing seeds (10—33 ℃)and sprouting temperature (5—35 ℃) on the sprouting capacity of seeds. The result indicated, that Angelica sinensis seeds belong to a seed type of patiently dry store. The high temperature and humidity are principal factors decreasing the sprouting capacity. If the moisture content in seeds is decreased to 5-8% combined to lower temperature below 15℃, the sprouting capacity maybe over three years long
    The Application of Panchromatic and Color-Infrared Aerial Photo-Interpretation Techniques to Vegetation Mapping
    Wang Shaoqing
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  207-215. 
    Abstract ( 1764 )   PDF (632KB) ( 693 )   Save
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    In the course of vegetation mapping of large-scale and medium-scale, the thermal, multispectral, color-infrared and panchromatic aerial photo-graphs may be used. We have undertaken the aerial remote sensing experiment in Tengchong area Yunnan Province. Based upon the different combination of the marks of interpretation directly and indirectly, one may interpret the vegetation types. The synthetical method to conduct the interpretation of remote-sensing imagery can give rather reasonable results. This paper shows the following marks of direct interpretation, namely, the colors and tones of imagery of plant community and its veined construction, the shape, size and height of plant community, stand, or individual plant and their projective shape. The marks of indirect interpretation include the altitudinal, latitudinal, geomorphologic position and the characteristics of parent rocks where the plants grow. The indirect mark also consists of the degree of human activity influencing the distribution of vegetation. To engage the automatic vegetation classification, intensive interpretative marks of each vegetation types may be shown in the key. This paper gives a key to interpret the vegetation types in the evergreen broad-leaf forest area in Tengchong area of Yunnan Province, by using panchromatic aerial photographs with the scale 1:35000, and the scale 1:34000 color-infrared.
    Investigation of Ecological Characteristics in Quiaqualis indica L. in the Northern Guangdong
    Han Decong, Huang Qingchang, Lu Xielian, Zheng Pei, Zhao Dahui, Huang Yusheng, Huang Luzhi, Chen Yunsheng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  218-223. 
    Abstract ( 1530 )   PDF (1158KB) ( 634 )   Save
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    Vegetation Resources of Reed-Marshes and Meadows in Besteng Lake, Xinjiang
    Chen Bishou
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  224-227. 
    Abstract ( 1457 )   PDF (304KB) ( 613 )   Save
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    Investigation on Swampland Resources of Xinjiang
    Li Chonghao
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  230-231. 
    Abstract ( 1441 )   PDF (101KB) ( 782 )   Save
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    Chen Wilei, Li Besheng, Wang Yuzhu, Wang Meizhi
    Chen Weilie, Li Bosheng, Wang Yuzhu, Wang Meizhi
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  232. 
    Abstract ( 1655 )   PDF (106KB) ( 856 )   Save
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    A Brief news of Vegetation Investigation on Some Natural Protected Areas in Guangxi
    Wang Xianpu
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  233-234. 
    Abstract ( 1403 )   PDF (94KB) ( 504 )   Save
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    Plant Ecological Lectures for Chinese Agricultural Universities and Colleges
    Bao Shiwen
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  235-236. 
    Abstract ( 1467 )   PDF (177KB) ( 569 )   Save
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    Natural Populus euphratica was Discovered in Mid-Grassland of Inner Mongolia
    Zhu Zungyuan
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  237. 
    Abstract ( 1608 )   PDF (452KB) ( 573 )   Save
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    Review on 《Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology》
    Bao Xiangcheng
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 1981, 5 (3):  238-240. 
    Abstract ( 1413 )   PDF (133KB) ( 828 )   Save
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