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植物功能性状对生态系统服务影响研究进展
潘权, 郑华, 王志恒, 文志, 杨延征
植物生态学报    2021, 45 (10): 1140-1153.   DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2020.0142
摘要   (1323 HTML31 PDF(pc) (1395KB)(1057)  

全面认识和理解生态系统服务的形成机制是维持其持续供给的前提。植物功能性状直接参与多种生态系统过程, 影响生态系统服务供给, 探讨植物功能性状与生态系统服务的关系是揭示生态系统服务形成机制的重要途径。该文采用系统的文献综述方法, 分析了植物功能性状与生态系统服务关系的研究特点, 总结了影响不同生态系统服务的主要植物功能性状, 阐述了可能的影响途径。结果表明: 植物功能性状与生态系统服务关系研究以草地和森林等自然生态系统为主; 大部分研究集中在生态系统供给服务和支持服务, 包括生物量、净初级生产力、土壤肥力等; 根据植物功能性状对不同生态系统服务的影响程度, 植物功能性状可以聚类为土壤保持服务相关性状、水分循环相关性状、多功能相关性状、产品提供服务与养分循环相关性状以及授粉与生物控制服务相关性状; 并阐述了植物功能性状指标影响不同的生态系统服务途径。围绕植物功能性状对生态系统服务的影响, 今后尚需进一步探讨生态系统多功能性、植物功能性状相关性、气候变化和人类活动不确定性、时空尺度差异等因素对二者关系的影响。


类型 Type 植物功能性状 Plant functional trait 解释 Explanation 参考文献 Reference
植株
Plant
生活型 Life form 植物的年度周期或外貌特征 The annual cycle or appearance characteristics of plants Storkey et al., 2013
繁殖方式 Reproduction mode 有性或无性繁殖 Sexual or asexual reproduction Paquette & Messier, 2011
冠层结构 Canopy architecture 冠层大小和厚度 Canopy size and thickness Lundholm et al., 2014
生长速率 Relative growth rate 一段时间内生物量增长量 Biomass growth over a period of time Everwand et al., 2014
最大高度 Max height 成熟植株的最大高度 Maximum height of a mature plant Zhang et al., 2018
茎生长速率 Stem growth rate 植物高度与生长年龄的比值 Ratio of plant height to growth age Moonen et al., 2019
茎质量百分比 Stem mass ratio 茎生物量占植株生物量的比例 Ratio of stem biomass to plant biomass Zhang et al., 2018
叶质量百分比 Leaf mass ratio 叶片生物量占植株生物量比例 Ratio of leaf biomass to plant biomass Zhang et al., 2018
根质量百分比 Root mass ratio 根生物量占植株生物量的比例 Ratio of root biomass to plant biomass Zhang et al., 2018
花质量百分比 Flower mass ratio 花生物量占植株生物量的比例 Ratio of flower biomass to plant biomass Zhang et al., 2018
叶茎质量比 Leaf:stem ratio 叶片和茎的干质量的比 Ratio of the dry mass of the leaf to the stem Storkey et al., 2015
根茎比 Root:shoot ratio 根与茎的干物质量比 Dry matter ratio of root to stem Zhang et al., 2018
耐阴性 Shade tolerance 植物忍耐阴蔽的能力, 常用无量纲量表示 The ability of plants to tolerate shade, often expressed as a dimensionless Paquette & Messier, 2011
耐旱性 Drought tolerance 植物忍耐干旱的能力, 常用无量纲量表示 The ability of plants to tolerate drought, usually dimensionless Paquette & Messier, 2011
耐涝性 Waterlogging tolerance 植物忍耐洪涝的能力, 常用无量纲量表示 The ability of plants to withstand floods, often expressed in dimensionless terms Paquette & Messier, 2011
种子
Seed
种子质量 Seed mass 单颗种子的质量 The mass of a single seed Paquette & Messier, 2011
种子数量 Seed number 单位面积生产的种子数量 Number of seeds produced per unit area Santala et al., 2019
种子长度 Seed length 单颗种子或多颗种子的平均长度 The average length of a single seed or multiple seeds Rolo et al., 2016

Flower
开花时间 Time of flowering 植物开始开花时间 The time plant starting to bloom Pakeman, 2014
花期长度 Duration of flowering 开花的持续时间 Duration of flowering Fornoff et al., 2017
花形状 Flower shape 花冠的形状 Corolla shape Sole-Senan et al., 2017
花对称性 Flower symmetry 花朵的对称性, 单边/双边 Symmetry of flowers, unilateral/bilateral Fornoff et al., 2017
授粉模式 Pollination mode 植物的授粉媒介 Pollinator Zirbel et al., 2017
花大小和密度 Flower size and density 花的直径和单位面积花朵数量 Flower diameter and number of flowers per unit area Fornoff et al., 2017
花序类型 Inflorescence type 花在花轴上的排列顺序 The order of flowers on the flower axis Fornoff et al., 2017
紫外线反射率 UV reflectance 植物对紫外线的反射率 Plant reflectance to ultraviolet Fornoff et al., 2017
花颜色 Flower color 花朵的反射光谱范围 Reflectance spectrum range of flowers Fornoff et al., 2017
花蜜类型 Nectar type 花蜜的可及性以及糖、氨基酸含量 Availability of nectar, sugar and amino acid content Fornoff et al., 2017
花的高度 Flower height 花朵的高度 Flower height to ground Fornoff et al., 2017

Leaf
叶片数量 Leaf number 单个枝条上叶片的数量 Number of leaves on a single branch Li et al., 2015
长叶时间 Time of leafing 植物叶片开始生长时间 Plant leaf start time Pakeman, 2014
叶面积 Leaf area 单个叶片或多个叶片平均的单侧投影面积 The average single-sided projected area of a single blade or multiple blades Cornelissen et al., 2003
叶片厚度 Leaf thickness 叶片的厚度 Blade thickness La Pierre & Smith, 2015
叶片韧性 Leaf toughness 穿透叶片最宽部分(避免中脉)所需的力 The force required to penetrate the widest part of the leaf (avoid the midrib) La Pierre & Smith, 2015
叶片组织密度 Leaf tissue density 单位面积的叶片鲜质量 Leaf fresh mass per unit area Wen et al., 2019
叶片形状 Leaf shape 叶片的形状, 常用宽与长的比率表示 The shape of the blade, usually expressed by the ratio of width to length Burylo et al., 2012a
叶片寿命 Leaf lifespan 叶片从生长到凋落的时间 Time from growth to fall of leaves Wright et al., 2004
比叶质量 Leaf mass per area 单位面积的叶片干质量 Dry mass of leaf per unit area Wright et al., 2004
类型 Type 植物功能性状 Plant functional trait 解释 Explanation 参考文献 Reference
比叶面积 Specific leaf area 单位质量的叶面积 Leaf area per unit mass Cornelissen et al., 2003
叶片氮含量 Leaf nitrogen content 叶片中氮的含量 Nitrogen content in leaves Wright et al., 2004
叶片磷含量 Leaf phosphorus content 叶片中磷的含量 Phosphorus content in leaves Lin et al., 2016
叶碳氮比 Leaf carbon:nitrogen ratio 叶片碳氮含量之比 Ratio of leaf carbon content to nitrogen content Fu et al., 2014
叶碳磷比 Leaf carbon:phosphorus ratio 叶片碳磷含量之比 Ratio of leaf carbon content to phosphorus content Schuldt et al., 2014
叶氮磷比 Leaf nitrogen:phosphorus ratio 叶片氮磷含量之比 Ratio of leaf nitrogen content to phosphorus content Finegan et al., 2015
叶其他营养元素含量 Leaf other elements content 叶片除碳、氮、磷外其他元素的含量, 如钾、镁等
The content of other elements besides carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in leaves, such as potassium, magnesium, etc.
Kröber et al., 2015
叶木质素含量 Leaf lignin content 叶片中木质素的含量 Lignin content in leaves Schindler & Gessner, 2009
叶片酚类含量 Leaf polyphenolic content 叶片中多酚类的含量 The content of polyphenols in leaves Schuldt et al., 2014
叶片单宁含量 Leaf tannin content 叶片中单宁的含量 Tannin content in leaves Patoine et al., 2017
叶片碳含量 Leaf carbon content 叶片中碳的含量 The content of carbon in leaves Zhang et al., 2018
叶片碳同位素比值 Leaf δ13C 叶片碳同位素特征 Leaf carbon isotope signature Orwin et al., 2018
叶片干物质含量 Leaf dry mass content 叶片干质量与鲜质量的比值 The ratio of leaf dry mass to fresh mass Fu et al., 2014
叶片总叶绿素含量
Leaf total chlorophyll content
叶片中叶绿素的含量 Chlorophyll content in leaves Bu et al., 2019
叶脉密度 Leaf vein density 单位面积叶片的叶脉长度 Vein length per unit area of leaf Hanif et al., 2019
光合同化速率
Photosynthetic assimilation rates
在光饱和条件下测得健康叶片的光合速率 The photosynthetic rate of healthy leaves measured under light saturation conditions Everwand et al., 2014
气孔导度 Stomatal conductance 健康叶片的气孔对水蒸气的传导率 Transmission rate of water vapor to stomata of healthy leaves Everwand et al., 2014

Stem
木材密度 Wood density 单位体积木材的干物质量 Dry matter mass per unit volume of wood Burylo et al., 2012a
茎干物质含量 Stem dry matter content 茎干质量占鲜质量的百分比 The percentage of stem dry mass to fresh mass Fu et al., 2014
分支数量 Number of branches 从主茎分叉的开花分支或从次级枝干上的分支数 Flowering branches branching from the main stem or secondary branches Adamidis et al., 2019
茎投影面积 Projected stem area 茎在水流动方向上接触面积 Stem contact area in the direction of water flow Kervroedan et al., 2018
茎比质量 Specific stem density 茎的干质量与茎体积之比 The ratio of stem dry mass to stem volume Kervroedan et al., 2018
茎直径 Maximum stem diameter 基茎(根部上方2-6 cm)的直径 Diameter of the base stem (2-6 cm above the root) Fu et al., 2014
茎导度 Stem conductance 单位木质部面积和单位压力梯度下的水流量 Water flow per unit xylem area and unit pressure gradient Kröber et al., 2015
茎氮含量 Stem nitrogen ratio 单位干质量茎的氮含量 Nitrogen content per dry mass of stem Belshe et al., 2018
木材抗腐性 Wood decay resistance 木材腐烂的速度 Rate of wood decay Zhang et al., 2018

Root
根长/生物量 Root length/biomass 根的总长度或生物量 Total root length or biomass Pommier et al., 2018
根的分布形态 Root distribution 根系在土壤中分布的形态 The distribution of roots in the soil Matheny et al., 2017
根深 Rooting depth 主根在土壤中分布的深度 Depth of taproot distribution in the soil Fu et al., 2014
根长密度 Root length density 单位体积土壤中的总根长 Total root length per unit volume of soil Burylo et al., 2012b
比根长 Specific root length 单位干质量的根长度 Root length per dry mass Cornelissen et al., 2003
根干物质含量 Root dry mass content 根干质量与鲜质量的比值 Root dry mass and fresh mass ratio Pommier et al., 2018
根氮含量 Root nitrogen content 根中氮元素的含量 Nitrogen content in roots Zhang et al., 2018
根磷含量 Root phosphorus content 根中磷元素的含量 Phosphorus content in roots Hanif et al., 2019
氮吸收 Nitrogen uptake 单位时间内氮吸收量 Nitrogen absorption per unit time Abalos et al., 2014
根系外表面积
External area of root surface
根系的外表面积 External surface area of root system Burylo et al., 2012b
根系体积 Volume of roots 根系的体积 Root volume Zhu et al., 2015
根系直径 Root diameter 吸收根的平均直径 Average diameter of absorbing roots Burylo et al., 2012b
根组织密度 Root tissue density 单位体积根的生物量 Root biomass per unit volume Burylo et al., 2012b
根碳含量 Root carbon content 单位干质量根的碳含量 Carbon content per dry mass root Zhang et al., 2018
根碳氮比 Root carbon:nitrogen ratio 根中碳氮含量之比 Ratio of carbon to nitrogen content in roots Zhang et al., 2018
类型 Type 植物功能性状 Plant functional trait 解释 Explanation 参考文献 Reference
极细根百分率 Very fine root fraction <0.1 mm的根长占总根比例 Ratio of root length <0.1 mm to total root Garcia et al., 2019
根质量密度 Root mass density 单位体积土壤中的根总生物量 Total root biomass per unit volume of soil Burylo et al., 2012b
根抗张力强度 Root tensile strength 细根(<0.1 mm)断裂所需的最大力与其截面面积的比值 Ratio of the maximum force required to break fine roots (<0.1 mm) to its cross-sectional area Burylo et al., 2012b
菌根定植 Mycorrhizal colonization 菌根定植根长占总根长的百分比 Mycorrhiza colonized root length as a percentage of total root length Elumeeva et al., 2018
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表2 影响生态系统服务的主要植物功能性状
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