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Table of Content
    Volume 26 Issue 增刊
    01 September 2002
      
    ON MECHANISMS OF SPECIES COEXISTENCE IN PLANT COMMUNITIES
    HOU Ji-Hua, MA Ke-Ping
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  1-8. 
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    Abstract Species coexistence, a key question in plant community ecology, means the abundance or the number of species occurring in a certain time at a given community. Zobel emphasized that species coexistence should be determined by the processes of the evolutionary, historical and ecological scale. So far, many theories explaining the mechanisms of species coexistence at certain levels and under particular conditions exist. This review outlines some important theories, such as species pool hypothesis, regeneration niche theory, and competition theory, to elucidate species coexistence.
         The term “species pool” was introduced to indicate that a set of species is potentially capable of coexisting in a particular community. Species pool plays an important role in species coexistence and abundance. The species pool theory proposed that the number of species occupying a certain habitat should be determined by characteristics of the particular habitat. The larger the area that a habitat type occupies, the greater the opportunity for speciation, and hence the larger the number of available species adapted to that particular habitat. Further, the availability of species also depends on historical processes at a bio-geographical scale, which determine the migration of species among regions, and the dispersal of species between and within local populations. Species pool theory explains the origination of species coexistence on evolutionary scale, but itself works in ecological scale.
         Since traditional niche theory cannot effectively explain the numerous species coexisting in tropical forest and temperate grasslands, alternative niche theories are blooming. The regeneration niche theory is, in principle, a compromise between the niche differentiation and balanced competition, thus the species differing in their requirements for seed production, dispersal, germination and so on can coexist. Resource ratio/heterogeneity hypothesis, a promising theory, gives the possible solution by considering ratios of limiting nutrients to their absolute amounts.
         Competitive species can coexist. If the species have similar competitive abilities, competitive exclusion might not occur at all, or occur at such a low frequency that it takes a long time for compensatory processes (eg. evolutionary change) to operate. Some factors, such as disturbance and herbivory, can mainly influence the dominant species, thus shifting competitive advantage to inferior species, and there are more chances for the superior and inferior species to coexist. The storage effect, where reproductive potential can be “stored” through unfavorable periods, promotes the coexistence of competing species under fluctuating environmental conditions. The distribution pattern of species, patchiness of environment and resource, and harsh and fluctuating conditions can also favor the competing coexistence of species.
    Under non-equilibrium circumstance, species coexistence can be mediated by two main factors. One is disturbance, which interrupts the development of communities, prevents resource exploitation by overgrowth species, and avoids competitive exclusion. In the meantime, disturbances can create temporal and spatial heterogeneity, and provide new resource axes for niche differentiation. The other is the biotic agent. Biotic interactions among and within nutritional ranks can affect the coexistence of competing species. Janzen-Connell suggests that host-specific pests reduce recruitment of conspecific adults where conspecific seed density is greatest, thus free space is occupied by other plant species, which is density- or distance-dependent. The herbivore’s action can change the growth rate, growth form and growth rhythm of plants so that plant species produce the capture ability of resources and competing ability (exploiting resources or enduring resource stress). In addition, microorganisms play some role in plant species coexistence.
        The unified neutral theory, seeking to unify both the number of species in a community and the distribution of the relative abundances of those species, assumes that every individual in every species in a biological community is identical, and that the total abundance of all species is fixed. All changes in distribution and abundance occur because of purely random variation in births, deaths, migration and speciation. This theory can accurately predict many attributes of ecological communities — particularly the distribution of abundances of tree species.
         All the above mechanisms for plant species coexistence are not incompatible, but complementary, and it seems that plant species coexist within a community for different reasons. More investigation should be carried out on these reasons.
    ADVANCES IN PLANT SUCCESSION ECOPHYSIOLOGY
    LI Qing-Kang, MA Ke-Ping
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  9-19. 
    Abstract ( 396 )   PDF (445KB) ( 594 )   Save
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    Abstract Advances in the field of succession ecophysiology since the 1980s are overviewed in this paper. The microhabitats at early-succession stage are greatly different from the late ones because of erosion and vegetation modification during succession. In general, habitats are open and sunny at early-succession stage and more closed at late-succession stage. Environmental factors change faster with high temporal heterogeneity at early succession stage, but are more stable at late successional stage with high spatial heterogeneity. Water content is much lower with high temperature in early successional stands. Nutrient availability increased shortly (within several years) after the disturbances (eg. cutting, burning), then declined back with further succession. While N nutrients increase with succession in extreme oligotrophic stands or during primary succession. Different disturbances cause NH4+/NO3 ratio to change, which shows some influences on seedling shade response. Air humidity is usually very low, while air temperature and radiation with more red lights are high in early successional stands relative to late successional stands. Besides the differences in community composition, the ecophysiological attributes and adaptation of early successional plants are also different from the late successional plants. Those differences make the succession go smoothly. Contrasting to late successional plants, early successional plants share many sun-adapted characteristics, such as higher photosynthesis capacity, compensation and saturated light point, respiration, conductance and WUE relative to late ones. They also have good adaptability and high flexibility with high stress resistance and wide niches. Sunfleks and gaps play an important role in maintaining forest function and stability at late successional stages. With global climate change developing, communities in the process of secondary succession, deteriorated vegetation and early-succession ecosystems will occur more frequently on the earth.

    DYNAMICS OF SPECIES DIVERSITY IN THE RESTORATION PROCESS OF ARTIFICIAL SPRUCE CONIFER FOREST IN THE EASTERN EDGE OF QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU
    ZHAO Chang-Ming, CHEN Qing-Heng, QIAO Yong-Kang, PAN Kai-Wen
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  20-29. 
    Abstract ( 221 )   PDF (373KB) ( 461 )   Save
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    Abstract   Species diversity in total, in the arbor layer, the shrub layer, and the herb layer was studied in artificial spruce (Picea asperata) forests at different ages (10–70 years), secondary birch forests and primitive fir (Abies faxoniana) forest. Several diversity indices were selected for use, which were the Margalef index, Simpson index, McIntosh index, Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou’s even index, Hurlbert’s even index, the number of species and individuals, and the canopy coverage. l) The total species diversity of the artificial spruce forests increased with their age at the younger stages, and increased observably in the process of canopy closure, but decreased slightly in the following stages with some fluctuations. In the arbor layer, the trend was the same as the total. In the shrub layer, the species diversity of the artificial spruce forests decreased slightly with age in the younger stages, but increased observably after the closure of' canopy, then decreased slowly later. In the herb layer, the species diversity of the artificial spruce forests was very high at the early stages, but decreased with the process of canopy closure, increased slowly after the canopy closure, but then slowly decreased later. 2) The trend of the even indices was contrasted to the species diversity indices, and the range of fluctuation was small. 3) Among the primitive fir forest, the secondary birch forest and the artificial spruce forest of equal age, the number of species, Margalef index, Simpson index, McIntosh index and Shannon-Wiener index in total, in the arbor layer, in the herb layer of the primitive fir forest were the highest, but the even indices were the smallest; in contrast, the species richness, the Simpson index, MacIntosh index and Shannon-Wiener index in total, in the arbor layer, and in the herb layer of the artificial spruce forest were the lowest, but the even indices were the highest. 4) Dynamics of species diversity were closely related to the degree of canopy coverage of the communities. The species diversity declined with increasing canopy coverage. 5) Species diversity of the artificial spruce forest was not only less than in the secondary homochronous birch forest. And far less than that of the natural primitive forest, but was also lower about 70 years after restoration. And the coverage of the shrub layer and the herb layer was very low, which indicated low efficiency of water and soil conservation. It is necessary to adjust the structure of the artificial spruce forests to restore biodiversity and to enhance the ecological effect of these forests.
    VEGETATION MAPPING AND ANALYSIS AT LONGMENHE REGION, SHENNONGJIA, CHINA
    TIAN Zi-Qiang, CHEN Yue, CHEN Wei-Lie, HU Dong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  30-39. 
    Abstract ( 200 )   PDF (655KB) ( 470 )   Save
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    Abstract In this paper, we presented a restorative vegetation map according to the geographic position of the region, the rules of vegetation distribution along an altitude gradient, and so on. In addition, texture feature images and ancillary data including the topographic map, the documentary data and the field sampling data were collected and used for improving classification.
         The result of vegetation mapping showed that the restorative vegetation are categorized evergreen broad-leaved forest (under 900 m), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (from 900 to 1600 m) and deciduous broad-leaved forest (from 1600 to 2200 m) respectively; The total forest area of Longmenhe region is about 4419.2 hm2, occupying 93.71% of the total area. In the vegetation map, 65 formations under eight vegetation types were classified. Among these vegetation types, the evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest covered the largest area. Its area was 1674.09 hm2, occupying 37.88% in terms of area. In addition, the area of both orchard and farmland covered 228.12 hm2, accounting for 4.84% of this region.

         From the overlaid restorative vegetation map with the formation map and further analysis, coniferous forest, coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, shrubbery and meadow appear in this region as a result of human disturbance. The area of four vegetation types is about 34.6% . Coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest is the dominant type in this area.

    GAP ANALYSIS OF VEGETATION IN LONGMENHE REGION, SHENNONGJIA, CHINA
    TIAN Zi-Qiang, CHEN Yue, CHEN Wei-Lie, HU Dong
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  40-45. 
    Abstract ( 212 )   PDF (376KB) ( 456 )   Save
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    Abstract On the basis of sufficient plant community survey and quantitative analysis of vegetation environment at Longmenhe region, we seeked the richest area for rare and endangered species using MapInfo Professional 6.0 software firstly. We then applied the GAP analysis methodology to compare the vegetation, the management and the dense distribution area of rare and endangered species status layers. The result shows that the GAPs for planning and management in this area consist of three parts: 1) the area that human interventions are not prohibited in current management practice; 2) the area where developed some natural vegetation types which are not found in current protected area; and 3) the dense distribution area of rare and endangered species that man-made disturbance is not prohibited currently. The area of GAPs is about 1736 hm2, accounting for 36.81% of Longmenhe region. Considering biodiversity protection and living standard of local communities, we suggested a number of priority areas for the management of this region.
    PLANT DIVERSITY OF FOREST COMMUNITY IN ZHUWEIGOU OF LISHAN MOUNTAIN NATURE RESERVE
    ZHANC Feng, ZHANC Jin-Tun, Shangguan Tie-Liang
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  46-51. 
    Abstract ( 176 )   PDF (249KB) ( 415 )   Save
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    Abstract The relationships between species diversity and the community types, environmental variables and community structure, were studied using the richness indices, diversity indices and evenness indices. 1) Although species diversity within a community varied, there was a greater variation in species diversity among different communities. However, we found that this variation was not always statistically significant, indicating that these communities not only have heterogeneity, but also continuity. 2) It was the altitudinal gradient which determined the patterns of species diversity. With the increase of elevation, all diversity indices increased, and the relationships between diversity indices and altitude were positive correlated. 3) The order of sensitivity in terms of the responses of species diversity to altitude in forest communities was herb layer > shrub layer > tree layer. Richness indices of the tree layer and evenness indices of herb layer were significantly positive correlation to elevation, while diversity indices of the former and richness indices of the latter had a significantly negative correlation to it. 4) In order to measure community diversity as a whole, weighting parameter was used.

    INTERSPECIFIC RELATIONSHIPS AND ENVIRONMENTAL INTERPRETATION OF THE MAIN TREE SPECIES IN THE FOREST COMMUNITIES OF ZHUWEIGOU IN LISHAN MOUNTAIN NATURE RESERVE
    ZHANC Feng, ZHANC Jin-Tun, HAN Guang-Ye
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  52-56. 
    Abstract ( 246 )   PDF (220KB) ( 485 )   Save
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    Abstract The interspecific relationships of the main tree species in the forest communities were studied using Fisher’s exact test for a 2 × 2 contingency table, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. 1) The number of species-pairs having positive or negative correlation for Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient test was higher than that of Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Compared with Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient test was more sensitive. 2) Similar ecological adaptability to habitats led to positive correlation between species, and different ecological adaptability resulted in negative correlation, which was proved with environmental interpretation of interspecific relationships. 3) Based on the results, 18 tree species in the communities were divided into four ecological groups, serving as an important theory basis for studying forest structure, function, dynamics and succession.

    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY AND SPECIES DIVERSITY IN ALPINE MEADOW PLANT COMMUNITY
    QIN Guang-Lian, DU Guo-Zhen*, LI Zi-Zhen, YANG Guang-Yun, MA Jian-Yun, NIANG Mao-Jia
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  57-62. 
    Abstract ( 230 )   PDF (284KB) ( 413 )   Save
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    Abstract Through studying the relationship pattern between productivity (aboveground biomass) and species diversity (Shannon diversity index) of plant communities in typical alpine meadow of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, this paper suggested that the relationship between productivity and Shannon diversity index can be well described by log-linear increase model. As the observed time and environmental conditions changed, the diversity-productivity relationship would change. This change may be caused by the differences in the species richness and species composition or other biotic and abiotic conditions; whereas those differences had an asynchronous influence on diversity and productivity respectively. These types of asynchronous influences could be attributed to species niche differentiations in time and space. Due to the shorter growth season in alpine meadow ecosystem, the changes in environmental conditions had more significant influences on the diversity-productivity relationship than those in the observed time. The differences in observed time and environmental conditions may be the major factors which caused the controversial diversity-productivity relationship. Besides, the synthetical analysis of various diversity indices may deepen the understanding of the diversity-productivity relationship and get some insights into the underlying mechanisms of the relationship.
    DIVERSITY ORDERING: METHODS AND AN EXAMPLE
    LIU Can-Ran, MA Ke-Ping
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  63-67. 
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    Abstract Diversity has become an important concept in the theory and practice of ecology. Many diversity indices have been introduced from other disciplines or devised purposely by ecologists and widely used in conservation management and environmental monitoring. However, many researchers have criticized their use because different diversity indices may rank sets of communities in different ways. The use of parametric families of diversity indices instead of a diversity index with a numerical value has been suggested by Patil, Taillie and others as a potential solution to this problem. Fourteen methods were reviewed and compared in this paper. They were divided into four groups. It was proved that within-group methods are equivalent to each other and among-group methods are not. It was suggested that Patil and Taillie’s right-tail-sum diversity be the first choice and Hurlbert-Smith-Grassle’s expected diversity be the second in diversity ordering. As an example, these method were applied to three forest communities in Dongling Mountain, Beijing, China.

    NESTEDNESS: METHODS, MECHANISMS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION
    LIU Can-Ran, MA Ke-Ping, CHEN Ling-Zhi
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  68-72. 
    Abstract ( 263 )   PDF (164KB) ( 482 )   Save
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    Abstract The biotas of archipelagos and fragmented habitats frequently show a nested structure. That is, the species on depauperate islands represent proper subsets of those on richer islands, and the set of biotas as a whole forms a nested series. Like the species-area relationship, nested structures are observed in many types of habitats and in many taxa. Nestedness has been suggested to have implications for biological conservation, particularly in relation to SLOSS (single large or several small) debate regarding nature reserve design. Several metrics have been proposed to measure nestedness, and several null hypotheses against which to evaluate the nestedness. The causality of nestedness has been investigated in many studies. While nestedness may be influenced by many factors, ultimately it must result from selective immigrations, selective extinctions or both. Because only species presence-absence data are required to perform nestedness analysis so that the data from most inventory programs can be utilized. Thus, this is a field which is worthy for us to do further work.

    ADVANCES IN STUDIES ON RELATIONSHIP AMONG POLLEN, VEGETATION AND CLIMATE
    YANG Zhen-Jing, XU Jian-Ming
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  73-81. 
    Abstract ( 208 )   PDF (349KB) ( 482 )   Save
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    Abstract Great progress on Quaternary palynology has been achieved with the research of global change. The study on relationship between pollen, vegetation and climate has been one of the foci on palynology in the world especially in recent years. Studies on the air pollen have been applied extensively to various aspects including the monitoring of the air environment pollution, studying the allergic properties of pollen, agricultural yield prediction, and the reconstruction of vegetation and environment of Quaternary. In recent years, for developing study of paleo-environment in the world, the Pollen Databases have been set up globally, using surface pollen studies. The “China Quaternary Pollen Database” (CPD) was developed over a 50 year period. Using these pollen data from CPD, biome simulation and reconstruction of modern (0 kaBP), Middle Holocene (6 kaBP) and the last Glacial Maximum (18 kaBP) have been carried out systemically, while pollen-climate transfer function and pollen-climate response surface have also been established. Some headways have been made on the alluvial pollen and the Palynology of environmental archaeological sites, which have yet to be studied in depth. The study on pollen rain of characteristic indicator species has important significance for reconstructing paleo-ecological environment.

    THE INFORMATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EVOLVEMENT OF THE NORTHERN PIEDMONTS OF THE TIANSHAN MTS. IN THE HISTORY
    YAN Shun
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  82-87. 
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    Abstract During the last 2000 years, the climate of the northern piedmont of Tianshan Mountain has varied between cold and warm, arid and humidity, but the whole arid condition has not changed. It has varied with the change of climate, as for plants, the limit of forests, the growth degree of plain valley forest and the area of the lower plain meadow. The mountain ecosystem is more stable contrary to the plain ecosystem. Rivers and lakes of the plains is not very stable and easily changed as a result of the change of the regional climate and the biology of the community. The water system in the plain has largely changed because of the variation of the climate and the human activity. It is a common phenomenon that the water quality is reducing, the flow is shortening and the ending lakes are disappearing.

          Because the artificial oasis took the place of the natural oasis, the function of natural oasis is weakening and nearly lost the ability of improving the environment, the habitat of wildlife and preserving the biological diversity in wild area. Since the Neolithic Age, the human being has emerged and evolved in this area, living mainly on hunting and herding, followed by herding and farming, and finally farming and herding. Therefore the human influence on the environment last a considerable long period of time. Since Qing Dynasty, especially after the foundation of new China (1949), the effect has increased sharply and been the dominant factor of the variation of environment in the latter-day, which presented on controlling of water resource, and so caused the change of water system, vegetation and desert etc.

    COUPLING BIOMASS AND ENERGY IN WARM TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS BROAD-LEAVED OAK (QUERCUS LIAOTUNGENSIS) FOREST ECOSYSTEM
    SANG Wei-Guo, SU Hong-Xin, CHEN Ling-Zhi
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  88-92. 
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    Abstract Close relation exits between biomass and energy density at forest ecosystems, usually expressed as linear relation. The deciduous broad-leaved forest located in Dongling Mt. area near urban Beijing in warm temperate zone was studied for the biomass and energy. The oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest was broadly distributed in Dongling Mt., where the height of trees in the forest is no more than 15 m, coverage index is about 80%, composition of dominated tree species are Betula dahurica, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, and Fraxinus rhynchophylla.
         Biomass or current mass refers to the organic mass per unit area exiting in forest ecosystem during certain periods, it is usually expressed as dry mass. The measurement of forest biomass traditionally was carried out by harvest method. Energy was measured by taking organ samples by harvest and increment core methods, followed by drying, granulating and measuring.

         The biomass and energy partitioning in the warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest were analyzed. The partition of biomass and energy in oak forest ecosystems showed that the dominant tree species oak accounts for the biggest percentage in the forest. The biomass of oak forest was 60–200 t·hm–2, tree layer 50–160 t·hm–2. The percentage of tree layer biomass in community was 80%–90%, the percentage of oak biomass is 40%–100%. The forest net primary production was 5–24 t·hm–2. The standing total energy value of the oak community was 83000 kcal·m–2. The tree layer accounted for 96.65%, shrub layer 3.12%, and herb layer 0.23%. The energy density orders at different organs of tree layer were stem, root, branch and leaf, and the ratio was in 4:3:2:1. Shrub layer orders were stem, branch, root and leaf. After the biomass and energy density were analyzed, the concept model was developed for biomass and energy. The concept model would be the basis for abstracted mathematical and computer models will be established.

    FOREST ORGANIC CARBON STORAGE AND ITS TREND IN SHANDONG PROVINCE
    ZHANG De-Quan, SANG Wei-Cuo, Li Yue-Feng, WANC Zong-Quan, GAI Wen-Jie
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  93-97. 
    Abstract ( 284 )   PDF (159KB) ( 415 )   Save
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    Abstract Accurate estimation of carbon storage at regional or provincial scale is important to understand the impact of global change on local terrestrial ecosystem in China. The carbon dynamics of a number of vegetation types is a key variable to carbon source and sink research at a greater scale. Based on forest resource inventory data, the organic carbon storage of forest in Shandong Province was estimated to be 43.31 Tg, accounting for 1.23% of Chinese total C pool and 78.72% of average C storage of China in terms of unit land area. The carbon densities were different among forest types, in range of 0.40–49.46 Mg·hm–2. The actual forest carbon density is directly affected by human activities and disturbances. If considering forest succession, with more intensive management, and more rainfall, it would be more increase; and otherwise decrease or a lower increasing speed. We made a progress of research methodology which is mainly for including the four-side trees, economic forest, brush, and the soil in forest for the estimation, so that it would be more comprehensive and close to reality. According to the change of forest organic carbon storage and carbon density over the years, we projected its trend in future 10 years. After 3 years, the forest organic carbon storage of Shandong Province would be close to the average of China (by land area). And in 2010, it would increase to 90.31 Tg, about 2 times of the current C storage.

    REVIEW ON THE CURRENT STATE AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MACRO-SCALE PLANT ECOLOGICAL MODELS
    SU Hong-Xin, SANG Wei-Guo
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  98-106. 
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    Abstract The term of ecological model refers to a wide variety of types of models which simulate various ecosystem phenomena at different scales. Those models could be classified into various types according to different criterion. The progresses of three main macro-scale models were summarized in this paper. l) Population dynamics models (PDMs) simulate the germination, growth and mortality of individual plants in an ecosystem, and also consider competition within species, and interaction between species. PDMs are pioneering in ecological modeling, which include individual-based models, micro-site-based competition models, matrix population models and spatially explicit population models. Those models focus on interactions between populations in an ecosystem, and ignore or maybe simplify the processes of soil-moisture-atmosphere transfer in the vertical connections. This type of model is mostly used to study the dynamic of populations. 2) Succession models (SMs) simulate the replacement of plant species (accompanying with animals) through the succession of ecosystems, including the transformation of vegetation types and the corresponding changes (influences) in biogeochemical cycling. The theoretical basis of SMs is population dynamics theory proposed by Clements, importance theory of species features in dynamic ecosystems by Gleason, ecosystem theory by Tansley, and relation theory between spatial pattern and internal dynamics within system by Watt. The models could be applied to the community responses to global climate changes. 3) Ecosystem models which take ecosystem as a functional body, include: a) Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models (SVAT) that simulate land surface ecological processes, especially climatic studies. Those are BATS (biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme), SiB (simple biosphere model), SiB2 and LEAF (land ecosystem atmosphere feedback model). SVATs simulate moisture-thermal processes of soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, based on the Monteith-Perman equation and the Darcy equation, and considering the effects of plant leaves on the selective absorption and reflection of radiations, the effects of canopies on transpiration, moisture-thermal translation and momentum exchange; b) Biogeochemistry models (BGC models) simulate the processes of photosynthesis, transpiration and decomposition and calculate the flux of the cycling of water, carbon, and nutrients on the interface of soil-vegetation-atmosphere in the ecosystems. The climate, soil condition, and vegetation types must be input as initialized variable. BGC models include FOREST-BGC, BIOME-BGC, CENTURY, TEM, DOLY and the integrated model group derived from them; 3) Biogeographic models (BGMs), which simulate the composition and distribution of vegetation on the bases of the eco-physiological adaptive of plants to the environment and the competitive capacity for resources. By using the concept of functional type, plants can be grouped into trees, shrubs and grasses or two photosynthesis types of C3 and C4. BGMs could be used to study organism distribution shift induced by climate change.

    The trends of the macro-scale plant ecological models are: firstly, linking ecological models with other sciences, for example, introducing phenology into modeling, to seek its new development; secondly, linking models with modem non-linear theories for the reevaluation of the basic hypothesis for modeling; thirdly, linking models with modem science-technology such as 3S, IT and so on, for the stronger support from technologies, and finally, the concept of model development having been altering from individulism to holistism, which simulate a ecosystem as a whole functional unit.

    ADVANCES IN MOUNTAIN MICROCLIMATE SIMULATION
    SU Hong-Xin, SANG Wei-Guo
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  107-114. 
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    Abstract The mountain microclimate system is one of the most complicated climate systems. Meteorological stations in mountain regions are limed, which make it difficult for us to study, explore, and make use of the mountain microclimate. Fortunately, the computer has become a powerful tool in researching the variation of the mountain microclimate. The study of the mountain microclimate, based on the simulation model, is the cross subject of meteorology and ecology. In this paper, the advances of mountain microclimate simulations of the temperature, the precipitation, the humidity, the solar radiation and the wind are reviewed, respectively. There are various simulations including l) the model of' temperature, a multitudinous regression (both linear regression and non-linear regression) basing on the separated-integrated method; 2) trend surface analysis and topographic factor correlation analysis (including monofactorial, bifactorial, trifactorial and multifactorial) applied in the simulations of the precipitation; 3) models for the relative humidity and the vapor pressure which are the main parameters describing the humidity for the weather stations, but in most of the ecological models, the humidity is represented as the vapor pressure deficit and is simulated by the iterative algorithm between humidity and radiation; 4) the simulation of the solar radiation which is relatively complex, and is commonly simulated in the direct radiation, the diffuse radiation, the reflective radiation, and the total radiation, respectively; and 5) the methods of wind simulation which include diagnosis and forecast.

         Based on our studies, we propose methods to improve the algorithm for estimating the mountain microclimate. It is well known that, in the past, when people simulated the mountainous climate, they always took it as a linear, balance and simple system. But we know now the mountainous climate is more complex and, we should regard it as a dynamic and complicated system in the future. When simulating it, we must combine it with the modem theories, especially the modem non-linear theory, to reinforce the theoretical study. At the same time, GIS and RS had proved to be useful in the simulation of the radiation. We should try to incorporate the advanced technologies (eg. GIS and RS) with other mountain microclimate models to improve their precision and help us better understand the microclimate in the mountainous region.

    PROTECTIVE MATURITY OF PROTECTIVE PLANTATION AND DISTURBANCE
    DU Xiao-Jun, JIANG Feng-Qi
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  115-118. 
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    Abstract   Protective maturity is the key in protective forest management. Based on reviewing studies of progresses and questions of protective maturity, the authors point out that it is in a perfect state that forest was previously regarded as a pure, natural good. The factor of disturbance must be taken into account in our understanding of protective maturity for protective forest, especially nowadays with disturbance anywhere. The model on transformation of protective benefit is presented in this paper. The relationship between disturbance and protective maturity is analyzed and discussed with modeling, and a case study of soil and water conservation forest in western Liaoning Province. The authors argued that some protective forests can reach no, one, or more times protective maturity depending on the type, degree, continuance time of disturbance and other factors.

    APPLICATIONS OF MICROSATELLITES IN POPULATION BIOLOGY
    SHENG Yan, ZHENG Wei-Hong, PEI Ke-Quan, MA Ke-Ping
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  119-126. 
    Abstract ( 231 )   PDF (311KB) ( 438 )   Save
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    Abstract Microsatellites are simple tandemly repeated sequence motifs consisting of repeat units of l–6 bp in length. As genetic markers, they are widely dispersed in eukaryotic genomes. The advantages of microsatellites include high polymorphism, high abundance, codominance, selective neutrality and the possibility of automated detection and scoring. This review emphasizes the applications of microsatellites in population biology, especially in plant populations. The variability of microsatellites loci is often so high that, even with a small number of loci and a large number of individuals, most individuals have unique multilocus genotypes. It is therefore possible to address issues such as discrimination, relationships, structure, relatedness and classification or hierarchy, not only at the individual but also at the population level. Individual identification is critical for molecular studies of clonal plants. Although an efficient approach for individual identification, microsatellites have not so far been widely used in the investigation of clonal structure of plant populations. Several studies on the bur oak populations were cited to show the availability of microsatellites on parentage analyses and processes of gene flow within and among populations. The applications of microsatellites at the population level include genetic structure, effective population size and phylogenetic reconstruction. Genetic structure and diversity have been studied on many species, which include grasses, flowers and trees using microsatellites. Large fluctuations in effective population size usually translate into changes in the level of genetic variability and distribution of' allele frequencies. As microsatellite markers can provide nearly infinite loci and can be amplified from even partly degraded DNA, temporal change of genetic structure due to population size can thus be directly accessed. The contribution made by microsatellite makers to infer phylogenetic relationships among populations has been limited. We also discussed the correct use of the different classes or marker.

     PROGRESS ON THE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF TRANSGENIC COTTON EXPRESSING INSECTICIDAL PROTEINS FROM BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS
    WEI Wei, PEI Ke-Quan, SANC Wei-Guo, QIAN Ying-Qian, MA Ke-Ping
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  127-132. 
    Abstract ( 172 )   PDF (237KB) ( 395 )   Save
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    Abstract   The transgenic cotton (Gossypium spp.) expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis has been commercialized for production in China since 1997, and has a big release area in the field. The ecological risks have been studied from the beginning. This paper tries to review the advances of the research that focused on the ecological risks assessments of the transgenic cotton, which include the expression of Bt proteins and its efficacy on targeted insect pests, the escape of Bt transgenes, the risk of resistance evolution of the insect pests, and the effects on non-target organisms. The main objective of this article is to contribute to the development of biotechnology and biosafety studies in China. We propose a number of biosafety regulations that could be adopted and possible areas related to the ecological risks of Bt cotton that require further research.

    THEORY AND PRACTICES FOR FOREST VEGETATION RESTORATION: NATIVE FOREST WITH NATIVE TREES-INTRODUCTION OF THE MIYAWAKI'S METHOD FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF "ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FOREST (ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO REFORESTATION)"
    WANG Ren-Qing, Kauze FUJIWARA, YOU Hai-Mei
    Chin J Plan Ecolo. 2002, 26 (增刊):  133-139. 
    Abstract ( 246 )   PDF (278KB) ( 593 )   Save
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    Abstract   This paper introduces the Miyawaki’s method (ecological method to reforestation) for recreating environmental protection forest, which is devised by integrating the concept of potential natural vegetation and the Japanese traditional idea of shrine forest. The most importance of the method is to initiate and advocate restoration of native forest with native trees, and the purpose of the method is intended to shorten the time span largely for restoring natural forest vegetation in barren or non-tree land to 1/10–1/5 the normal period of natural secondary succession. Over 600 locations in Japan are successful for the reconstruction of' local forests since 1970, and also several overseas successful cases are in Malaysia, Thailand, Brazil, Chile and in some parts of China using this ecological method to reforest rainforest, evergreen broad-leaved forest and summer green forest. Out of question, it is useful and referential to restore and recreate Chinese ailing and destroyed forest vegetation using Miyawaki’s method from now on.


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