植物生态学报

• •    

不同恢复年限老参地土壤养分以及酚酸类代谢物差异研究

李崇玮1,柏新富2,陈国忠1,朱萍1,张淑婷3,侯玉平2,张兴晓1   

  1. 1. 鲁东大学生命科学学院
    2. 鲁东大学
    3. 云南大学生态与环境学院
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-04 修回日期:2021-07-23 出版日期:2021-08-26 发布日期:2021-08-26
  • 通讯作者: 侯玉平
  • 基金资助:
    山东省重大科技创新工程项目;国家自然科学基金面上项目;山东省高等学校科技计划项目;山东省大学生创新创业训练项目

Research on the differences in soil nutrients and phenolic acid metabolites between American ginseng cultivated soils of different restoration years

Chongwei Li1,Xinfu Bai2,Chen Guozhong3,Zhu Ping3,Zhang Shuting4, 2,Zhang Xingxiao5   

  1. 1. 鲁东大学生命科学学院
    2. Ludong University
    3. College of Life Sciences, Ludong University, Yantai 264025,China
    4. College of Ecology and Environment, Yunnan University, Kunming,650504,China
    5. College of Life Sciences, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, China
  • Received:2020-12-04 Revised:2021-07-23 Online:2021-08-26 Published:2021-08-26

摘要: 【目的】西洋参人工种植具有很高的经济效益,但连作障碍已成为其产业可持续发展的限制因子。目前对连作障碍成因的研究尚且不足。本研究以收获西洋参后恢复1、10、20年的老参地(分别记为A1, A10, A20)为研究对象,以未种植过西洋参的土地为对照(CK),测定和分析土壤养分及酚酸类代谢物的变化,以期从养分和化感作用的角度解析可能造成西洋参连作障碍的关键因子。【方法】通过常规化学性质测定方法和气相色谱质谱联用(GC-MS)的方法测定土壤养分,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定土壤中的酚酸类代谢物。【主要结果】结果显示,三组收获西洋参后的老参地的土壤pH均显著降低;A1组25种有机态养分(氨基酸类、糖类和糖醇类物质)的含量显著降低,N-乙酰鸟氨酸、5-氨基戊酸、丝氨酸、亮氨酸、甘油和槐糖等的含量均在所有老参地中显著下降,经过20年轮作后依然不能恢复到对照水平。同时,与预期相反,被认为具有化感自毒作用的酚酸类代谢物在收获西洋参后含量也显著下降,其中,香豆酸、原儿茶酸、阿魏酸和苯甲酸的含量在A1中显著低于CK,但经过10年时间轮作后可以恢复到接近对照水平。另外,p-香豆酸和丁香酸在A1、A10、A20的含量均显著低于CK,即使经过20年轮作依然不能恢复到对照水平;酚酸类代谢物对西洋参生长的积极意义应被重视。相关性分析显示上述有机态养分、pH和酚酸类代谢物质之间大多数呈现显著正相关,表明各土壤特性之间存在密切的交互关系。综上所述,种植西洋参引起的土壤酸化、有机态养分和酚酸类物质降低及各因子间的协同作用可能是西洋参连作障碍的关键因素。

关键词: 西洋参, 连作障碍, 有机态养分, 酚酸类代谢物, HPLC, GC-MS

Abstract: Aims The artificial planting of American ginseng is of high economic benefits, but the continuous cropping has become an obstacle limiting the sustainable development of its industry. At present, the research on the causes of continuous cropping ob-stacle is limiting. In this study, the changes in soil nutrients and phenolic acid metabolites were measured and analyzed to find out the key nutritional and allelopathic factors that may cause continuous cropping obstacles of American ginseng, by using the fields long-cultivated by American ginseng and subsequently restored for 1, 10, and 20 years after the harvest of American ginseng (A1, A10, A20, respectively) as the research target, and the fields without cultivation of American ginseng as the control (CK). Methods Soil nutrients were determined by conventional chemical methods and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phenolic acid metabolites in soil were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Important findings The results showed that the pH of the soil in the three groups of American ginseng cultivated field sig-nificantly decreased. The contents of 25 organic nutrients (amino acids, sugars and alcohols) in A1 were significantly decreased, and the contents of N-acetylornithine, 5-aminovaleric acid, serine, leucine, glycerin and sophora in all the American ginseng cultivated fields were significantly decreased and could not return to the control level even after 20 years of rotation. Simulta-neously and contrary to expectations, the contents of coumaric acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid and benzoic acid in A1 were significantly lower than those in CK, but could return to the control level after 10 years of rotation. In addition, the contents of p-coumaric acid and syringic acid in A1, A10 and A20 were significantly lower than those in CK, and even after 20 years of rotation, it could not return to the control level. Attention should be paid to the positive effects of phenolic acid metabolites on the growth of American ginsneg. The correlation analysis showed that most of the above organic nutrients, pH and phenolic acid metabolites showed significant positive correlations with each other, indicating that there was a significant interaction between soil characteristics. In conclusion, soil acidification, decrease of organic nutrients and phenolic acids and synergistic effect of soil properties caused by cultivationof American ginseng may be the key factors leading tothe continuous cropping obstacles.

Key words: Panax quinquefolius L., continuous cropping obstacle, phenolic acid, soil nutrients, HPLC, GC-MS